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1.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3020145.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Paxlovid has been widely used to treat COVID-19 in global pandemics. The aim of this study is to discover the main targets of SARS-CoV-2 and to explore therapeutic mechanism of Paxlovid. Methods: The targets of Paxlovid were predicted by SwissTargetPrediction. Meanwhile, COVID-19 related targets were collected from GeneCards and OMIM. Then, PPI networks, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis were constructed to discover the potential mechanism by STRING, Cytoscape and DAVID. Finally, AutoDock Vina and Pymol were performed to visualize the interactions between Paxlovid and targets. Results: A total of 22 Paxlovid-related targets of were collected, and 1191 remained therapeutic genes for COVID-19. 23 targets were retained for the further study by PPI network and data integration. The GO and KEGG indicated that 23 targets were significantly enriched to inflammatory response, immune response and so forth. Paxlovid was successfully docked to the active of ALB, CXCL8, HLA-A, IL1B, IL6, KNG1, TNF, VEGFA, CD8A and CTSL. In addition, Paxlovid easily bind with the active pocket of3CLpro and PLpro. Conclusions: Paxlovid could directly target 3CLproand PLpro, and also regulate the immune system. Meanwhile, it may affect the interaction between spike protein RBD and ACE2.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(4)2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304217

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations were initially shown to substantially reduce risk of severe disease and death. However, pharmacokinetic (PK) waning and rapid viral evolution degrade neutralizing antibody (nAb) binding titers, causing loss of vaccinal protection. Additionally, there is inter-individual heterogeneity in the strength and durability of the vaccinal nAb response. Here, we propose a personalized booster strategy as a potential solution to this problem. Our model-based approach incorporates inter-individual heterogeneity in nAb response to primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccination into a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to project population-level heterogeneity in vaccinal protection. We further examine the impact of evolutionary immune evasion on vaccinal protection over time based on variant fold reduction in nAb potency. Our findings suggest viral evolution will decrease the effectiveness of vaccinal protection against severe disease, especially for individuals with a less durable immune response. More frequent boosting may restore vaccinal protection for individuals with a weaker immune response. Our analysis shows that the ECLIA RBD binding assay strongly predicts neutralization of sequence-matched pseudoviruses. This may be a useful tool for rapidly assessing individual immune protection. Our work suggests vaccinal protection against severe disease is not assured and identifies a potential path forward for reducing risk to immunologically vulnerable individuals.

3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1110652, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261575

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to analyze the serotype distribution and drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children aged 8 days to 7 years in Urumqi, China, between 2014 to 2021, during which PCV13 was introduced in the private sector's immunization program and COVID-19 control was administrated in the last 2 years. Methods: Serotypes of S. pneumoniae isolates were determined by Quellung reaction, and their susceptibility against 14 antimicrobials were tested. According to the start year of PCV13 administration (2017) and COVID-19 control (2020), the study period was divided into three stages: 2014-2015, 2018-2019, and 2020-2021. Results: A total of 317 isolates were involved in this study. The most common serotypes were type 19F (34.4%), followed by 19A (15.8%), 23F (11.7%), 6B (11.4%), and 6A(5.0%). The coverage rate of both PCV13 and PCV15 was 83.0%. The coverage of PCV20 was a little higher at 85.2%. The resistance rate against penicillin was 28.6% according to the breakpoints of oral penicillin, which would reach up to 91.8% based on the breakpoints of parenteral penicillin for meningitis. The resistance rates to erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were 95.9%, 90.2%, 88.9%, and 78.8%, respectively. The PCV13 isolate was more resistant to penicillin than the non-PCV13 ones. There was not any significant change found in the serotype distribution since the PCV13 introduction and the COVID-19 control. The resistance rate against oral penicillin slightly elevated to 34.5% in 2018-2019 from 30.7% in 2014-2015 and then decreased significantly to 18.1% in 2020-2021 (χ 2 = 7.716, P < 0.05), while the resistance rate to ceftriaxone (non-meningitis) continuously declined from 16.0% in 2014-2015 to 1.4% in 2018-2019 and 0% in 2020-2021 (Fisher = 24.463, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The common serotypes of S. pneumoniae isolated from children in Urumqi were types 19F, 19A, 23F, 6B, and 6A, which we found to have no marked change since the PCV13 introduction and the COVID-19 control However, the resistance rate to oral penicillin and ceftriaxone significantly declined in the COVID-19 control stage.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Child , Humans , Infant , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Serogroup , Ceftriaxone , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , COVID-19/epidemiology , Penicillins , China/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serotyping
4.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 35(12): 1091-1099, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201247

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and tuberculosis (TB) are major public health and social issues worldwide. The long-term follow-up of COVID-19 with pulmonary TB (PTB) survivors after discharge is unclear. This study aimed to comprehensively describe clinical outcomes, including sequela and recurrence at 3, 12, and 24 months after discharge, among COVID-19 with PTB survivors. Methods: From January 22, 2020 to May 6, 2022, with a follow-up by August 26, 2022, a prospective, multicenter follow-up study was conducted on COVID-19 with PTB survivors after discharge in 13 hospitals from four provinces in China. Clinical outcomes, including sequela, recurrence of COVID-19, and PTB survivors, were collected via telephone and face-to-face interviews at 3, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Results: Thirty-two COVID-19 with PTB survivors were included. The median age was 52 (45, 59) years, and 23 (71.9%) were men. Among them, nearly two-thirds (62.5%) of the survivors were moderate, three (9.4%) were severe, and more than half (59.4%) had at least one comorbidity (PTB excluded). The proportion of COVID-19 survivors with at least one sequela symptom decreased from 40.6% at 3 months to 15.8% at 24 months, with anxiety having a higher proportion over a follow-up. Cough and amnesia recovered at the 12-month follow-up, while anxiety, fatigue, and trouble sleeping remained after 24 months. Additionally, one (3.1%) case presented two recurrences of PTB and no re-positive COVID-19 during the follow-up period. Conclusion: The proportion of long symptoms in COVID-19 with PTB survivors decreased over time, while nearly one in six still experience persistent symptoms with a higher proportion of anxiety. The recurrence of PTB and the psychological support of COVID-19 with PTB after discharge require more attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Prospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Survivors
6.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(2)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886914

ABSTRACT

Bronchiectasis is a debilitating chronic suppurative airway disease that confers a substantial burden globally. Despite the notable prevalence, research on bronchiectasis in mainland China remains in its infancy. Nevertheless, there has been a significant leap in the quantity and quality of research, which has contributed to the ever-improving clinical practice. A nationwide collaborative platform has been established to foster multicentre studies, which will help increase the level of evidence further. Here, we summarise the status quo of clinical management and consider the research priorities for bronchiectasis that have been published previously. We also highlight the efforts of the Chinese medical communities to outline the core tasks that need to be addressed within the next decade.

7.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(4): e15298, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675333

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants has altered the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic and raised some uncertainty on the long-term efficiency of vaccine strategy. The development of new therapeutics against a wide range of SARS-CoV-2 variants is imperative. We, here, have designed an inhalable siRNA, C6G25S, which covers 99.8% of current SARS-CoV-2 variants and is capable of inhibiting dominant strains, including Alpha, Delta, Gamma, and Epsilon, at picomolar ranges of IC50 in vitro. Moreover, C6G25S could completely inhibit the production of infectious virions in lungs by prophylactic treatment, and decrease 96.2% of virions by cotreatment in K18-hACE2-transgenic mice, accompanied by a significant prevention of virus-associated extensive pulmonary alveolar damage, vascular thrombi, and immune cell infiltrations. Our data suggest that C6G25S provides an alternative and effective approach to combating the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology ; : 100009, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1509628

ABSTRACT

Backgroud : The outbreak of COVID-19 has brought unprecedented perils to human health and raised public health concerns in more than two hundred countries. Safe and effective treatment scheme is needed urgently. Objective : To evaluate the effects of integrated TCM and western medicine treatment scheme on COVID-19. Methods : A single-armed clinical trial was carried out in Hangzhou Xixi Hospital, an affiliated hospital with Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. 102 confirmed cases were screened out from 725 suspected cases and 93 of them were treated with integrated TCM and western medicine treatment scheme. Results : 83 cases were cured, 5 cases deteriorated, and 5 cases withdrew from the study. No deaths were reported. The mean relief time of fever, cough, diarrhea, and fatigue were (4.78±4.61) days, (7.22±4.99) days, (5.28± 3.39) days, and (5.28± 3.39) days, respectively. It took (14.84±5.50) days for SARS-CoV-2 by nucleic acid amplification-based testing to turn negative. Multivariable cox regression analysis revealed that age, BMI, PISCT, BPC, AST, CK, BS, and UPRO were independent risk factors for COVID-19 treatment. Conclusion : Our study suggested that integrated TCM and western medicine treatment scheme was effective for COVID-19.

9.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 25(11): 4152-4162, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507113

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly contagious virus and has spread all over the world, posing an extremely serious threat to all countries. Automatic lung infection segmentation from computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the quantitative analysis of COVID-19. However, the major challenge lies in the inadequacy of annotated COVID-19 datasets. Currently, there are several public non-COVID lung lesion segmentation datasets, providing the potential for generalizing useful information to the related COVID-19 segmentation task. In this paper, we propose a novel relation-driven collaborative learning model to exploit shared knowledge from non-COVID lesions for annotation-efficient COVID-19 CT lung infection segmentation. The model consists of a general encoder to capture general lung lesion features based on multiple non-COVID lesions, and a target encoder to focus on task-specific features based on COVID-19 infections. We develop a collaborative learning scheme to regularize feature-level relation consistency of given input and encourage the model to learn more general and discriminative representation of COVID-19 infections. Extensive experiments demonstrate that trained with limited COVID-19 data, exploiting shared knowledge from non-COVID lesions can further improve state-of-the-art performance with up to 3.0% in dice similarity coefficient and 4.2% in normalized surface dice. In addition, experimental results on large scale 2D dataset with CT slices show that our method significantly outperforms cutting-edge segmentation methods metrics. Our method promotes new insights into annotation-efficient deep learning and illustrates strong potential for real-world applications in the global fight against COVID-19 in the absence of sufficient high-quality annotations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Benchmarking , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
PeerJ ; 9: e12053, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377108

ABSTRACT

Camostat mesilate (CM) possesses potential anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities. However, it remains unknown whether CM is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses and cell injury. In this project, differentially expressed proteins (DEPs, fold change ≥ 1.2 or ≤ 0.83 and Q value ≤ 0.05) in response to LPS stimulation alone or in combination with CM were identified through tandem mass tags (TMT)/mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics analysis in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. The mRNA expression levels of filtered genes were determined by RT-qPCR assay. The results showed that CM alleviated the detrimental effect of LPS on cell viability and inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 secretions in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. A total of 141 DEPs that might be involved in mediating functions of both LPS and CM were identified by proteomics analysis in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. LPS inhibited milk fat globule EGF and factor V/VIII domain containing (MFGE8) expression and induced high mobility group nucleosome binding domain 1 (HMGN1) expression, while these effects were abrogated by CM in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. MFGE8 knockdown facilitated TNF-α and IL-6 secretions , reduced cell viability, stimulated cell apoptosis in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts co-treated with LPS and CM. HMGN1 loss did not influence TNF-α and IL-6 secretions, cell viability, and cell apoptosis in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts co-treated with LPS and CM. In conclusion, CM exerted anti-inflammatory and pro-survival activities by regulating MFGE8 in LPS-stimulated DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts, deepening our understanding of the roles and molecular basis of CM in protecting against Gram-negative bacteria.

11.
Applied Sciences ; 11(16):7245, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1348599

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has made it necessary for medical personnel to protect themselves from aerosol-producing procedures, especially during airway management. The tracheal intubation process has a significant risk based on the spreading of aerosol, especially when the medical service provider is very close to the airway of the patient. We have developed a novel conservation tent that provides a barrier for healthcare professionals and patients. Through a simulation study, the relationship between the use of the protection tent during intubation and the contamination of medical personnel before and after the movement of the protection tent was explored. A series of experiments in this article provide a theoretical basis for the verification of spray morphology during gas curing and droplet intubation. This inexpensive and simple method for using transparent cloth in the intubation of patients with unknown COVID-19 status can be applied by frontline medical personnel as an additional precautionary measure.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254734, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315893

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic drags into its second year, there is hope on the horizon, in the form of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines which promise disease suppression and a return to pre-pandemic normalcy. In this study we critically examine the basis for that hope, using an epidemiological modeling framework to establish the link between vaccine characteristics and effectiveness in bringing an end to this unprecedented public health crisis. Our findings suggest that a return to pre-pandemic social and economic conditions without fully suppressing SARS-CoV-2 will lead to extensive viral spread, resulting in a high disease burden even in the presence of vaccines that reduce risk of infection and mortality. Our modeling points to the feasibility of complete SARS-CoV-2 suppression with high population-level compliance and vaccines that are highly effective at reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Notably, vaccine-mediated reduction of transmission is critical for viral suppression, and in order for partially-effective vaccines to play a positive role in SARS-CoV-2 suppression, complementary biomedical interventions and public health measures must be deployed simultaneously.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Models, Statistical , Mortality/trends , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/standards
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 697074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311376

ABSTRACT

The development of a safe and effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of pandemic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is a global priority. Here, we aim to develop novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on a derivative of less commonly used rare adenovirus serotype AdC68 vector. Three vaccine candidates were constructed expressing either the full-length spike (AdC68-19S) or receptor-binding domain (RBD) with two different signal sequences (AdC68-19RBD and AdC68-19RBDs). Single-dose intramuscular immunization induced robust and sustained binding and neutralizing antibody responses in BALB/c mice up to 40 weeks after immunization, with AdC68-19S being superior to AdC68-19RBD and AdC68-19RBDs. Importantly, immunization with AdC68-19S induced protective immunity against high-dose challenge with live SARS-CoV-2 in a golden Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccinated animals demonstrated dramatic decreases in viral RNA copies and infectious virus in the lungs, as well as reduced lung pathology compared to the control animals. Similar protective effects were also found in rhesus macaques. Taken together, these results confirm that AdC68-19S can induce protective immune responses in experimental animals, meriting further development toward a human vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adenovirus Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pan troglodytes , RNA, Viral/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transfection , Treatment Outcome
17.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(1): e13443, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To reveal detailed histopathological changes, virus distributions, immunologic properties and multi-omic features caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the explanted lungs from the world's first successful lung transplantation of a COVID-19 patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 samples were collected from the lungs. Histopathological features and virus distribution were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Immune cells were detected by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Transcriptome and proteome approaches were used to investigate main biological processes involved in COVID-19-associated pulmonary fibrosis. RESULTS: The histopathological changes of the lung tissues were characterized by extensive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and haemorrhage. Viral particles were observed in the cytoplasm of macrophages. CD3+ CD4- T cells, neutrophils, NK cells, γ/δ T cells and monocytes, but not B cells, were abundant in the lungs. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines iNOS, IL-1ß and IL-6 were in the area of mild fibrosis. Multi-omics analyses revealed a total of 126 out of 20,356 significant different transcription and 114 out of 8,493 protein expression in lung samples with mild and severe fibrosis, most of which were related to fibrosis and inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide novel insight that the significant neutrophil/ CD3+ CD4- T cell/ macrophage activation leads to cytokine storm and severe fibrosis in the lungs of COVID-19 patient and may contribute to a better understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Lung Transplantation , Lung/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/surgery , Chromatography, Liquid , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/ultrastructure , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/ultrastructure , Lung/virology , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Lymph Nodes/ultrastructure , Lymph Nodes/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/ultrastructure , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/pathology , Monocytes/ultrastructure , Monocytes/virology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/ultrastructure , Neutrophils/virology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Proteomics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/surgery , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
19.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.09.03.282103

ABSTRACT

Viral replication is dependent on interactions between viral polypeptides and host proteins. Identifying virus-host protein interactions can thus uncover unique opportunities for interfering with the virus life cycle via novel drug compounds or drug repurposing. Importantly, many viral-host protein interactions take place at intracellular membranes and poorly soluble organelles, which are difficult to profile using classical biochemical purification approaches. Applying proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) with the fast-acting miniTurbo enzyme to 27 SARS-CoV-2 proteins in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549), we detected 7810 proximity interactions (7382 of which are new for SARS-CoV-2) with 2242 host proteins (results available at covid19interactome.org). These results complement and dramatically expand upon recent affinity purification-based studies identifying stable host-virus protein complexes, and offer an unparalleled view of membrane-associated processes critical for viral production. Host cell organellar markers were also subjected to BioID in parallel, allowing us to propose modes of action for several viral proteins in the context of host proteome remodelling. In summary, our dataset identifies numerous high confidence proximity partners for SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, and describes potential mechanisms for their effects on specific host cell functions.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20803-20813, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695945

ABSTRACT

Virus entry is a multistep process. It initiates when the virus attaches to the host cell and ends when the viral contents reach the cytosol. Genetically unrelated viruses can subvert analogous subcellular mechanisms and use similar trafficking pathways for successful entry. Antiviral strategies targeting early steps of infection are therefore appealing, particularly when the probability for successful interference through a common step is highest. We describe here potent inhibitory effects on content release and infection by chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) containing the envelope proteins of Zaire ebolavirus (VSV-ZEBOV) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (VSV-SARS-CoV-2) elicited by Apilimod and Vacuolin-1, small-molecule inhibitors of the main endosomal phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate/phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase, PIKfyve. We also describe potent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 strain 2019-nCoV/USA-WA1/2020 by Apilimod. These results define tools for studying the intracellular trafficking of pathogens elicited by inhibition of PIKfyve kinase and suggest the potential for targeting this kinase in developing small-molecule antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Heterocyclic Compounds, 4 or More Rings/pharmacology , Morpholines/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Triazines/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections , Ebolavirus/physiology , Gene Editing , Humans , Hydrazones , Pandemics , Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
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