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1.
Radiology ; 304(1): 185-192, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741709

ABSTRACT

Background The long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pulmonary structure and function remain incompletely characterized. Purpose To test whether SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to small airways disease in patients with persistent symptoms. Materials and Methods In this single-center study at a university teaching hospital, adults with confirmed COVID-19 who remained symptomatic more than 30 days following diagnosis were prospectively enrolled from June to December 2020 and compared with healthy participants (controls) prospectively enrolled from March to August 2018. Participants with post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) were classified as ambulatory, hospitalized, or having required the intensive care unit (ICU) based on the highest level of care received during acute infection. Symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and chest CT images were collected. Quantitative CT analysis was performed using supervised machine learning to measure regional ground-glass opacity (GGO) and using inspiratory and expiratory image-matching to measure regional air trapping. Univariable analyses and multivariable linear regression were used to compare groups. Results Overall, 100 participants with PASC (median age, 48 years; 66 women) were evaluated and compared with 106 matched healthy controls; 67% (67 of 100) of the participants with PASC were classified as ambulatory, 17% (17 of 100) were hospitalized, and 16% (16 of 100) required the ICU. In the hospitalized and ICU groups, the mean percentage of total lung classified as GGO was 13.2% and 28.7%, respectively, and was higher than that in the ambulatory group (3.7%, P < .001 for both comparisons). The mean percentage of total lung affected by air trapping was 25.4%, 34.6%, and 27.3% in the ambulatory, hospitalized, and ICU groups, respectively, and 7.2% in healthy controls (P < .001). Air trapping correlated with the residual volume-to-total lung capacity ratio (ρ = 0.6, P < .001). Conclusion In survivors of COVID-19, small airways disease occurred independently of initial infection severity. The long-term consequences are unknown. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Elicker in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
2.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 214-218, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638018

ABSTRACT

Air pollution particulate matter (PM) is associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity, although mechanistic studies are lacking. We tested whether airway surface liquid (ASL) from primary human airway epithelial cells is antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 and human alphacoronavirus 229E (CoV-229E) (responsible for common colds), and whether PM (urban, indoor air pollution [IAP], volcanic ash) affected ASL antiviral activity. ASL inactivated SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E. Independently, urban PM also decreased SARS-CoV-2 and CoV-229E infection, and IAP PM decreased CoV-229E infection. However, in combination, urban PM impaired ASL's antiviral activity against both viruses, and the same effect occurred for IAP PM and ash against SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that PM may enhance SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Immunity, Innate , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Urban Population , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Health
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