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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075077

ABSTRACT

Compared with the nucleic acid amplification test (NATT), the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapid antigen self-testing (RAST) has advantages in speed and convenience. However, little is known about people's acceptance and influencing factors for SARS-CoV-2 RAST. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 21 to 30, 2022 in China. The χ2 test and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the influencing factors. The structural equation model was used to test the extended protective motivation theory (PMT) model hypotheses. Among the total of 5107 participants, 62.5% were willing to accept the SARS-CoV-2 RAST. There were significant differences in acceptance among different residences (p < 0.001), educational level (p < 0.001), occupation (p < 0.001), monthly income (p < 0.001), travel frequency (p < 0.05), and feelings about NATT (p < 0.001). Response efficacy (ß = 0.05; p = 0.025) and self-efficacy (ß = 0.84; p < 0.001) had a positive effect, while response cost showed a negative effect (ß = -0.07; p < 0.001). The public's major concerns about SARS-CoV-2 RAST are its reliability, testing method, price, and authority. Overall, a moderate intention to use SARS-CoV-2 RAST was found among the Chinese population. The extended PMT can be used for the prediction of intention to accept the RAST. We need to take measures to increase people's acceptance of SARS-CoV-2 RAST.

2.
Tourism Review ; 77(5):1385-1399, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2018592

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of leadership style and trust in leadership on employees' affective commitment under the epidemic situation. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 580 valid questionnaires were collected online targeting the hospitality and tourism employees working from home during the particular period of the COVID-19 Coronavirus crisis. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data with AMOS software. Findings: The findings indicated that perceived transformational leadership was a positive predictor of trust in leadership and affective commitment. In addition to the positive contribution to commitment, trust in leadership also mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Originality/value: The current study contributes to the literature on leadership and organizational commitment. The results of this study may provide a valuable guide to organizations, leaders and young employees.

3.
Aslib Journal of Information Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2018432

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this study is to analyze the topics of COVID-19 news articles for better obtaining the relationship among and the evolution of news topics, helping to manage the infodemic from a quantified perspective. Design/methodology/approach To analyze COVID-19 news articles explicitly, this paper proposes a prism architecture. Based on epidemic-related news on China Daily and CNN, this paper identifies the topics of the two news agencies, elucidates the relationship between and amongst these topics, tracks topic changes as the epidemic progresses and presents the results visually and compellingly. Findings The analysis results show that CNN has a more concentrated distribution of topics than China Daily, with the former focusing on government-related information, and the latter on medical. Besides, the pandemic has had a big impact on CNN and China Daily's reporting preference. The evolution analysis of news topics indicates that the dynamic changes of topics have a strong relationship with the pandemic process. Originality/value This paper offers novel perspectives to review the topics of COVID-19 news articles and provide new understandings of news articles during the initial outbreak. The analysis results expand the scope of infodemic-related studies.

4.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-14, 2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976872

ABSTRACT

Although we are surrounded by various kinds of rumors during the coronavirus disease pandemic, little is known about their primary content, what effect they might have on our emotions, and the potential factors that may buffer their effect. Combining qualitative (study 1 extracted 1907 rumors from top rumor-refuting websites using the Python Web Crawler and conducted content analysis) and quantitative (study 2 conducted an online survey adopting a three-wave design, N = 444) research methods, the current study revealed that government-related rumors accounted for the largest proportion of rumors during the outbreak stage of the pandemic and were positively associated with the public's negative emotions. We also found that trust in government negatively moderated the relationship between government-related rumors and negative emotions. Specifically, when people had low trust in government, exposure to government-related rumors was positively associated with negative emotions. However, when people had high trust in government, the association was non-significant. For positive emotions, we found no significant effects of government-related rumors. The findings highlight the importance of rumor control during public emergencies and cultivating public trust in government in the long run. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-03508-x.

5.
NPJ Clim Atmos Sci ; 5(1): 54, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915293

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 restrictions in 2020 have led to distinct variations in NO2 and O3 concentrations in China. Here, the different drivers of anthropogenic emission changes, including the effects of the Chinese New Year (CNY), China's 2018-2020 Clean Air Plan (CAP), and the COVID-19 lockdown and their impact on NO2 and O3 are isolated by using a combined model-measurement approach. In addition, the contribution of prevailing meteorological conditions to the concentration changes was evaluated by applying a machine-learning method. The resulting impact on the multi-pollutant Health-based Air Quality Index (HAQI) is quantified. The results show that the CNY reduces NO2 concentrations on average by 26.7% each year, while the COVID-lockdown measures have led to an additional 11.6% reduction in 2020, and the CAP over 2018-2020 to a reduction in NO2 by 15.7%. On the other hand, meteorological conditions from 23 January to March 7, 2020 led to increase in NO2 of 7.8%. Neglecting the CAP and meteorological drivers thus leads to an overestimate and underestimate of the effect of the COVID-lockdown on NO2 reductions, respectively. For O3 the opposite behavior is found, with changes of +23.3%, +21.0%, +4.9%, and -0.9% for CNY, COVID-lockdown, CAP, and meteorology effects, respectively. The total effects of these drivers show a drastic reduction in multi-air pollutant-related health risk across China, with meteorology affecting particularly the Northeast of China adversely. Importantly, the CAP's contribution highlights the effectiveness of the Chinese government's air-quality regulations on NO2 reduction.

6.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 336, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890208

ABSTRACT

Bats are considered reservoirs of many lethal zoonotic viruses and have been implicated in several outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. It is necessary to systematically derive the expression patterns of bat virus receptors and their regulatory features for future research into bat-borne viruses and the prediction and prevention of pandemics. Here, we performed single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) and single-nucleus assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (snATAC-seq) of major organ samples collected from Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus affinis) and systematically checked the expression pattern of bat-related virus receptors and chromatin accessibility across organs and cell types, providing a valuable dataset for studying the nature of infection among bat-borne viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Genome, Viral , Humans , Phylogeny , Single-Cell Analysis
7.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-12, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868174

ABSTRACT

We examined the associations between perceived risk, perceived severity, and fear of contracting COVID-19 and vaccine acceptance among different ethnic groups in San José, California. We surveyed 3,797 adults living in San José using a multi-stage, clustered sampling design in which we randomly selected census tracts in San José followed by households within each census tract. We estimated the odds ratio (ORs) for perceived risk, perceived general severity, fear of contracting COVID-19, and vaccine acceptance using regression models. Finally, we assessed the differential impacts of perceived risk, perceived severity, and fear of contracting the COVID-19 on vaccine acceptance by controlling for social-demographic variables. Hispanic/Latino respondents reported higher levels of perceived risk and lower fear of contracting COVID-19 than Asians. Hispanic/Latinos (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48, P < 0.05), Whites (OR = 0.61, P < 0.05), and African Americans (OR = 0.28, P < 0.05) were less likely to report intentions to be vaccinated than Asians. Finally, perceived risk and perceived personal severity were not associated with intentions to be vaccinated, while perceived general severity and fear of contracting COVID-19 were stronger predictors of vaccination intentions. The study highlights the importance of psychological factors in understanding vaccine acceptance across race/ethnicity groups.

8.
Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society ; : 1-6, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1840659

ABSTRACT

This paper employs data envelopment analysis (DEA) to determine crop production efficiency in 15 major provinces of China during 2019-2020. The total power of agricultural machinery, the application amount of chemical fertilizer, the irrigation area of cultivated land, the area of grain sowing, and the total capacity of reservoirs in each province are defined as the input items. The production of food, production of oil plants, and production of fruits are considered output items. According to the findings from the DEA, the most efficient crop production is observed in Shandong and Xinjiang provinces. We also discuss the role of farmers' uncertainty perceptions in COVID-19. By cluster analysis, the provinces with large grain sown area and high grain yield are Henan and Heilongjiang, the provinces with moderate grain production in the grain sown area are Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan, and Xinjiang, Shandong, Hebei, Anhui, Sichuan, Jiangsu, Inner Mongolia, and Jilin are the provinces with low grain production. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

9.
J Med Virol ; 94(9): 4115-4124, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819377

ABSTRACT

The promotion of the booster shots against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is an open issue to be discussed. Little is known about the public intention and the influencing factors regarding the booster vaccine. A cross-sectional survey in Chinese adults was conducted using an online questionnaire, which designed on the basis of protection motivation theory (PMT) scale and vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to compare the fitness of the PMT scale and VHS for predicting booster vaccination intention. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with the acceptance. Six thousand three hundred twenty-one (76.8%) of participants were willing to take the booster shot. However, the rest of the participants (23.2%) were still hesitant to take the booster vaccine. The PMT scale was more powerful than the VHS in explaining the vaccination intention. Participants with high perceived severity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.69) and response cost (aOR = 0.47) were less willing to take the booster shots, but participants with high perceived susceptibility (aOR = 1.19), response efficacy (aOR = 2.13), and self-efficacy (aOR = 3.33) were more willing to take the booster shots. In summary, interventions based on PMT can provide guidance to ensure the acceptance of the booster vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Nature ; 604(7907): 723-731, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799583

ABSTRACT

Studying tissue composition and function in non-human primates (NHPs) is crucial to understand the nature of our own species. Here we present a large-scale cell transcriptomic atlas that encompasses over 1 million cells from 45 tissues of the adult NHP Macaca fascicularis. This dataset provides a vast annotated resource to study a species phylogenetically close to humans. To demonstrate the utility of the atlas, we have reconstructed the cell-cell interaction networks that drive Wnt signalling across the body, mapped the distribution of receptors and co-receptors for viruses causing human infectious diseases, and intersected our data with human genetic disease orthologues to establish potential clinical associations. Our M. fascicularis cell atlas constitutes an essential reference for future studies in humans and NHPs.


Subject(s)
Macaca fascicularis , Transcriptome , Animals , Cell Communication , Macaca fascicularis/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Wnt Signaling Pathway
11.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765946

ABSTRACT

Numerous pathogenic microbes, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, usually infect the host through the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive tract. The mucosa is well known to provide the first line of host defense against pathogen entry by physical, chemical, biological, and immunological barriers, and therefore, mucosa-targeting vaccination is emerging as a promising strategy for conferring superior protection. However, there are still many challenges to be solved to develop an effective mucosal vaccine, such as poor adhesion to the mucosal surface, insufficient uptake to break through the mucus, and the difficulty in avoiding strong degradation through the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing efforts to overcome these issues have been made, and we herein summarize the latest findings on these strategies to develop mucosa-targeting vaccines, including a novel needle-free mucosa-targeting route, the development of mucosa-targeting vectors, the administration of mucosal adjuvants, encapsulating vaccines into nanoparticle formulations, and antigen design to conjugate with mucosa-targeting ligands. Our work will highlight the importance of further developing mucosal vaccine technology to combat the frequent outbreaks of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antigens , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Mucous Membrane , Vaccination
12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322527

ABSTRACT

As the kinetics of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) outbreak still going all over the world and we can't predict when it'll make that turnaround and start coming down, seeking ways to prevent and control this disease is particularly important. Here we describe the role of traditional Chinese medicine in preventing COVID-19. In this clinical observation study, we selected 65 people who came back from Hubei province as subjects and launched a mass drug administration with them. We collected the data of the days from Hubei, non-symptoms rate, temperature before and after administration of these people. We treated them by isolating for 14 days and taking Deng's Herbal Tea Granula once a day for seven days. Then we assessed the possible efficacy of Deng's Herbal Tea Granula on COVID-19. Enrolled people had an average age of 27 years old (3–66 years old), among which 34 (53.97%) were females, with a median temperature of 36.4℃ (36.1–36.8℃). The median of the days from Hubei was 16 days (10–27 days). None of them presents any abnormal clinical manifestation. Isolation is the most effective way to defend and control COVID-19, but accompanied by the treatment of Deng's Herbal Tea Granula may increase the power of prevention. Not only this plant solid beverage which made of Chinese medicine can keep the temperature of all the suspected people at a healthy and stable level, but also is suitable for a large group of ages.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315713

ABSTRACT

The considerable cessation of human activities during the COVID-19 pandemic has affected global energy use and CO2 emissions. Here we show the unprecedented decrease in global fossil CO2 emissions from January to April 2020 was of 7.8% (938 Mt CO2 with a +6.8% of 2-σ uncertainty) when compared with the period last year. In addition other emerging estimates of COVID impacts based on monthly energy supply or estimated parameters, this study contributes to another step that constructed the near-real-time daily CO2 emission inventories based on activity from power generation (for 29 countries), industry (for 73 countries), road transportation (for 406 cities), aviation and maritime transportation and commercial and residential sectors emissions (for 206 countries). The estimates distinguished the decline of CO2 due to COVID-19 from the daily, weekly and seasonal variations as well as the holiday events. The COVID-related decreases in CO2 emissions in road transportation (340.4 Mt CO2, -15.5%), power (292.5 Mt CO2, -6.4% compared to 2019), industry (136.2 Mt CO2, -4.4%), aviation (92.8 Mt CO2, -28.9%), residential (43.4 Mt CO2, -2.7%), and international shipping (35.9Mt CO2, -15%). Regionally, decreases in China were the largest and earliest (234.5 Mt CO2,-6.9%), followed by Europe (EU-27 & UK) (138.3 Mt CO2, -12.0%) and the U.S. (162.4 Mt CO2, -9.5%). The declines of CO2 are consistent with regional nitrogen oxides concentrations observed by satellites and ground-based networks, but the calculated signal of emissions decreases (about 1Gt CO2) will have little impacts (less than 0.13ppm by April 30, 2020) on the overserved global CO2 concertation. However, with observed fast CO2 recovery in China and partial re-opening globally, our findings suggest the longer-term effects on CO2 emissions are unknown and should be carefully monitored using multiple measures.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315360

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) is one of the best-characterized drug targets among coronaviruses. In the current study, we adopted a multiple cross-docking strategy against different crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro to perform computer-based high-throughput virtual screening of possible inhibitors from a drug database using Autodock Vina and SeeSAR software, combined with our in-house automatic processing scripts. The KDs between screened candidates and Mpro were determined using Biacore. Seven drugs were found to fit the substrate-binding pocket of Mpro with a stable conformation, showing high KDs that ranged from 6.79E-7 M to 5.20E-5 M. Finally, mutagenesis studies confirmed that these drugs interact with Mpro specifically, suggesting that our method was reliable and convincing. Given the safety of these old drugs, they may serve as promising candidates to treat the infection of SARS-CoV-2. Our results also provide rational explanations for the behaviour of five drugs evaluated in clinical trials.

15.
Current Issues in Tourism ; : 1-20, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1625446
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 5069-5075, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose a huge threat to public health. Mass vaccination is needed to achieve herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Currently, several vaccines are being inoculated on a large-scale. The willingness of COVID-19 vaccination had been well investigated in the pre-vaccination era, but no reported data in the post-vaccination era yet. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale survey among industrial workers during the vaccination campaign in China. Chi-square test and rank sum test were used to identify differences for various intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination. Univariate analysis and multivariate regression models were utilized to analyze the relationship among demographic factors, related influencing factors and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 23,940 industrial workers were included, 66.0% were willing to take COVID-19 vaccine, 16.6% were unwilling, and 17.4% were unsure. Participants were more likely to get vaccinated if they were male, aged 45-65, being good educated, married, or being recommended by doctors or nurses. Participants with strong risk perception of COVID-19 infection, strong confidence in COVID-19 vaccine, high attention to COVID-19 vaccine, good health status, bad health habit, and a history of vaccination within three months were also more likely to be vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: This study calls for more attention and health-related education among industrial workers to improve their acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 757691, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463478

ABSTRACT

The increase in confirmed COVID-19 cases and SARS-CoV-2 variants calls for the development of safe and broad cross-protective vaccines. The RBD of the spike protein was considered to be a safe and effective candidate antigen. However, the low immunogenicity limited its application in vaccine development. Herein, we designed and obtained an RBD heptamer (mHla-RBD) based on a carrier protein-aided assembly strategy. The molecular weight of mHla-RBD is up to 450 kDa, approximately 10 times higher than that of the RBD monomer. When formulated with alum adjuvant, mHla-RBD immunization significantly increased the immunogenicity of RBD, as indicated by increased titers of RBD-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, Th2 cellular immune response, and pseudovirus neutralization activity, when compared to RBD monomer. Furthermore, we confirmed that RBD-specific antibodies predominantly target conformational epitopes, which was approximately 200 times that targeting linear epitopes. Finally, a pseudovirus neutralization assay revealed that neutralizing antibodies induced by mHla-RBD against different SARS-CoV-2 variants were comparable to those against the wild-type virus and showed broad-spectrum neutralizing activity toward different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our results demonstrated that mHla-RBD is a promising candidate antigen for development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the mHla could serve as a universal carrier protein for antigen design.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Th2 Cells/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Cell Line , Escherichia coli Proteins , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430990

ABSTRACT

Mass vaccination against the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing worldwide to achieve herd immunity among the general population. However, little is known about how the COVID-19 vaccination would affect mental health and preventive behaviors toward the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to address this issue among 4244 individuals at several COVID-19 vaccination sites in Guangzhou, China. Using univariate analysis and multiple linear regression models, we found that major demographic characteristics, such as biological sex, age, education level, and family per capita income, are the dominant influencing factors associated with health beliefs, mental health, and preventive behaviors. After propensity score matching (PSM) treatment, we further assessed the changes in the scores of health belief, mental health, and preventive behaviors between the pre-vaccination group and the post-vaccination group. When compared to individuals in the pre-vaccination group, a moderate but statistically significant lower score was observed in the post-vaccination group (p = 0.010), implying possibly improved psychological conditions after COVID-19 vaccination. In addition, there was also a moderate but statistically higher score of preventive behaviors in the post-vaccination group than in the pre-vaccination group (p < 0.001), suggesting a higher probability to take preventive measures after COVID-19 vaccination. These findings have implications for implementing non-pharmaceutical interventions combined with mass vaccination to control the rebound of COVID-19 outbreaks.

19.
Acta Biomater ; 138: 57-72, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384809

ABSTRACT

Many biomarkers for early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases are difficult to detect because they often exist in body fluids in very low concentrations and are masked by high-abundance proteins such as albumin and immunoglobulins. At the same time, water pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, but the existing adsorption materials have many shortcomings such as slow kinetics, small adsorption capacity and low adsorption efficiency. Nanotraps, mixed with gases or liquids, can capture and concentrate target substances, such as biomolecules, metal ions and oxoanions. Using nanotraps is a versatile sample pre-processing approach and it can improve the sensitivity of downstream analysis techniques. Herein, the preparations and applications of different types of nanotraps are mainly introduced. What's more, the shortcomings of using nanotraps in practical applications are also discussed. Using nanotraps is a promising sample pre-processing technology, which is of great significance for biomarkers discovery, diseases diagnosis, sewage purification and valuable ions recovery. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: This review collates and summarizes the preparations and applications of different types of nanotraps, and discusses the shortcomings of using nanotraps in practical applications. Nanotraps, mixed with gases or liquids, can capture and concentrate target materials, such as biomolecules, metal ions and oxoanions. Using nanotraps is a versatile sample pre-processing approach and it can improve the sensitivity of downstream analysis techniques. During the COVID-19 pandemic, hydrogel nanotraps were successfully utilized for RT-PCR analysis with the FDA Emergency Used Authorization for COVID-19. Using nanotraps is a promising sample pre-processing technology, which is of great significance for biomarkers discovery, diseases diagnosis, sewage purification and valuable ions recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adsorption , Humans , Ions , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 94, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various modalities of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), based on different platforms and immunization procedures, have been successively approved for marketing worldwide. A comprehensive review for clinical trials assessing the safety of COVID-19 vaccines is urgently needed to make an accurate judgment for mass vaccination. MAIN TEXT: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the safety of COVID-19 vaccine candidates in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Scopus, Web of Science, and MedRxiv. Included articles were limited to RCTs on COVID-19 vaccines. A total of 73,633 subjects from 14 articles were included to compare the risks of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) after vaccinating different COVID-19 vaccines. Pooled risk ratios (RR) of total AEFI for inactivated vaccine, viral-vectored vaccine, and mRNA vaccine were 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.61, P < 0.001], 1.65 (95% CI 1.31-2.07, P < 0.001), and 2.01 (95% CI 1.78-2.26, P < 0.001), respectively. No significant differences on local and systemic AEFI were found between the first dose and second dose. In addition, people aged ≤ 55 years were at significantly higher risk of AEFI than people aged ≥ 56 years, with a pooled RR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.15-1.35, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The safety and tolerance of current COVID-19 vaccine candidates are acceptable for mass vaccination, with inactivated COVID-19 vaccines candidates having the lowest reported AEFI. Long-term surveillance of vaccine safety is required, especially among elderly people with underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Young Adult
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