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PLoS One ; 17(11): e0266336, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140381


Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a severe inflammatory disease in children related to SARS-CoV-2 with multisystem involvement including marked cardiac dysfunction and clinical symptoms that can resemble Kawasaki Disease (KD). We hypothesized that MIS-C and KD might have commonalities as well as unique inflammatory responses and studied these responses in both diseases. In total, fourteen children with MIS-C (n=8) and KD (n=6) were included in the period of March-June 2020. Clinical and routine blood parameters, cardiac follow-up, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and CD4+ T-cell responses, and cytokine-profiles were determined in both groups. In contrast to KD patients, all MIS-C patients had positive Spike protein-specific CD3+CD4+ T-cell responses. MIS-C and KD patients displayed marked hyper-inflammation with high expression of serum cytokines, including the drug-targetable interleukin (IL)-6 and IFN-γ associated chemokines CXCL9, 10 and 11, which decreased at follow-up. No statistical differences were observed between groups. Clinical outcomes were all favourable without cardiac sequelae at 6 months follow-up. In conclusion, MIS-C and KD-patients both displayed cytokine-associated hyper-inflammation with several high levels of drug-targetable cytokines.

COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2