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Practical Diabetes ; 40(3):21-25a, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245168


Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are increasingly initiated as treatment for type 2 diabetes due to favourable cardiorenal characteristics. However, studies have identified an increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We carried out a retrospective, case-based study at East and North Herts NHS Trust between February 2018 and December 2020. Fifteen cases of SGLT2i associated DKA were identified in people with presumed type 2 diabetes;33.3% were classed as euglycaemic DKA with a blood glucose of <11mmol/L. All cases were associated with a significant precipitating factor including diarrhoea, vomiting, reduced oral intake and sepsis. One case was related to COVID-19. Two people were subsequently found to have raised islet autoantibodies suggesting type 1 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. It is important that awareness of SGLT2i associated DKA is raised among users and health care practitioners, including the recognition of euglycaemic DKA. Sick day rules should be emphasised and reiterated at clinical encounters. Non-specialists in primary care, oncology and in perioperative settings should be empowered to advocate for temporary withdrawal and there should be readier access to blood ketone monitoring when required. When SGLT2i associated DKA occurs, due consideration should be given to evaluate the diabetes classification and investigate the circumstances of the event. Copyright © 2023 John Wiley & Sons.Copyright © 2023 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.