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1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918699

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, is one of the fastest-evolving viral diseases that has instigated a worldwide pandemic. Severe inflammatory syndrome and venous thrombosis are commonly noted in COVID-19 patients with severe and critical illness, contributing to the poor prognosis. Interleukin (IL)-6, a major complex inflammatory cytokine, is an independent factor in predicting the severity of COVID-19 disease in patients. IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α participate in COVID-19-induced cytokine storm, causing endothelial cell damage and upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels. In addition, IL-6 and PAI-1 form a vicious cycle of inflammation and thrombosis, which may contribute to the poor prognosis of patients with severe COVID-19. Targeted inhibition of IL-6 and PAI-1 signal transduction appears to improve treatment outcomes in severely and critically ill COVID-19 patients suffering from cytokine storms and venous thrombosis. Motivated by studies highlighting the relationship between inflammatory cytokines and thrombosis in viral immunology, we provide an overview of the immunothrombosis and immunoinflammation vicious loop between IL-6 and PAI-1. Our goal is that understanding this ferocious circle will benefit critically ill patients with COVID-19 worldwide.

2.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed Update ; 2: 100062, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906911

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has severely affected almost every aspect of society worldwide. During the uncertainties of this pandemic, COVID-19 vaccines were a new hope. In particular, Covid's monitoring of the information, big data analysis played a major role. What started as the basic use of big data analysis is the core component of worldly initiatives Therefore, based on enlightening experiences of big data application for fighting the pandemic, this research focuses on the ethical objectives to be promoted in vaccine delivery, assessing the potential effect of big data analytics on reaching these goals by enabling people to receive a digital passport or certificate.

3.
Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf ; 112: 102848, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895128

ABSTRACT

In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, various countries have sought to control COVID-19 transmission by introducing non-pharmaceutical interventions. Restricting population mobility, by introducing social distancing, is one of the most widely used non-pharmaceutical interventions. Although similar population mobility restriction interventions were introduced, their impacts on COVID-19 transmission are often inconsistent across different regions and different time periods. These differences may provide critical information for tailoring COVID-19 control strategies. In this paper, anonymized high spatiotemporal resolution mobile-phone location data were employed to empirically analyze and quantify the impact of lockdowns on population mobility. Both the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) in China and the San Francisco Bay Area (SBA) in the United States were studied. In response to the lockdowns, a general reduction in population mobility was observed, but the structural changes in mobility are very different between the two bays: 1) GBA mobility decreased by approximately 74.0-80.1% while the decrease of SBA was about 25.0-42.1%; 2) compared to SBA, the GBA had smoother volatility in daily volume during the lockdown. The volatility change indexes for GBA and SBA were 2.55% and 7.52%, respectively; 3) the effect of lockdown on short- to long-distance mobility was similar in GBA while the medium- and long-distance impact was more pronounced in SBA.

4.
Humanities & Social Sciences Communications ; 9(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1788360

ABSTRACT

Crowdsource volunteering efforts have contributed significantly to pandemic response and recovery during the COVID-19 outbreak. In such efforts, individual volunteers can collaborate to achieve rapid mobilisation toward emergent community demands. In this study, we quantitively study this phenomenon using the concept of self-organisation, by proposing a data-driven framework to investigate when and how self-organisation emerged during the pandemic response and how it relates to effectiveness of volunteer organisations in general. Using activity data collected from a mobile volunteer platform in Shenzhen, China, we found that volunteers’ task participation and social and task preferences show multiple phases of self-organisation in response to changing epidemic situations and centralised interventions. Simulation experiments further show that the self-organised volunteer system can become more responsive and more robust in the face of uncertain community demands with minimal centralised guidance.

5.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(5-6): 2207-2218, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712228

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to threaten public health. For developing countries where vaccines are still in shortage, cheaper alternative molecular methods for SARS-CoV-2 identification can be crucial to prevent the next wave. Therefore, 14 primer sets recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) was evaluated on testing both clinical patient and environmental samples with the gold standard diagnosis method, TaqMan-based RT-qPCR, and a cheaper alternative method, SYBR Green-based RT-qPCR. Using suitable primer sets, such as ORF1ab, 2019_nCoV_N1 and 2019_nCoV_N3, the performance of the SYBR Green approach was comparable or better than the TaqMan approach, even when considering the newly dominating or emerging variants, including Delta, Eta, Kappa, Lambda, Mu, and Omicron. ORF1ab and 2019_nCoV_N3 were the best combination for sensitive and reliable SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnostics due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and broad accessibility. KEY POINTS: • With suitable primer sets, the SYBR Green method performs better than the TaqMan one. • With suitable primer sets, both methods should still detect the new variants well. • ORF1ab and 2019_nCoV_N3 were the best combination for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benzothiazoles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diamines , Humans , Quinolines , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Sustainability ; 14(3):1549, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1667300

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, new innovative products and services have been introduced into the marketplace using advanced technology. The enticement of new products lures consumers to buy compulsively. Because of the convenience and the characteristics of online shopping, it will increase the incidence of compulsive-buying behavior. Meanwhile, due to the fact that the COVID-19 pandemic is continuing to spread around the world, consumers may change their decision-making and behavior to shop online more frequently and intensively. The repetitive shopping online means more cardboard, delivery transportations, and vehicles and that more goods will be produced. It will result in an unfriendly result for the environment. Given the critical role of compulsive buying in the emerging Internet retail environment, it is necessary to develop and validate an instrument to measure the Internet compulsive-buying tendency (ICBT). Therefore, a rigorous measurement-scale-development procedure was applied to evaluate the initial 31 items. After two rounds of data collection and assessment, the final instrument contained 18 items that fall into four subconstructs: the tendency to spend online, feelings about online shopping and spending, dysfunctional online spending, and online post-purchase guilt. These factors can provide a basis for predicting tendencies toward Internet compulsive shopping and can be used to evaluate consumers’abnormal behavior in online-shopping circumstances.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(7): 4123-4133, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392749

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading throughout the world. Aerosol is a potential transmission route. We conducted the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to evaluate the aerosol transmission risk by using the South China Seafood Market as an example. The key processes were integrated, including viral shedding, dispersion, deposition in air, biologic decay, lung deposition, and the infection risk based on the dose-response model. The available hospital bed for COVID-19 treatment per capita (1.17 × 10-3) in Wuhan was adopted as a reference for manageable risk. The median risk of a customer to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection via the aerosol route after 1 h of exposure in the market with one infected shopkeeper was about 2.23 × 10-5 (95% confidence interval: 1.90 × 10-6 to 2.34 × 10-4). The upper bound could increase and become close to the manageable risk with multiple infected shopkeepers. More detailed risk assessment should be conducted in poorly ventilated markets with multiple infected cases. The uncertainties were mainly due to the limited information on the dose-response relation and the viral shedding which need further studies. The risk rapidly decreased outside the market due to the dilution by ambient air and became below 10-6 at 5 m away from the exit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , COVID-19/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Seafood
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 273: 118567, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363900

ABSTRACT

Diffuse alveolar injury and pulmonary fibrosis (PF) are the main causes of death of Covid-19 cases. In this study a low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) with unique structural was obtained from Laminaria japonica, and its anti- PF and anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) bioactivity were investigated both in vivo and in vitro. After LWMF treatment the fibrosis and inflammatory factors stimulated by Bleomycin (BLM) were in lung tissue. Immunohistochemical and Western-blot results found the expression of COL2A1, ß-catenin, TGF-ß, TNF-α and IL-6 were declined in mice lung tissue. Besides, the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt were inhibited by LMWF. In addition, the progression of EMT induced by TGF-ß1 was inhibited by LMWF through down-regulated both TGF-ß/Smad and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These data indicate that unique LMWF can protect the lung from fibrosis by weakening the process of inflammation and EMT, and it is a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Polysaccharides/administration & dosage , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , A549 Cells , Animals , Bleomycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/virology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytokines/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Weight , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/mortality , Signal Transduction/drug effects
11.
Glob Chall ; 5(9): 2100015, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296755

ABSTRACT

In the current COVID-19 pandemic, wearing masks and hand disinfection are widely adopted hygiene practices. Alcohol-based sanitizers are commonly used for hand disinfection, however, the alcohol vapors can dissipate the charges on electrostatic filters. In the present study, the effects of alcohol vapors from alcohol-based sanitizers during hand disinfection on the in-use masks are studied. The results show that the negative effects are not significant for nonelectrostatic cotton masks or N95 respirators with multiple charged layers, but noticeable for surgical masks. After five rounds of hand disinfection, the filtration efficiencies of the filtering materials of the surgical masks decrease by more than 8% for 400 and 500 nm particles and by 3.7 ± 1.8% for 1 µm particles, the effective filtration efficiency of the surgical masks worn by the volunteers (with leakage considered) decreases by about 5% for ambient aerosol. In another process to imitate intensive disinfection procedures by healthcare workers, a 30 min surface cleaning process using alcohol-based sanitizer is performed, and the effective efficiency of the N95 respirators worn by the volunteers decreases by nearly 9%. The simple practice of avoiding vapor during hand disinfection could mitigate the effects of alcohol vapor, which is demonstrated on two brands of surgical masks.

12.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 129288, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1126763

ABSTRACT

Recently, inspired by natural biological motor behavior, various actuators emerge at the historic moment. Actuator is a kind of device that converts input energy into mechanical motion, and the input energy can be triggered by various stimuli such as heat, light, and electric fields. However, present actuators usually are driven by a single stimulus, often showing poor performance with high power consumption. Here, a MXene and Low-Density Polyethylene based actuator with multiresponsive functions was fabricated via a facile drop-casting method. The electrically driven actuator shows a large offset distance (20 mm), with a low driving voltage of 1.5 V. The heat driven actuator can sense temperature gradient and capture object in the same way that flytraps do. Especially, finite element analysis was used to successfully verify the working mechanism. The light driven actuator is able to perform like a walking robot with a speed up to 16.52 mm min-1. It can perform as a light-controlled (or heat-controlled) switch and be integrated into a circuit being applied to some extreme occasions that require non-contact switches, for example, the current need for non-contact scenarios with COVID-19. This work also provides a new paradigm for expanding MXene applications.

13.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-3865

ABSTRACT

the prevention and treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia epidemic is reviewed from perspective of Chinese traditional medicine. Also an outlook for future development for prevention of epidemic using Chinese medicine is provided.

14.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20236802

ABSTRACT

ObjectivePatients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid COVID-19, but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterised 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalisation with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. DesignMultinational network cohort study SettingElectronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) (NYC, United States [US]), Optum [US], Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (US), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalisation Linked Data (SIDIAP-H) (Spain), and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (US) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (HIRA) (South Korea). ParticipantsAll patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalised between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalised with influenza in 2017-2018 were included. Main outcome measures30-day complications during hospitalisation and death ResultsWe studied 133,589 patients diagnosed and 48,418 hospitalised with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. The majority of participants were female (60.5% to 65.9%) and aged [≥]50 years. The most prevalent autoimmune conditions were psoriasis (3.5 to 32.5%), rheumatoid arthritis (3.9 to 18.9%), and vasculitis (3.3 to 17.6%). Amongst hospitalised patients, Type 1 diabetes was the most common autoimmune condition (4.8% to 7.5%) in US databases, rheumatoid arthritis in HIRA (18.9%), and psoriasis in SIDIAP-H (26.4%). Compared to 70,660 hospitalised with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2% to 4.3% versus 6.3% to 24.6%). ConclusionsPatients with autoimmune diseases had high rates of respiratory complications and 30-day mortality following a hospitalization with COVID-19. Compared to influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality. Future studies should investigate predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with autoimmune diseases. What is already known about this topicO_LIPatients with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19 infection andcomplications. C_LIO_LIThere is a paucity of evidence characterising the outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients with prevalent autoimmune conditions. C_LI What this study addsO_LIMost people with autoimmune diseases who required hospitalisation for COVID-19 were women, aged 50 years or older, and had substantial previous comorbidities. C_LIO_LIPatients who were hospitalised with COVID-19 and had prevalent autoimmune diseases had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes as compared to those with prevalent autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with COVID-19. C_LIO_LIA variable proportion of 6% to 25% across data sources died within one month of hospitalisation with COVID-19 and prevalent autoimmune diseases. C_LIO_LIFor people with autoimmune diseases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was associated with worse outcomes and 30-day mortality compared to admission with influenza in the 2017-2018 season. C_LI

15.
Future Virology ; 15(6):341-347, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-902297

ABSTRACT

Aim: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread throughout the world. There is urgent need to understand the phylogeny, divergence and origin of SARS-CoV-2. Materials & methods: A recent study claimed that there was 17% divergence between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 (a SARS-related coronaviruses) on synonymous sites by using sequence alignment. We re-analyzed the sequences of the two coronaviruses with the same methodology. Results: We found that 87% of the synonymous substitutions between the two coronaviruses could be potentially explained by the RNA modification system in hosts, with 65% contributed by deamination on cytidines (C-T mismatches) and 22% contributed by deamination on adenosines (A-G mismatches). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the divergence between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 has been overestimated.

16.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 13161-13171, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798108

ABSTRACT

The regeneration of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) is of critical importance because of the severe shortage of FFRs during large-scale outbreaks of respiratory epidemics, such as COVID-19. Comprehensive experiments regarding FFR regeneration were performed in this study with model bacteria to illustrate the decontamination performance of the regeneration processes. The results showed that it is dangerous to use a contaminated FFR without any microbe inactivation treatment because the bacteria can live for more than 8 h. The filtration efficiency and surface electrostatic potential of 75% ethanol-treated FFRs were significantly reduced, and a most penetrating particle size of 200 nm was observed. Steam and microwave irradiation (MWI) showed promising decontamination performances, achieving 100% inactivation in 90 and 30 min, respectively. The filtration efficiencies of steam-treated FFRs for 50 and 100 nm particles decreased from 98.86% and 99.51% to 97.58% and 98.79%, respectively. Ultraviolet irradiation (UVI) effectively inactivated the surface bacteria with a short treatment of 5 min and did not affect the filtration performance. However, the UV dose reaching different layers of the FFP2 mask sample gradually decreased from the outermost layer to the innermost layer, while the model bacteria on the second and third layers could not be killed completely. UVI+MWI and steam were recommended to effectively decontaminate the used respirators and still maintain the respirators' filtration efficiency. The present work provides a comprehensive evaluation for FFR regeneration in terms of the filtration efficiencies for 50-500 nm particles, the electrostatic properties, mechanical properties, and decontamination effects.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , Masks/microbiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Disinfection/standards , Ethanol/toxicity , Filtration , Humans , Masks/standards , Microwaves , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , Steam , Textiles/microbiology , Textiles/standards , Ultraviolet Rays
17.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(8): e417-e424, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676913

ABSTRACT

Background: Restricting human mobility is an effective strategy used to control disease spread. However, whether mobility restriction is a proportional response to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is unclear. We aimed to develop a model that can quantify the potential effects of various intracity mobility restrictions on the spread of COVID-19. Methods: In this modelling study, we used anonymous and aggregated mobile phone sightings data to build a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered transmission model for COVID-19 based on the city of Shenzhen, China. We simulated how disease spread changed when we varied the type and magnitude of mobility restrictions in different transmission scenarios, with variables such as the basic reproductive number (R 0), length of infectious period, and the number of initial cases. Findings: 331 COVID-19 cases distributed across the ten regions of Shenzhen were reported on Feb 7, 2020. In our basic scenario (R 0 of 2·68), mobility reduction of 20-60% within the city had a notable effect on controlling COVID-19 spread: a flattening of the peak number of cases by 33% (95% UI 21-42) and delay to the peak number by 2 weeks with a 20% restriction, 66% (48-75) reduction and 4 week delay with a 40% restriction, and 91% (79-95) reduction and 14 week delay with a 60% restriction. The effects of mobility restriction were increased when combined with reductions of 25% or 50% in transmissibility of the virus. In specific analyses of mobility restrictions for individuals with symptomatic infections and for high-risk regions, these measures also had substantial effects on reducing the spread of COVID-19. For example, the peak of the epidemic was delayed by 2 weeks if the proportion of individuals with symptomatic infections who could move freely was maintained at 20%, and by 4 weeks if two high-risk regions were locked down. The simulation results were also affected by various transmission parameters. Interpretation: Our model shows the effects of various types and magnitudes of mobility restrictions on controlling COVID-19 outbreaks at the city level in Shenzhen, China. The model could help policy makers to establish the optimal combinations of mobility restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially to assess the potential positive effects of mobility restriction on public health in view of the potential negative economic and societal effects. Funding: Guangdong Medical Science Fund, and National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Models, Theoretical , Population Surveillance/methods , Cell Phone , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma ; (12): E004-E004, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific), WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: covidwho-2086

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To suggest strategies for emergency diagnosis and treatment of trauma orthopedics in the epidemic period of Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19).@*Methods@#In the epidemic of COVID-19 from January 21 to February 15, 2020, 128 patients with orthopaedic trauma sought emergency treatment at Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Wuhan University. They were 71 males and 57 females with an average age of 48.7 years (from 5 to 88 years).Of them, 107 cases were treated at the outpatient department and 21 hospitalized. Emergency operations were carried out for 4 cases and selective operationsfor 17 cases. COVID-19 infections were recorded in the patients and medical staff as well. Measures taken and experiences learned were summarized since the epidemicoutbreak of COVID-19.@*Results@#Of the 107 cases treated at the outpatient department, 3 had a definite diagnosis of COVID-19 and 3 a suspected diagnosis of COVID-19. Of the 4 cases undergoing emergency surgery, one was suspected of having COVID-19. Of the 17 cases undergoing selective surgery, one was diagnosed definitely as COVID-19and 2 were suspected of COVID-19. Two nurses were diagnosed definitely as having mildCOVID-19.One doctor and one nurse were suspected of COVID-19. Since the COVID-19 infections in medical staff occurred all before the preventive and control measures for COVID-19 had been implemented,is was not ruled out that their infections might have come from communities.@*Conclusions@#It is particularly important for medical institutions of all levels to maintain safe and effective routine services while doing well in COVID-19 prevention. In the epidemic of COVID-19, front-line medical staff in emergency traumatic orthopedics is faced with great challenges in the process of diagnosing and treating patients. High-quality and safe medical services can be provided as long as nosocomial COVID-19infection is effectively controlled by rigid screening of patientsnewly admitted, classified management of inpatients, optimal management of inpatient wards, standard preventive measures in perioperative period, a perfect system for medical protection, and medical education for patients and their carers.

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