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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878516

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease epidemics have become more frequent and more complex during the 21st century, posing a health threat to the general public and leading to psychological symptoms. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms during epidemic outbreaks, including COVID-19. We systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, OVID, Medline, Cochrane databases, bioRxiv and medRxiv to identify studies that reported the prevalence of depression, anxiety or insomnia during infectious disease epidemics, up to August 14th, 2020. Prevalence of mental symptoms among different populations including the general public, health workers, university students, older adults, infected patients, survivors of infection, and pregnant women across all types of epidemics was pooled. In addition, prevalence of mental symptoms during COVID-19 was estimated by time using meta-regression analysis. A total of 17,506 papers were initially retrieved, and a final of 283 studies met the inclusion criteria, representing a total of 948,882 individuals. The pooled prevalence of depression ranged from 23.1%, 95% confidential intervals (95% CI: [13.9-32.2]) in survivors to 43.3% (95% CI: [27.1-59.6]) in university students, the pooled prevalence of anxiety ranged from 25.0% (95% CI: [12.0-38.0]) in older adults to 43.3% (95% CI: [23.3-63.3]) in pregnant women, and insomnia symptoms ranged from 29.7% (95% CI: [24.4-34.9]) in the general public to 58.4% (95% CI: [28.1-88.6]) in university students. Prevalence of moderate-to-severe mental symptoms was lower but had substantial variation across different populations. The prevalence of mental problems increased over time during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general public, health workers and university students, and decreased among infected patients. Factors associated with increased prevalence for all three mental health symptoms included female sex, and having physical disorders, psychiatric disorders, COVID infection, colleagues or family members infected, experience of frontline work, close contact with infected patients, high exposure risk, quarantine experience and high concern about epidemics. Frequent exercise and good social support were associated with lower risk for these three mental symptoms. In conclusion, mental symptoms are common during epidemics with substantial variation across populations. The population-specific psychological crisis management are needed to decrease the burden of psychological problem and improve the mental wellbeing during epidemic.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878515

ABSTRACT

The long-term physical and mental sequelae of COVID-19 are a growing public health concern, yet there is considerable uncertainty about their prevalence, persistence and predictors. We conducted a comprehensive, up-to-date meta-analysis of survivors' health consequences and sequelae for COVID-19. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched through Sep 30th, 2021. Observational studies that reported the prevalence of sequelae of COVID-19 were included. Two reviewers independently undertook the data extraction and quality assessment. Of the 36,625 records identified, a total of 151 studies were included involving 1,285,407 participants from thirty-two countries. At least one sequelae symptom occurred in 50.1% (95% CI 45.4-54.8) of COVID-19 survivors for up to 12 months after infection. The most common investigation findings included abnormalities on lung CT (56.9%, 95% CI 46.2-67.3) and abnormal pulmonary function tests (45.6%, 95% CI 36.3-55.0), followed by generalized symptoms, such as fatigue (28.7%, 95% CI 21.0-37.0), psychiatric symptoms (19.7%, 95% CI 16.1-23.6) mainly depression (18.3%, 95% CI 13.3-23.8) and PTSD (17.9%, 95% CI 11.6-25.3), and neurological symptoms (18.7%, 95% CI 16.2-21.4), such as cognitive deficits (19.7%, 95% CI 8.8-33.4) and memory impairment (17.5%, 95% CI 8.1-29.6). Subgroup analysis showed that participants with a higher risk of long-term sequelae were older, mostly male, living in a high-income country, with more severe status at acute infection. Individuals with severe infection suffered more from PTSD, sleep disturbance, cognitive deficits, concentration impairment, and gustatory dysfunction. Survivors with mild infection had high burden of anxiety and memory impairment after recovery. Our findings suggest that after recovery from acute COVID-19, half of survivors still have a high burden of either physical or mental sequelae up to at least 12 months. It is important to provide urgent and appropriate prevention and intervention management to preclude persistent or emerging long-term sequelae and to promote the physical and psychiatric wellbeing of COVID-19 survivors.

3.
Vaccine ; 40(22): 3046-3054, 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is an important preventive measure against the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to examine the willingness to vaccination and influencing factors among college students in China. METHODS: From March 18 to April 26, 2021, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey among college students from 30 universities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The survey was composed of the sociodemographic information, psychological status, experience during pandemic, the willingness of vaccination and related information. Students' attitudes towards vaccination were classified as 'vaccine acceptance', 'vaccine hesitancy', and 'vaccine resistance'. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the influencing factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and resistance. RESULTS: Among 23,143 students who completed the survey, a total of 22,660 participants were included in the final analysis with an effective rate of 97.9% after excluding invalid questionnaires. A total of 60.6% of participants would be willing to receive COVID-19 vaccine, 33.4% were hesitant to vaccination, and 6.0% were resistant to vaccination. Social media platforms and government agencies were the main sources of information vaccination. Worry about the efficacy and adverse effects of vaccine were the top two common reason of vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis identified that participants who worried about the adverse effects of vaccination were more likely to be vaccine hesitancy (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 2.30, 2.58) and resistance (aOR = 2.71, 95% CI = 2.40, 3.05). CONCLUSION: More than half of college students are willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, whereas nearly one-third college students are still hesitant or resistant. It is crucial to provide sufficient and scientific information on the efficacy and safety of vaccine through social media and government agencies platforms to promote vaccine progress against COVID-19 and control the pandemic in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Vaccination
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760592

ABSTRACT

Digital mental health services (DMHSs) have great potential for mitigating the mental health burden related to COVID-19, but public accessibility (ease of acquiring services when needed) to DMHSs during the pandemic is largely unknown. Accessibility to DMHSs was tracked longitudinally among a nationwide sample of 18,804 adults in China from before to one year after COVID-19 outbreak. Unconditional and conditional latent growth curve models and latent growth mixture models were fitted to explore the overall growth trend, influencing factors, and latent trajectory classes of accessibility to DMHSs throughout COVID-19. Generalized estimating equation models and generalized linear mixed models were employed to explore the association between accessibility to DMHSs and long-term mental health symptoms. We found that people generally reported increased difficulty in accessing DMHSs from before to one year after COVID-19 outbreak. Males, youngsters, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals greatly affected by COVID-19 reported greater difficulty in accessing DMHSs. Four DMHS accessibility trajectory classes were identified: "lowest-great increase" (6.3%), "moderate low-slight increase" (44.4%), "moderate high-slight decrease" (18.1%) and "highest-great decrease" (31.2%). Trajectory classes reporting greater difficulty in accessing DMHSs were at higher risk for long-term mental symptoms. In conclusion, an overall increase in difficulty in accessing DMHSs is observed throughout COVID-19, and heterogeneity exists in DMHS accessibility trajectories. Our results suggest that easy access to DMHSs should be consistently facilitated. Moreover, access gaps should be reduced across demographic groups, and target populations for service allocation should alter as the pandemic evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health
5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 777350, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753405

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has pressed a pause button on global economic development, and induced significant mental health problems. In order to demonstrate the progressed relationship between the pandemic, economic slowdown, and mental health burden, we overviewed the global-level gross domestic product changes and mental problems variation since the outbreak of COVID-19, and reviewed comprehensively the specific sectors influenced by the pandemic, including international trade, worldwide travel, education system, healthcare system, and individual employment. We hope to provide timely evidence to help with the promotion of policymakers' effective strategies in mitigating economic losses induced by the pandemic; we suggest different governments or policy makers in different countries to share information and experience in dealing with COVID-19-induced economic slowdown and promote COVID-19 vaccine popularization plan to protect every individual worldwide against the coronavirus essentially; and we appeal international information share and collaboration to minimize stigmatization related to adverse mental consequences of COVID-19 and to increase mental health wellbeings of people all over the world.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 49, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692636

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, respiratory infections, including SARS, HINI and the currently spreading COVID-19, caused by various viruses such as influenza and coronavirus have seriously threatened human health. It has generated inconsistent recommendations on the mandatory use of facemasks across countries on a population level due to insufficient evidence on the efficacy of facemask use among the general population. This meta-analysis aimed to explore (1) the efficacy of facemask use on preventing respiratory infections, and (2) the perceptions, intentions, and practice about facemask use among the general population worldwide. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, bioRxiv, and medRxiv databases since inception to August 17, 2020. From 21,341 records identified, eight RCTs on facemask in preventing infections and 78 studies on perception, intention, and practice of facemask use among the general population were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis of RCTs found a significant protective effect of facemask intervention (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.71-0.99; I2 = 0%). This protective effect was even more pronounced when the intervention duration was more than two weeks (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.66-0.88; I2 = 0%). The meta-analysis of observational studies on perception, intention, and practice on facemask use showed that 71% of respondents perceived facemasks to be effective for infection prevention, 68% of respondents would wear facemasks, and 54% of respondents wore facemasks for preventing respiratory infections. Differences in perception, intention, and practice behavior of facemask use in different regions may be related to the impact of respiratory infections, regional culture, and policies. The governments and relevant organizations should make effort to reduce the barriers in the use of facemasks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Masks , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Affect Disord ; 304: 12-19, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trauma experience increases the risk of suicidal ideation, but little is known about potentially psychological mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study aims to examine the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related traumatic event (CTE) exposure and suicidal ideation among hospital workers, and identify mediating roles of sleep disturbances in this relationship. METHODS: Workers in seven designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, were invited to participate in an online survey from May 27, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire to evaluate demographic characteristics, level of CTE exposures, nightmare frequency, insomnia severity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and suicidal ideation. A series of correlation analyses were performed, and a mediation model was generated to examine correlations between CTE exposure, sleep disturbances, and suicidal ideation. RESULTS: A total of 16,220 hospital workers were included in the final analysis, 13.3% of them reported suicidal ideation in the past month. CTE exposure was significantly associated with insomnia severity, nightmare frequency, and suicidal ideation. After controlling potential confounders, nightmares but not insomnia, depression, or anxiety were shown to be independent risk factors for suicidal ideation. Pathway analyses showed that the relationship between CTE exposure and suicidal ideation was fully mediated by nightmares (proportion mediated 66.4%) after adjusting for demographic characteristics and psychological confounders. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design precluded the investigation of causal relationships. CONCLUSIONS: CTE exposure increases risk of hospital workers' suicidal ideation that is mediated by nightmares, suggesting nightmares intervention might be considered as a component when developing suicide prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dreams/psychology , Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623740

ABSTRACT

The present study assessed the willingness of the general population to receive COVID-19 vaccines and identified factors that influence vaccine hesitancy and resistance. A national online survey was conducted from 29 January 2021 to 26 April 2021 in China. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors that influence vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Of the 34,041 participants surveyed, 18,810 (55.3%) were willing to get vaccinated, 13,736 (40.3%) were hesitant, and 1495 (4.4%) were resistant. Rates of vaccine acceptance increased over time, with geographical discrepancies in vaccine hesitancy and resistance between provinces in China. Vaccine safety was the greatest concern expressed by most participants (24,461 [71.9%]), and the major reason for participants' refusing vaccination (974 [65.2%]). Government agencies (23,131 [68.0%]) and social media (20,967 [61.6%]) were the main sources of COVID-19 vaccine information. Compared with vaccination acceptance, female, young and middle-aged, high income, and perceived low-risk of infection were associated with vaccine hesitancy. Histories of allergic reactions to other vaccines and depression symptoms were related to vaccine resistance. Common factors that influenced vaccine hesitancy and resistance were residing in cities and perceiving less protection with vaccines than with other protective measures. The results indicate that the rate of vaccine resistance is relatively low, but vaccine hesitancy is common. Individuals who are female, young and middle-aged, with a high income, and residing in cities are more likely to be hesitant for vaccination and should be the target populations for vaccination campaigns. Specific vaccine messaging from the government and social media could alleviate public concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy.

9.
Brain Sci ; 12(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613617

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic era, quarantines might potentially have negative effects and disproportionately exacerbate health condition problems. We conducted this cross-sectional, national study to ascertain the prevalence of constant pain symptoms and how quarantines impacted the pain symptoms and identify the factors associated with constant pain to further guide reducing the prevalence of chronic pain for vulnerable people under the pandemic. The sociodemographic data, quarantine conditions, mental health situations and pain symptoms of the general population were collected. After adjusting for potential confounders, long-term quarantine (≥15 days) exposures were associated with an increased risk of constant pain complaints compared to those not under a quarantine (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.26; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.03, 1.54; p = 0.026). Risk factors including unemployment (OR: 1.55), chronic disease history (OR: 2.38) and infection with COVID-19 (OR: 2.15), and any of mental health symptoms including depression, anxiety, insomnia and PTSD (OR: 5.44) were identified by a multivariable logistic regression. Additionally, mediation analysis revealed that the effects of the quarantine duration on pain symptoms were mediated by mental health symptoms (indirect effects: 0.075, p < 0.001). These results advocated that long-term quarantine measures were associated with an increased risk of experiencing pain, especially for vulnerable groups with COVID-19 infection and with mental health symptoms. The findings also suggest that reducing mental distress during the pandemic might contribute to reducing the burden of pain symptoms and prioritizing interventions for those experiencing a long-term quarantine.

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 774504, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581154

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is our generation's greatest global challenge to our public health system. Vaccines are considered one of the most effective tools available for preventing COVID-19 infection and its complications and sequelae. Understanding and addressing the psychological stress related to COVID-19 vaccination may promote acceptance of these vaccines. Methods: We conducted an online survey from January 29 to April 26, 2021 to explore stress levels related to COVID-19 vaccination among the general public in China. Participants were asked to evaluate their psychological stress of considering whether or not to get vaccinated at the beginning period of the COVID-19 mass vaccination, after getting access to the information about the vaccine, as well as after getting vaccinated, using visual analog stress scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore factors potentially associated with COVID-19-related psychological stress levels before and after getting vaccinated. Results: A total of 34,041 participants were included in the final analysis. The mean stress score concerning COVID-19 vaccination was 3.90 ± 2.60 among all participants, and significantly decreased over time. In addition, the vaccine-related stress level significantly decreased after accessing information about the COVID-19 vaccine (N = 29,396), as well as after getting vaccinated (N = 5,103). Multivariable regression analysis showed higher stress levels related to COVID-19 vaccination in participants who were younger, having lower education level, having history of chronic diseases, mistrusting vaccine's efficacy, experience of vaccine allergy events, being affected by the COVID-19 epidemic, and having mental illness symptoms. Moreover, mistrust in vaccine efficacy and experience of vaccine allergy events had a long-term impact on psychological stress levels about COVID-19 vaccination even after getting vaccinated. Conclusions: The current findings profiled the COVID-19 vaccine-related psychological stress among the general public in China. Population-specific management and interventions targeting the stress related to COVID-19 vaccination are needed to help governments and policy makers promote individual's willingness to get vaccinations for public well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(9): 4813-4822, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575872

ABSTRACT

Quarantine and isolation measures urgently adopted to control the COVID-19 pandemic might potentially have negative psychological and social effects. We conducted this cross-sectional, nationwide study to ascertain the psychological effect of quarantine and identify factors associated with mental health outcomes among population quarantined to further inform interventions of mitigating mental health risk especially for vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions. Sociodemographic data, attitudes toward the COVID-19, and mental health measurements of 56,679 participants from 34 provinces in China were collected by an online survey from February 28 to March 11, 2020. Of the 56,679 participants included in the study (mean [SD] age, 36.0 [8.2] years), 27,149 (47.9%) were male and 16,454 (29.0%) ever experienced home confinement or centralized quarantine during COVID-19 outbreak. Compared those without quarantine and adjusted for potential confounders, quarantine measures were associated with increased risk of total psychological outcomes (prevalence, 34.1% vs 27.3%; odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.28-1.39; P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that vulnerable groups of the quarantined population included those with pre-existing mental disorders or chronic physical diseases, frontline workers, those in the most severely affected areas during outbreak, infected or suspected patients, and those who are less financially well-off. Complying with quarantine, being able to take part in usual work, and having adequate understanding of information related to the outbreak were associated with less mental health issues. These results suggest that quarantine measures during COVID-19 pandemic are associated with increased risk of experiencing mental health burden, especially for vulnerable groups. Further study is needed to establish interventions to reduce mental health consequences of quarantine and empower wellbeing especially in vulnerable groups under pandemic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Status , Humans , Male , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 759449, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551547

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To date, the mental health consequences of children hospitalized with COVID-19 remain unclear. We aimed to assess mental health status in children in the context of COVID-19, with a focus on discharged children. Methods: We recruited discharged children who recovered from COVID-19 and healthy controls between July and September 2020 in Wuhan Children's Hospital. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and sleep problems were assessed in these children using questionnaires. Univariable and multivariable logistic and linear regressions were conducted to identify risk factors. Results: Totally, there were 152 children (61 discharged children and 91 healthy controls) aged 7-18 years old in our study. An increasing trend in the prevalence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression was observed in the discharged children compared with healthy controls (PTSD: 8.20 vs. 2.20%, anxiety: 22.95 vs. 13.19%; depression: 47.54 vs. 32.97%). Discharged children tended to report more depressive symptoms (ß = 0.39) and less sleep problems (ß = -0.37). Discharged children who lived in nuclear families and had longer hospital stays were more likely to report depression [odds ratio (OR) = 3.68 and 1.14, respectively]. Anxiety symptoms and the severity of sleep problems of discharged children were positively associated with caregivers' depression and PTSD symptoms (OR = 21.88 and 31.09, respectively). Conclusion: In conclusion, PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptoms were common among recovered children 4 months after COVID-19 hospitalization. Children from nuclear family and those had longer hospital stays need special attention. In addition, parental mental health had a significant impact on their children's mental resilience and recovery.

13.
Genomics and Applied Biology ; 39(6):2902-2906, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1497986

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease(COVID-19), like most viral infections, has no specific medications and no targeted treatment besides vaccines. In clinic, medicinal treatment is mainly aimed at the harm that the immune system is activated to the limit or out of control after the patients are infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2). This study systematically reviewed clinical treatment of COVID-19 since its outbreak by combining the diagnosis and treatment plan for COVID-19 from First to Seventh Edition issued by the National Health Protection Commission of China. The strategy of selecting medication for treating COVID-19 is proposed and the efficacy and risk of various Western medications currently used in clinical practice were evaluated. The purpose of this study is to provide theoretical basis and clinical cases for clinicians in madication selection for Corona virus disease 2019(Covid-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2).

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471004

ABSTRACT

The present study assessed the willingness of the general population to receive COVID-19 vaccines and identified factors that influence vaccine hesitancy and resistance. A national online survey was conducted from 29 January 2021 to 26 April 2021 in China. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors that influence vaccine hesitancy and resistance. Of the 34,041 participants surveyed, 18,810 (55.3%) were willing to get vaccinated, 13,736 (40.3%) were hesitant, and 1495 (4.4%) were resistant. Rates of vaccine acceptance increased over time, with geographical discrepancies in vaccine hesitancy and resistance between provinces in China. Vaccine safety was the greatest concern expressed by most participants (24,461 [71.9%]), and the major reason for participants' refusing vaccination (974 [65.2%]). Government agencies (23,131 [68.0%]) and social media (20,967 [61.6%]) were the main sources of COVID-19 vaccine information. Compared with vaccination acceptance, female, young and middle-aged, high income, and perceived low-risk of infection were associated with vaccine hesitancy. Histories of allergic reactions to other vaccines and depression symptoms were related to vaccine resistance. Common factors that influenced vaccine hesitancy and resistance were residing in cities and perceiving less protection with vaccines than with other protective measures. The results indicate that the rate of vaccine resistance is relatively low, but vaccine hesitancy is common. Individuals who are female, young and middle-aged, with a high income, and residing in cities are more likely to be hesitant for vaccination and should be the target populations for vaccination campaigns. Specific vaccine messaging from the government and social media could alleviate public concerns about vaccine safety and efficacy.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 499, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447296

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused large-scale economic and social losses and worldwide deaths. Although most COVID-19 patients have initially complained of respiratory insufficiency, the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations is also reported frequently, ranging from headache, hyposmia/anosmia, and neuromuscular dysfunction to stroke, seizure, encephalopathy, altered mental status, and psychiatric disorders, both in the acute phase and in the long term. These neuropsychiatric complications have emerged as a potential indicator of worsened clinical outcomes and poor prognosis, thus contributing to mortality in COVID-19 patients. Their etiology remains largely unclear and probably involves multiple neuroinvasive pathways. Here, we summarize recent animal and human studies for neurotrophic properties of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and elucidate potential neuropathogenic mechanisms involved in the viral invasion of the central nervous system as a cause for brain damage and neurological impairments. We then discuss the potential therapeutic strategy for intervening and preventing neuropsychiatric complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Time-series monitoring of clinical-neurochemical-radiological progress of neuropsychiatric and neuroimmune complications need implementation in individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The development of a screening, intervention, and therapeutic framework to prevent and reduce neuropsychiatric sequela is urgently needed and crucial for the short- and long-term recovery of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Headache , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(1): 19-33, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440466

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are crucial public health issues and may lead to considerable fear among the general public and stigmatization of, and discrimination against, specific populations. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of stigma in infectious disease epidemics. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases since inception to June 08, 2021, and reported the prevalence of stigma towards people with infectious diseases including SARS, H1N1, MERS, Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19. A total of 50 eligible articles were included that contributed 51 estimates of prevalence in 92722 participants. The overall pooled prevalence of stigma across all populations was 34% [95% CI: 28-40%], including enacted stigma (36% [95% CI: 28-44%]) and perceived stigma (31% [95% CI: 22-40%]). The prevalence of stigma in patients, community population, and health care workers, was 38% [95% CI: 12- 65%], 36% [95% CI: 28-45%], and 30% [95% CI: 20-40%], respectively. The prevalence of stigma in participants from low- and middle-income countries was 37% [95% CI: 29-45%], which is higher than that from high-income countries (27% [95% CI: 18-36%]) though this difference was not statistically significant. A similar trend of prevalence of stigma was also observed in individuals with lower education (47% [95% CI: 23-71%]) compared to higher education level (33% [95% CI: 23-4%]). These findings indicate that stigma is a significant public health concern, and effective and comprehensive interventions are needed to counteract the damaging effects of the infodemics during infectious disease epidemics, including COVID-19, and reduce infectious disease-related stigma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Prevalence
17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101111, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into a worldwide pandemic, and has been found to be closely associated with mental and neurological disorders. We aimed to comprehensively quantify the association between mental and neurological disorders, both pre-existing and subsequent, and the risk of susceptibility, severity and mortality of COVID-19. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane library databases for studies published from the inception up to January 16, 2021 and updated at July 7, 2021. Observational studies including cohort and case-control, cross-sectional studies and case series that reported risk estimates of the association between mental or neurological disorders and COVID-19 susceptibility, illness severity and mortality were included. Two researchers independently extracted data and conducted the quality assessment. Based on I2 heterogeneity, we used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analysis were also performed. This study was registered on PROSPERO (registration number: CRD 42021230832). FINDING: A total of 149 studies (227,351,954 participants, 89,235,737 COVID-19 patients) were included in this analysis, in which 27 reported morbidity (132,727,798), 56 reported illness severity (83,097,968) and 115 reported mortality (88,878,662). Overall, mental and neurological disorders were associated with a significant high risk of infection (pre-existing mental: OR 1·67, 95% CI 1·12-2·49; and pre-existing neurological: 2·05, 1·58-2·67), illness severity (mental: pre-existing, 1·40, 1·25-1·57; sequelae, 4·85, 2·53-9·32; neurological: pre-existing, 1·43, 1·09-1·88; sequelae, 2·17, 1·45-3·24), and mortality (mental: pre-existing, 1·47, 1·26-1·72; neurological: pre-existing, 2·08, 1·61-2·69; sequelae, 2·03, 1·66-2·49) from COVID-19. Subgroup analysis revealed that association with illness severity was stronger among younger COVID-19 patients, and those with subsequent mental disorders, living in low- and middle-income regions. Younger patients with mental and neurological disorders were associated with higher mortality than elders. For type-specific mental disorders, susceptibility to contracting COVID-19 was associated with pre-existing mood disorders, anxiety, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); illness severity was associated with both pre-existing and subsequent mood disorders as well as sleep disturbance; and mortality was associated with pre-existing schizophrenia. For neurological disorders, susceptibility was associated with pre-existing dementia; both severity and mortality were associated with subsequent delirium and altered mental status; besides, mortality was associated with pre-existing and subsequent dementia and multiple specific neurological diseases. Heterogeneities were substantial across studies in most analysis. INTERPRETATION: The findings show an important role of mental and neurological disorders in the context of COVID-19 and provide clues and directions for identifying and protecting vulnerable populations in the pandemic. Early detection and intervention for neurological and mental disorders are urgently needed to control morbidity and mortality induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there was substantial heterogeneity among the included studies, and the results should be interpreted with caution. More studies are needed to explore long-term mental and neurological sequela, as well as the underlying brain mechanisms for the sake of elucidating the causal pathways for these associations. FUNDING: This study is supported by grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Special Research Fund of PKUHSC for Prevention and Control of COVID-19, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367832

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 might have long-term mental health impacts. We aim to investigate the longitudinal changes in mental problems from initial COVID-19 peak to its aftermath among general public in China. Depression, anxiety and insomnia were assessed among a large-sample nationwide cohort of 10,492 adults during the initial COVID-19 peak (28 February 2020 to 11 March 2020) and its aftermath (8 July 2020 to 8 August 2020) using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and Insomnia Severity Index. We used generalized estimating equations and linear mixed models to explore factors associated with long-term mental health symptoms during COVID-19. During the five months, mental health symptoms remained consistently elevated (baseline 46.4%; follow-up 45.1%). Long-term depression, anxiety and insomnia were associated with several personal and work-related factors including quarantine (adjusted OR for any mental health symptoms 1.31, 95%CI 1.22-1.41, p < 0.001), increases in work burden after resuming work (1.77, 1.65-1.90, p < 0.001), occupational exposure risk to COVID-19 (1.26, 1.14-1.40, p < 0.001) and living in places severely affected by initial COVID-19 peak (1.21, 1.04-1.41, p = 0.01) or by a COVID-19 resurgence (1.38, 1.26-1.50, p < 0.001). Compliance with self-protection measures, such as wearing face masks (0.74, 0.61-0.90, p = 0.003), was associated with lower long-term risk of mental problems. The findings reveal a pronounced and prolonged mental health burden from the initial COVID-19 peak through to its aftermath in China. We should regularly monitor the mental health status of vulnerable populations throughout COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 695017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334956

ABSTRACT

Background: University students who are exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be mentally distressed. We aimed to evaluate the pattern and risk factors of mental health and suicidal behavior among students who experienced long-term school closure due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This large-sample, cross-sectional, online survey was conducted from June 29, 2020, to July 18, 2020. Eleven thousand two hundred fifty four participants were recruited from 30 universities located in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicidal behavior was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5, and questions about suicidal ideation and attempts, respectively. Logistic regression was used to explore risk factors for mental health problems and suicidal behavior. Results: The prevalence of mental health problems was 41.5% for depressive symptoms, 32.6% for anxiety symptoms, 35.0% for insomnia symptoms, 8.5% for PTSD symptoms, and 2.0% for suicidal behavior. Participants with high stress during the pandemic were at higher risk of symptoms of depression [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43-1.95, p < 0.01), anxiety (adjusted OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.63-2.23, p < 0.01), insomnia (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.44-1.87, p < 0.01), PTSD (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.38-2.11, p < 0.01) and suicidal behavior (adjusted OR = 3.51, 95% CI = 2.28-5.40, p < 0.01). Distant relationship with parents, changes in lifestyle and alcohol use during the pandemic were associated with higher risk of mental health symptoms and suicidal behavior, whereas regular physical exercise reduced the risk of mental health problems. Conclusions: The psychological symptoms and suicidal behavior were relatively high among students who attended university in Wuhan, China after 6 months of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Comprehensive mental health services and suicide prevention strategies are essential for university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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