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2.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-332380

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological studies observed gender differences in COVID-19 outcomes, however, whether sex hormone plays a causal in COVID-19 risk remains unclear. This study aimed to examine associations of sex hormone, sex hormones-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and COVID-19 risk. Methods: Two-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) study was performed to explore the causal associations between testosterone, estrogen, SHBG, IGF-1and the risk of COVID-19 (susceptibility, hospitalization and severity) using GWAS summary level data from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative (N=1,348,701). Random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) MR approach was used as the primary MR method and the weighted median, MR-Egger, and MR-PRESSO test were conducted as sensitivity analyses. Findings: Higher genetically predicted IGF-1 levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization. For one standard deviation increase in genetically predicted IGF-1 levels, the odds ratio was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-0.97;P =0.027) for COVID-19 susceptibility, 0.62 (95%CI: 0.25-0.51;P =0.018) for COVID-19 hospitalization, and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.52-1.38, P =0.513) for COVID-19 severity. There was no evidence that testosterone, estrogen, SHBG are associated with the risk of COVID-19 susceptibility, hospitalization and severity in either overall or sex-stratified TSMR analysis. Interpretation: Genetically predicted high IGF-1 levels may decrease the risk of COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization. Further studies are needed to explore whether IGF-1 could be a potential intervention target to reduce COVID-19 risk. Funding: We acknowledge support from NSFC (LR22H260001), CRUK (C31250/A22804), SHLF (Hjärt-Lungfonden, 20210351), VR (Vetenskapsrådet, 2019-00977), and SCI (Cancerfonden).

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309635

ABSTRACT

In the global crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries attempt to enforce new social norms to prevent the further spread of the coronavirus. A key to the success of these measures is the individual adherence to norms that are collectively beneficial to contain the spread of the pandemic. However, individuals’ self-interest bias (i.e., the prevalent tendency to license own but not others’ self-serving acts or norm violations) can pose a challenge to the success of such measures. The current research examines COVID-19-related self-interest bias from a cross-cultural perspective. Two studies (N = 1,558) sampled from the US and China, and consistently revealed that US participants evaluated their own self-serving acts (exploiting disinfectants or test kits in Study 1;social gathering and sneezing without covering the mouth in Study 2) as more acceptable than identical deeds of others, while such self-interest bias did not emerge among Chinese participants. Cultural underpinnings of independent vs. interdependent self-construal may influence the extent to which individuals apply self-interest bias to justifications of their own self-serving behaviors during the pandemic.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323763

ABSTRACT

Abstract Backgroud: To describe the frequency and distribution characteristics of gastrointestinal symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.Methods: As a cohort study, all confirmed COVID-19 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms at Xiangyang No.1 people’s hospital were included until February 21st, 2020. Course of disease no less than 21 days.Gastrointestinal symptoms relevant data were extracted and analyzed. The frequency histograms of the symptoms were plotted. Main symptom characteristics were summarized.Results: Of 50 included patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, 21 were male, 29were female. The mean age was 53 (SD 16) years. Course of disease ranged from 21 to 34 days with a median of 26 days. Among all patients, 16 were critically ill and five died, 12 discharged. Thirty-one clinical symptoms occurred 3168 times in total, 6 gastrointestinal symptoms occurred 439 (13.86%) times and 25 non-gastrointestinal symptoms occurred 2 729(86.14%) times. All symptoms and non-gastrointestinal symptoms distributed in 1 to 34 days, reached peak on 6th day of follow up, first seven days were the fastigium and decreasing in the rest days. Gastrointestinal symptoms mainly distributed in 1 to 34 days, reached a peak of 36 times per day on 6th of follow-up with a fastigium during 6 to 12 day, showed a trend of rise first and then fall. Nausea, vomit and abdominal discomfort occurred 133, 70 and 62 times, respectively.Conclusions: A symptom frequency to time distribution model could describe the disease process quantitatively, indicating the change law of gastrointestinal symptoms and the organ damages in gastrointestinal system, could help us to better understand and treat the new disease. Females showed higher incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms, whether there is a sex difference in susceptibility needs to be further confirmed.Trial regitration: retrospectively registeredAuthors Guoxin Huang and Shengduo Pei contributed equally to this work.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 752214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477838

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have brought severe challenges to public health all over the world in the past 20years. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic that has led to millions of deaths, belongs to the genus beta-coronavirus. Alpha- and beta-coronaviruses encode a unique protein, nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) that both suppresses host immune responses and reduces global gene expression levels in the host cells. As a key pathogenicity factor of coronaviruses, Nsp1 redirects the host translation machinery to increase synthesis of viral proteins. Through multiple mechanisms, coronaviruses impede host protein expression through Nsp1, while escaping inhibition to allow the translation of viral RNA. In this review, we discuss current data about suppression of the immune responses and inhibition of protein synthesis induced by coronavirus Nsp1, as well as the prospect of live-attenuated vaccine development with virulence-attenuated viruses with mutations in Nsp1.

6.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology ; : 00220221211025739, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1288505

ABSTRACT

In the global crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries attempt to enforce new social norms to prevent the further spread of the coronavirus. A key to the success of these measures is the individual adherence to norms that are collectively beneficial to contain the spread of the pandemic. However, individuals? self-interest bias (i.e., the prevalent tendency to license own but not others? self-serving acts or norm violations) can pose a challenge to the success of such measures. The current research examines COVID-19-related self-interest bias from a cross-cultural perspective. Two studies (N?=?1,558) sampled from the United States and China consistently revealed that participants from the United States evaluated their own self-serving acts (exploiting test kits in Study 1;social gathering and sneezing without covering the mouth in public in Study 2) as more acceptable than identical deeds of others, while such self-interest bias did not emerge among Chinese participants. Cultural underpinnings of independent versus interdependent self-construal may influence the extent to which individuals apply self-interest bias to justifications of their own self-serving behaviors during the pandemic.

7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(7): 3484-3497, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124660

ABSTRACT

Patients with hyperglycemia tend to be susceptible to Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association of HbA1c level with outcome of COVID-19 patients was unclear. We performed a retrospective study of 2880 cases of COVID-19 admitted in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China, among which 922 had detected the HbA1c levels. We found that COVID-19 patients with either lower levels of HbAlc (3%-4.9%) or higher levels of HbAlc (≥6%) were associated with elevated all-cause mortality. Meanwhile, we observed that HbAlc levels were highly correlated with haemoglobin (Hb) and total cholesterol (TC) (P < .0001), moderately correlated with albumin (ALB) and high-sensitive C reaction protein (hs-CRP) (0.0001 < P<.001), and relatively low correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (.001 < P<.01). These associated cofactors might together contribute to the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the mortality was higher in COVID-19 patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with COVID-19 patients with history of DM. Moreover, in patients with history of DM, the mortality was decreased in patients treated with anti-hyperglycaemic drugs. In summary, our data showed that the in-hospital mortality was increased in COVID-19 patients with lower or higher levels of HbAlc. Meanwhile, initiation of appropriate anti-hyperglycaemic treatment might improve the clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(2): 1263-1273, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060602

ABSTRACT

To determine whether pre-hospitalization use of aspirin is associated with all-cause mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We recruited 183 adult patients with CAD diagnosed with COVID-19, including 52 taking low-dose aspirin (mean [SD] age, 69.7 [1.1] years; 59.6% men) and 131 without using aspirin (mean [SD] age, 71.8 [0.9] years; 51.9% men), who were admitted in the Tongji hospital in Wuhan, China from January 10, 2020 to March 30, 2020. There was no difference on in-hospital mortality between aspirin group and non-aspirin group (21.2% vs. 22.1%, P = .885). Similarly, for critically severe COVID-19 patients, the mortality in aspirin group was close to that in non-aspirin group (44% vs. 45.9%, P = .872). Moreover, the percentage of patients with CAD taking low-dose aspirin did not differ between those survivors and non-survivors (28.7% vs. 27.5%, P = .885). Meanwhile, the usage of aspirin was not correlated with all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.944, 95% CI: 0.411-2.172, P = .893). Collectively, our study suggested that the pre-hospitalization use of low-dose aspirin was not associated with the clinical outcome of patients with CAD hospitalized with COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Aged , China , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies
9.
Mol Cell ; 80(6): 1055-1066.e6, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009762

ABSTRACT

The causative virus of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, uses its nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) to suppress cellular, but not viral, protein synthesis through yet unknown mechanisms. We show here that among all viral proteins, Nsp1 has the largest impact on host viability in the cells of human lung origin. Differential expression analysis of mRNA-seq data revealed that Nsp1 broadly alters the cellular transcriptome. Our cryo-EM structure of the Nsp1-40S ribosome complex shows that Nsp1 inhibits translation by plugging the mRNA entry channel of the 40S. We also determined the structure of the 48S preinitiation complex formed by Nsp1, 40S, and the cricket paralysis virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA, which shows that it is nonfunctional because of the incorrect position of the mRNA 3' region. Our results elucidate the mechanism of host translation inhibition by SARS-CoV-2 and advance understanding of the impacts from a major pathogenicity factor of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/genetics , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/ultrastructure , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e923767, 2020 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-66260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND During February 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Hubei Province, China, was at its height, requiring isolation of the population. This study aimed to compare the emotional state, somatic responses, sleep quality, and behavior of people in Hubei Province with non-endemic provinces in China during two weeks in February 2020.  MATERIAL AND METHODS Questionnaires were completed by 939 individuals (357 men; 582 women), including 33 from Hubei and 906 from non-endemic provinces. The Stress Response Questionnaire (SRQ) determined the emotional state, somatic responses, and behavior. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure the duration of sleep and sleep quality. RESULTS There were 939 study participants, aged 18-24 years (35.89%) and 25-39 years (35.57%); 65.92% were university students. During a two week period in February 2020, the emotional state and behavior of participants in Hubei improved, but the quality of sleep did not. Health workers and business people became increasingly anxious, but other professionals became less anxious. The data showed that most people in Hubei Province developed a more positive attitude regarding their risk of infection and the chances of surviving the COVID-19 epidemic. CONCLUSIONS During a two-week period, front-line health workers and people in Hubei Province became less anxious about the COVID-19 epidemic, but sleep quality did not improve. Despite public awareness, levels of anxiety exist that affect the quality of life during epidemics, including periods of population quarantine. Therefore, health education should be combined with psychological counseling for vulnerable individuals.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stress, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Disease Outbreaks , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Young Adult
11.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 513-517, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific), WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: covidwho-18941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for improving emergency capacity of the hospital pharmacy department in response to the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS :According to the related regulations and requirements of Law of the People ’s Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases ,combined with the situation of COVID- 19 epidemic prevention and control ,and management experience of relevant hospitals ,on the basis of in-depth analysis of drug supply and quality assurance ,drug dispensing management ,provision of clinical pharmaceutical services and other related material support of hospital pharmacy department,integrated emergency management model was constructed for COVID- 19 epidemic prevention and control ,and the precautions and response measures of each link were sorted out. RESULTS :Integruted emergency management mode for COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control in hospital pharmacy department included but was not limited to human resource management,drug and disinfection products supply management (mainly including key treatment drugs and disinfection product list formulation,control,inventory increase ,etc.);drug dispensing management (mainly including prescription ,pharmacy window , planning quantitative reserve , drug return , etc.);clinical pharmaceutical care management (mainly including providing pharmaceutical information support ,online pharmaceutical service ,monitoring drug safety ,etc.);personnel protection and disinfection (mainly including personnel protection ,environment and window ,equipment and container ,paper prescription disinfection,etc.);special management of donated drugs ;prevention and control knowledge training ;pharmaceutical education and scientific research management ,etc. CONCLUSIONS :The integrated emergency management model for epidemic prevention and control is helpful for hospital pharmacy to manage public health emergencies. During the outbreak of COVID- 19,hospital pharmacy department should start integrated emergency management mode for epidemic prevention and control ,strengthen the risk control of each link ,and play a good role in the key functional departments in the special period.

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