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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 293-303, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Associations between pre-infection prescription for glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes have been postulated but only investigated in small studies and limited to a few agents. We investigated whether there are associations between prescription of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs and risk of COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a nationwide observational cohort study done with data from the National Diabetes Audit for people with type 2 diabetes and registered with a general practice in England since 2003. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of COVID-19-related mortality in people prescribed each class of glucose-lowering drug, with covariate adjustment with a propensity score to address confounding by demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors. FINDINGS: Among the 2 851 465 people with type 2 diabetes included in our analyses, 13 479 (0·5%) COVID-19-related deaths occurred during the study period (Feb 16 to Aug 31, 2020), corresponding to a rate of 8·9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 8·7-9·0). The adjusted HR associated with recorded versus no recorded prescription was 0·77 (95% CI 0·73-0·81) for metformin and 1·42 (1·35-1·49) for insulin. Adjusted HRs for prescription of other individual classes of glucose-lowering treatment were as follows: 0·75 (0·48-1·17) for meglitinides, 0·82 (0·74-0·91) for SGLT2 inhibitors, 0·94 (0·82-1·07) for thiazolidinediones, 0·94 (0·89-0·99) for sulfonylureas, 0·94 (0·83-1·07) for GLP-1 receptor agonists, 1·07 (1·01-1·13) for DPP-4 inhibitors, and 1·26 (0·76-2·09) for α-glucosidase inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence of associations between prescription of some glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality, although the differences in risk are small and these findings are likely to be due to confounding by indication, in view of the use of different drug classes at different stages of type 2 diabetes disease progression. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no clear indication to change prescribing of glucose-lowering drugs in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
2.
Nat Med ; 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483142

ABSTRACT

Emerging reports of rare neurological complications associated with COVID-19 infection and vaccinations are leading to regulatory, clinical and public health concerns. We undertook a self-controlled case series study to investigate hospital admissions from neurological complications in the 28 days after a first dose of ChAdOx1nCoV-19 (n = 20,417,752) or BNT162b2 (n = 12,134,782), and after a SARS-CoV-2-positive test (n = 2,005,280). There was an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 2.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.15-3.92 at 15-21 days after vaccination) and Bell's palsy (IRR, 1.29; 95% CI: 1.08-1.56 at 15-21 days) with ChAdOx1nCoV-19. There was an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (IRR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.12-1.71 at 15-21 days) with BNT162b2. An independent Scottish cohort provided further support for the association between ChAdOx1nCoV and Guillain-Barré syndrome (IRR, 2.32; 95% CI: 1.08-5.02 at 1-28 days). There was a substantially higher risk of all neurological outcomes in the 28 days after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test including Guillain-Barré syndrome (IRR, 5.25; 95% CI: 3.00-9.18). Overall, we estimated 38 excess cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome per 10 million people receiving ChAdOx1nCoV-19 and 145 excess cases per 10 million people after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In summary, although we find an increased risk of neurological complications in those who received COVID-19 vaccines, the risk of these complications is greater following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 908, 2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-existing comorbidities have been linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection but evidence is sparse on the importance and pattern of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) and severity of infection indicated by hospitalisation or mortality. We aimed to use a multimorbidity index developed specifically for COVID-19 to investigate the association between multimorbidity and risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We used data from the UK Biobank linked to laboratory confirmed test results for SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality data from Public Health England between March 16 and July 26, 2020. By reviewing the current literature on COVID-19 we derived a multimorbidity index including: (1) angina; (2) asthma; (3) atrial fibrillation; (4) cancer; (5) chronic kidney disease; (6) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; (7) diabetes mellitus; (8) heart failure; (9) hypertension; (10) myocardial infarction; (11) peripheral vascular disease; (12) stroke. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between multimorbidity and risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (hospitalisation/death). Potential effect modifiers of the association were assessed: age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, smoking status, body mass index, air pollution, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, cardiorespiratory fitness, high sensitivity C-reactive protein. RESULTS: Among 360,283 participants, the median age was 68 [range 48-85] years, most were White (94.5%), and 1706 had severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The prevalence of multimorbidity was more than double in those with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (25%) compared to those without (11%), and clusters of several multimorbidities were more common in those with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most common clusters with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection were stroke with hypertension (79% of those with stroke had hypertension); diabetes and hypertension (72%); and chronic kidney disease and hypertension (68%). Multimorbidity was independently associated with a greater risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.91 [95% confidence interval 1.70, 2.15] compared to no multimorbidity). The risk remained consistent across potential effect modifiers, except for greater risk among older age. The highest risk of severe infection was strongly evidenced in those with CKD and diabetes (4.93 [95% CI 3.36, 7.22]). CONCLUSION: The multimorbidity index may help identify individuals at higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes and provide guidance for tailoring effective treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Multimorbidity , Risk Factors
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 717, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although age, obesity and pre-existing chronic diseases are established risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes, their interactions have not been well researched. METHODS: We used data from the Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK (CCP-UK) for Severe Emerging Infection developed by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC). Patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 from 6th February to 12th October 2020 were included where there was a coded outcome following hospital admission. Obesity was determined by an assessment from a clinician and chronic disease by medical records. Chronic diseases included: chronic cardiac disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes and cancer. Mutually exclusive categories of obesity, with or without chronic disease, were created. Associations with in-hospital mortality were examined across sex and age categories. RESULTS: The analysis included 27,624 women with 6407 (23.2%) in-hospital deaths and 35,065 men with 10,001 (28.5%) in-hospital deaths. The prevalence of chronic disease in women and men was 66.3 and 68.5%, respectively, while that of obesity was 12.9 and 11.1%, respectively. Association of obesity and chronic disease status varied by age (p < 0.001). Under 50 years of age, obesity and chronic disease were associated with in-hospital mortality within 28 days of admission in a dose-response manner, such that patients with both obesity and chronic disease had the highest risk with a hazard ratio (HR) of in-hospital mortality of 2.99 (95% CI: 2.12, 4.21) in men and 2.16 (1.42, 3.26) in women compared to patients without obesity or chronic disease. Between the ages of 50-69 years, obesity and chronic disease remained associated with in-hospital COVID-19 mortality, but survival in those with obesity was similar to those with and without prevalent chronic disease. Beyond the age of 70 years in men and 80 years in women there was no meaningful difference between those with and without obesity and/or chronic disease. CONCLUSION: Obesity and chronic disease are important risk factors for in-hospital mortality in younger age groups, with the combination of chronic disease and obesity being particularly important in those under 50 years of age. These findings have implications for targeted public health interventions, vaccination strategies and in-hospital clinical decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Chronic Disease , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
BMJ ; 374: n1931, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between covid-19 vaccines and risk of thrombocytopenia and thromboembolic events in England among adults. DESIGN: Self-controlled case series study using national data on covid-19 vaccination and hospital admissions. SETTING: Patient level data were obtained for approximately 30 million people vaccinated in England between 1 December 2020 and 24 April 2021. Electronic health records were linked with death data from the Office for National Statistics, SARS-CoV-2 positive test data, and hospital admission data from the United Kingdom's health service (NHS). PARTICIPANTS: 29 121 633 people were vaccinated with first doses (19 608 008 with Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) and 9 513 625 with Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2 mRNA)) and 1 758 095 people had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. People aged ≥16 years who had first doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 mRNA vaccines and any outcome of interest were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were hospital admission or death associated with thrombocytopenia, venous thromboembolism, and arterial thromboembolism within 28 days of three exposures: first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine; first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine; and a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. Secondary outcomes were subsets of the primary outcomes: cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and other rare arterial thrombotic events. RESULTS: The study found increased risk of thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (incidence rate ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.47 at 8-14 days) and after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (5.27, 4.34 to 6.40 at 8-14 days); increased risk of venous thromboembolism after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (1.10, 1.02 to 1.18 at 8-14 days) and after SARS-CoV-2 infection (13.86, 12.76 to 15.05 at 8-14 days); and increased risk of arterial thromboembolism after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination (1.06, 1.01 to 1.10 at 15-21 days) and after SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.02, 1.82 to 2.24 at 15-21 days). Secondary analyses found increased risk of CVST after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (4.01, 2.08 to 7.71 at 8-14 days), after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination (3.58, 1.39 to 9.27 at 15-21 days), and after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test; increased risk of ischaemic stroke after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination (1.12, 1.04 to 1.20 at 15-21 days) and after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test; and increased risk of other rare arterial thrombotic events after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (1.21, 1.02 to 1.43 at 8-14 days) and after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. CONCLUSION: Increased risks of haematological and vascular events that led to hospital admission or death were observed for short time intervals after first doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 mRNA vaccines. The risks of most of these events were substantially higher and more prolonged after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after vaccination in the same population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 5(6): 997-1007, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364354

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantify the association between accelerometer-assessed physical activity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Methods: Data from 82,253 UK Biobank participants with accelerometer data (measured 2013-2015), complete covariate data, and linked COVID-19 data from March 16, 2020, to March 16, 2021, were included. Two outcomes were investigated: severe COVID-19 (positive test result from in-hospital setting or COVID-19 as primary cause of death) and nonsevere COVID-19 (positive test result from community setting). Logistic regressions were used to assess associations with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), total activity, and intensity gradient. A higher intensity gradient indicates a higher proportion of vigorous activity. Results: Average MVPA was 48.1 (32.7) min/d. Physical activity was associated with lower odds of severe COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio per standard deviation increase: MVPA, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.85]; total, 0.83 [0.74 to 0.92]; intensity, 0.77 [0.70 to 0.86]), with stronger associations in women (MVPA, 0.63 [0.52 to 0.77]; total, 0.76 [0.64 to 0.90]; intensity, 0.63 [0.53 to 0.74]) than in men (MVPA, 0.84 [0.73 to 0.97]; total, 0.88 [0.77 to 1.01]; intensity, 0.88 [0.77 to 1.00]). In contrast, when mutually adjusted, total activity was associated with higher odds of a nonsevere infection (1.10 [1.04 to 1.16]), whereas the intensity gradient was associated with lower odds (0.91 [0.86 to 0.97]). Conclusion: Odds of severe COVID-19 were approximately 25% lower per standard deviation (∼30 min/d) MVPA. A greater proportion of vigorous activity was associated with lower odds of severe and nonsevere infections. The association between total activity and higher odds of a nonsevere infection may be through greater community engagement and thus more exposure to the virus. Results support calls for public health messaging highlighting the potential of MVPA for reducing the odds of severe COVID-19.

7.
JCSM Rapid Commun ; 2021 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293324

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The role of skeletal muscle mass in modulating immune response is well documented. Whilst obesity is well established as a key factor in COVID-19 and outcome, no study has examined the influence of both sarcopenia (low muscle mass) and obesity, termed 'sarcopenic obesity' on the risk of severe COVID-19. Methods: This study uses data from UK Biobank. Probable sarcopenia was defined as low handgrip strength. Sarcopenic obesity was mutually exclusively defined as the presence of obesity and low muscle mass [based on two established criteria: appendicular lean mass (ALM) adjusted for either (i) height or (ii) body mass index]. Severe COVID-19 was defined by a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 test result in a hospital setting and/or death with a primary cause reported as COVID-19. Fully adjusted logistic regression models were used to analyse the associations between sarcopenic status and severe COVID-19. This work was conducted under UK Biobank Application Number 52553. Results: We analysed data from 490 301 UK Biobank participants (median age 70.0 years, 46% male); 2203 (0.4%) had severe COVID-19. Individuals with probable sarcopenia were 64% more likely to have had severe COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.638; P < 0.001). Obesity increased the likelihood of severe COVID-19 by 76% (P < 0.001). Using either ALM index or ALM/body mass index to define low muscle mass, those with sarcopenic obesity were 2.6 times more likely to have severe COVID-19 (odds ratio 2.619; P < 0.001). Sarcopenia alone did not increase the risk of COVID-19. Conclusions: Sarcopenic obesity may increase the risk of severe COVID-19, over that of obesity alone. The mechanisms for this are complex but could be a result of a reduction in respiratory functioning, immune response, and ability to respond to metabolic stress.

8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(9): 928-938, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274655

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although children mainly experience mild COVID-19 disease, hospitalization rates are increasing, with limited understanding of underlying factors. There is an established association between race and severe COVID-19 outcomes in adults in England; however, whether a similar association exists in children is unclear. Objective: To investigate the association between race and childhood COVID-19 testing and hospital outcomes. Design, Setting, Participants: In this cohort study, children (0-18 years of age) from participating family practices in England were identified in the QResearch database between January 24 and November 30, 2020. The QResearch database has individually linked patients with national SARS-CoV-2 testing, hospital admission, and mortality data. Exposures: The main characteristic of interest is self-reported race. Other exposures were age, sex, deprivation level, geographic region, household size, and comorbidities (asthma; diabetes; and cardiac, neurologic, and hematologic conditions). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was hospital admission with confirmed COVID-19. Secondary outcomes were SARS-CoV-2-positive test result and any hospital attendance with confirmed COVID-19 and intensive care admission. Results: Of 2 576 353 children (mean [SD] age, 9.23 [5.24] years; 48.8% female), 410 726 (15.9%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 26 322 (6.4%) tested positive. A total of 1853 children (0.07%) with confirmed COVID-19 attended hospital, 343 (0.01%) were admitted to the hospital, and 73 (0.002%) required intensive care. Testing varied across race. White children had the highest proportion of SARS-CoV-2 tests (223 701/1 311 041 [17.1%]), whereas Asian children (33 213/243 545 [13.6%]), Black children (7727/93 620 [8.3%]), and children of mixed or other races (18 971/147 529 [12.9%]) had lower proportions. Compared with White children, Asian children were more likely to have COVID-19 hospital admissions (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12-2.36), whereas Black children (adjusted OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.90-2.31) and children of mixed or other races (adjusted OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.93-2.10) had comparable hospital admissions. Asian children were more likely to be admitted to intensive care (adjusted OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.07-4.14), and Black children (adjusted OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.08-4.94) and children of mixed or other races (adjusted OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.25-3.65) had longer hospital admissions (≥36 hours). Conclusions and Relevance: In this large population-based study exploring the association between race and childhood COVID-19 testing and hospital outcomes, several race-specific disparities were observed in severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, ascertainment bias and residual confounding in this cohort study should be considered before drawing any further conclusions. Overall, findings of this study have important public health implications internationally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045286, 2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172759

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that ethnic minority groups are disproportionately at increased risk of hospitalisation and death from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Population-based evidence on potential explanatory factors across minority groups and within subgroups is lacking. This study aims to quantify the association between ethnicity and the risk of hospitalisation and mortality due to COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a retrospective cohort study of adults registered across a representative and anonymised national primary care database (QResearch) that includes data on 10 million people in England. Sociodemographic, deprivation, clinical and domicile characteristics will be summarised and compared across ethnic subgroups (categorised as per 2011 census). Cox models will be used to calculate HR for hospitalisation and COVID-19 mortality associated with ethnic group. Potential confounding and explanatory factors (such as demographic, socioeconomic and clinical) will be adjusted for within regression models. The percentage contribution of distinct risk factor classes to the excess risks seen in ethnic groups/subgroups will be calculated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has undergone ethics review in accordance with the QResearch agreement (reference OX102). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed manuscripts, presentations at scientific meetings and conferences with national and international stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Ethnic Groups , Adult , England/epidemiology , Humans , Minority Groups , Retrospective Studies
10.
11.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(7): 1223-1230, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of obesity with in-hospital coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in different ethnic groups. METHODS: Patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 in the United Kingdom through the Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK (CCP-UK) developed by the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) were included from February 6 to October 12, 2020. Ethnicity was classified as White, South Asian, Black, and other minority ethnic groups. Outcomes were admission to critical care, mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality, adjusted for age, sex, and chronic diseases. RESULTS: Of the participants included, 54,254 (age = 76 years; 45.0% women) were White, 3,728 (57 years; 41.1% women) were South Asian, 2,523 (58 years; 44.9% women) were Black, and 5,427 (61 years; 40.8% women) were other ethnicities. Obesity was associated with all outcomes in all ethnic groups, with associations strongest for black ethnicities. When stratified by ethnicity and obesity status, the odds ratios for admission to critical care, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in black ethnicities with obesity were 3.91 (3.13-4.88), 5.03 (3.94-6.63), and 1.93 (1.49-2.51), respectively, compared with White ethnicities without obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was associated with an elevated risk of in-hospital COVID-19 outcomes in all ethnic groups, with associations strongest in Black ethnicities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/ethnology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , United Kingdom , Young Adult
12.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(3): 630-634, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People from South Asian and black minority ethnic groups are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unknown whether deprivation mediates this excess ethnic risk. METHODS: We used UK Biobank with linked COVID-19 outcomes occurring between 16th March 2020 and 24th August 2020. A four-way decomposition mediation analysis was used to model the extent to which the excess risk of testing positive, severe disease and mortality for COVID-19 in South Asian and black individuals, relative to white individuals, would be eliminated if levels of high material deprivation were reduced within the population. RESULTS: We included 15 044 (53.0% women) South Asian and black and 392 786 (55.2% women) white individuals. There were 151 (1.0%) positive tests, 91 (0.6%) severe cases and 31 (0.2%) deaths due to COVID-19 in South Asian and black individuals compared with 1471 (0.4%), 895 (0.2%) and 313 (0.1%), respectively, in white individuals. Compared with white individuals, the relative risk of testing positive for COVID-19, developing severe disease and COVID-19 mortality in South Asian and black individuals were 2.73 (95% CI: 2.26, 3.19), 2.96 (2.31, 3.61) and 4.04 (2.54, 5.55), respectively. A hypothetical intervention moving the 25% most deprived in the population out of deprivation was modelled to eliminate between 40 and 50% of the excess risk of all COVID-19 outcomes in South Asian and black populations, whereas moving the 50% most deprived out of deprivation would eliminate over 80% of the excess risk of COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The excess risk of COVID-19 outcomes in South Asian and black communities could be substantially reduced with population level policies targeting material deprivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnic Groups , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(5): 1155-1159, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104458

ABSTRACT

Obesity is an emerging risk factor for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Simple measures of physical fitness, such as self-reported walking pace, may also be important risk markers. This analysis includes 412,596 UK Biobank participants with linked COVID-19 data (median age at linkage = 68 years, obese = 24%, median number of comorbidities = 1). As of August 24th 2020, there were 1001 cases of severe (in-hospital) disease and 336 COVID-19 deaths. Compared to normal weight individuals, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of severe COVID-19 in overweight and obese individuals was 1.26 (1.07, 1.48) and 1.49 (1.25, 1.79), respectively. For COVID-19 mortality, the ORs were 1.19 (0.88, 161) and 1.82 (1.33, 2.49), respectively. Compared to those with a brisk walking pace, the OR of severe COVID-19 for steady/average and slow walkers was 1.13 (0.98, 1.31) and 1.88 (1.53, 2.31), respectively. For COVID-19 mortality, the ORs were 1.44 (1.10, 1.90) and 1.83 (1.26, 2.65), respectively. Slow walkers had the highest risk regardless of obesity status. For example, compared to normal weight brisk walkers, the OR of severe disease and COVID-19 mortality in normal weight slow walkers was 2.42 (1.53, 3.84) and 3.75 (1.61, 8.70), respectively. Self-reported slow walkers appear to be a high-risk group for severe COVID-19 outcomes independent of obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity/epidemiology , Walking Speed/physiology , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 156-164, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065442

ABSTRACT

Behavioral lifestyle factors are associated with cardiometabolic disease and obesity, which are risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate whether physical activity, and the timing and balance of physical activity and sleep/rest, were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity. Data from 91,248 UK Biobank participants with accelerometer data and complete covariate and linked COVID-19 data to July 19, 2020, were included. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity-in relation to overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), balance between activity and sleep/rest, and variability in timing of sleep/rest-was assessed with adjusted logistic regression. Of 207 individuals with a positive test result, 124 were classified as having a severe infection. Overall physical activity and MVPA were not associated with severe COVID-19, whereas a poor balance between activity and sleep/rest was (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.81]). This finding was related to higher daytime activity being associated with lower risk (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93) but higher movement during sleep/rest being associated with higher risk (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.42) of severe infection. Greater variability in timing of sleep/rest was also associated with increased risk (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.35). Results for testing positive were broadly consistent. In conclusion, these results highlight the importance of not just physical activity, but also quality sleep/rest and regular sleep/rest patterns, on risk of COVID-19. Our findings indicate the risk of COVID-19 was consistently approximately 1.2-fold greater per approximately 40-minute increase in variability in timing of proxy measures of sleep, indicative of irregular sleeping patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Rest , Sleep , Accelerometry , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2020 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leicester was the first city in the UK to have 'local lockdown' measures imposed in response to high community rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. As part of this response, a directive was issued by NHS England to offer testing of asymptomatic healthcare workers (HCWs) at University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust (UHL) for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Between 20 July and 14 August 2020, we invited all HCWs at UHL to attend for SARS-CoV-2 testing by nucleic acid amplification (NAAT). We combined the result of this assay with demographic information from the electronic staff record. RESULTS: A total of 1150 staff (~8% of the workforce) volunteered. The median age was 46 years (IQR 34-55), 972 (84.5%) were female; 234 (20.4%) were of South Asian and 58 (5.0%) of Black ethnicity; 564 (49.0%) were nurses/healthcare assistants. We found no cases of asymptomatic infection. In comparison, average community test positivity rate in Leicester city was 2.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Within the context of local lockdowns due to high community transmission rates, voluntary testing of asymptomatic staff has low uptake and low yield and thus its premise and cost-effectiveness should be re-considered.

16.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926296

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests that demographic characteristics including minority ethnicity increase the risk of infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is unclear whether these characteristics, together with occupational factors, influence anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence in hospital staff. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional surveillance examining seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG amongst staff at University Hospitals of Leicester (UHL) NHS Trust. We quantified seroprevalence stratified by ethnicity, occupation and seniority of practitioner and used logistic regression to examine demographic and occupational factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: A total of 1148/10662 (10.8%) hospital staff members were seropositive. Compared to White staff (seroprevalence 9.1%), seroprevalence was higher in South Asian (12.3%) and Black (21.2%) staff. The occupations and department with the highest seroprevalence were nurses/healthcare assistants (13.7%) and the Emergency Department (ED)/Acute Medicine (17.5%), respectively. Seroprevalence decreased with seniority in medical/nursing practitioners. Minority ethnicity was associated with seropositivity on an adjusted analysis (South Asian: aOR 1.26; 95%CI: 1.07-1.49 and Black: 2.42; 1.90-3.09). Anaesthetics/ICU staff members were less likely to be seropositive than ED/Acute medicine staff (0.41; 0.27-0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Ethnicity and occupational factors, including specialty and seniority, are associated with seropositivity for anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG. These findings could be used to inform occupational risk assessments for front-line healthcare workers.

17.
Wellcome Open Research ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-833219

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus pandemic has precipitated a rapid unprecedented research response, including investigations into risk factors for COVID-19 infection, severity, or death. However, results from this research have produced heterogeneous findings, including articles published in Wellcome Open Research. Here, we use ethnicity, obesity, and smoking as illustrative examples to demonstrate how a research question can produce very different answers depending on how it is framed. For example, these factors can be both strongly associated or have a null association with death due to COVID-19, even when using the same dataset and statistical modelling. Highlighting the reasons underpinning this apparent paradox provides an important framework for reporting and interpreting ongoing COVID-19 research.

18.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-983

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a global pandemic and with current knowledge about the virus rapidly evolving, systematic reviews are needed to assess those most at ris

19.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; : e00176, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716216

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity accompanied by excess ectopic fat storage has been postulated as a risk factor for severe disease in people with SARS-CoV-2 through the stimulation of inflammation, functional immunologic deficit and a pro-thrombotic disseminated intravascular coagulation with associated high rates of venous thromboembolism. Methods: Observational studies in COVID-19 patients reporting data on raised body mass index at admission and associated clinical outcomes were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library up to 16 May 2020. Mean differences and relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effects models. Results: Eight retrospective cohort studies and one cohort prospective cohort study with data on of 4,920 patients with COVID-19 were eligible. Comparing BMI ≥ 25 vs <25 kg/m2, the RRs (95% CIs) of severe illness and mortality were 2.35 (1.43-3.86) and 3.52 (1.32-9.42), respectively. In a pooled analysis of three studies, the RR (95% CI) of severe illness comparing BMI > 35 vs <25 kg/m2 was 7.04 (2.72-18.20). High levels of statistical heterogeneity were partly explained by age; BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was associated with an increased risk of severe illness in older age groups (≥60 years), whereas the association was weaker in younger age groups (<60 years). Conclusions: Excess adiposity is a risk factor for severe disease and mortality in people with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This was particularly pronounced in people 60 and older. The increased risk of worse outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with excess adiposity should be taken into account when considering individual and population risks and when deciding on which groups to target for public health messaging on prevention and detection measures. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO 2020: CRD42020179783.

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