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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292685

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) causes respiratory failure and critical illness. Recently, these pathologies have been associated with necroptosis, a receptor‑interacting serine/threonine‑protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) dependent regulated form of inflammatory cell death. Investigations of indicator necroptosis proteins like RIPK3, mixed lineage kinase domain‑like pseudokinase (MLKL), receptor‑interacting serine/threonine‑protein kinases 1 (RIPK1), and high‑mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in clinical COVID‑19 manifestations are lacking.Methods:: A prospective prolonged cohort study including 46 intensive care unit (ICU) patients classified with moderate and severe COVID‑19 was conducted with daily measured plasma levels of indicator necroptosis proteins like RIPK3, MLKL, RIPK1, and HMGB1 by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On this basis, a multiple logistic (regression) classification for the prediction of severe COVID‑19 progression was performed.Results:: We found significantly elevated RIPK3, MLKL, HMGB1, and RIPK1 levels in COVID‑19 patients admitted to the ICU compared to healthy controls throughout the ongoing disease, indicating necroptotic processes. Above all, with combined measurements of RIPK3 and HMGB1 plasma levels, we were able to time‑independently predict COVID‑19 severity with 84% accuracy, 90% sensitivity, and 76% specificity.Conclusion: We suggest that HMGB1 and RIPK3 are potential biomarkers to identify high‑risk COVID‑19 patients and developed a classifier for COVID‑19 severity.

2.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(6): 709-716, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients admitted to ICUs are a heterogeneous group, displaying multiple anaemia risk factors and comorbidities. Clinicians should therefore take all possible measures to identify modifiable risks. Patient Blood Management (PBM) is an approach promoting the timely application of evidence-based interventions designed to maintain patients own blood mass. RECENT FINDINGS: Within ICU-patients, anaemia is highly prevalent. Generally, anaemia is associated with impaired outcome and need of blood transfusion. Currently, with ICUs working at full capacity and the global blood reserves exhausted, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic reinforces the need for PBM implementation. For instance, implementation of a comprehensive coagulation management and measures to avoid iatrogenic blood loss may prevent bleeding-associated complications and adherence to blood transfusion guidelines may reduce adverse events associated with transfusion. SUMMARY: Critically ill patients display various morbidities often requiring individualized treatment. PBM offers patient-centred measures to improve outcome any time during hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Anemia , COVID-19 , Anemia/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Critical Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Clin Invest ; 131(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDCOVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been considered a treatment option for COVID-19. This trial assessed the efficacy of a neutralizing antibody containing high-dose CCP in hospitalized adults with COVID-19 requiring respiratory support or intensive care treatment.METHODSPatients (n = 105) were randomized 1:1 to either receive standard treatment and 3 units of CCP or standard treatment alone. Control group patients with progress on day 14 could cross over to the CCP group. The primary outcome was a dichotomous composite outcome of survival and no longer fulfilling criteria for severe COVID-19 on day 21.ResultsThe primary outcome occurred in 43.4% of patients in the CCP group and 32.7% in the control group (P = 0.32). The median time to clinical improvement was 26 days in the CCP group and 66 days in the control group (P = 0.27). The median time to discharge from the hospital was 31 days in the CCP group and 51 days in the control group (P = 0.24). In the subgroup that received a higher cumulative amount of neutralizing antibodies, the primary outcome occurred in 56.0% of the patients (vs. 32.1%), with significantly shorter intervals to clinical improvement (20 vs. 66 days, P < 0.05) and to hospital discharge (21 vs. 51 days, P = 0.03) and better survival (day-60 probability of survival 91.6% vs. 68.1%, P = 0.02) in comparison with the control group.ConclusionCCP added to standard treatment was not associated with a significant improvement in the primary and secondary outcomes. A predefined subgroup analysis showed a significant benefit of CCP among patients who received a larger amount of neutralizing antibodies.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04433910.FundingBundesministerium für Gesundheit (German Federal Ministry of Health): ZMVI1-2520COR802.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Crit Care ; 66: 78-85, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469324

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the possible association between ventilatory settings on the first day of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this pre-planned sub-study of a prospective, multicentre observational study, 441 patients with SARI who received controlled IMV during the ICU stay were included in the analysis. RESULTS: ICU and hospital mortality rates were 23.1 and 28.1%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, tidal volume and respiratory rate on the first day of IMV were not associated with an increased risk of death; however, higher driving pressure (DP: odds ratio (OR) 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.1, p = 0.011), plateau pressure (Pplat) (OR 1.08; 95% CI: 1.04-1.13, p < 0.001) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (OR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.03-1.24, p = 0.006) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. In subgroup analysis, in hypoxemic patients and in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), higher DP, Pplat, and PEEP were associated with increased risk of in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with SARI receiving IMV, higher DP, Pplat and PEEP, and not tidal volume, were associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death, especially in those with hypoxemia or ARDS.


Subject(s)
Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Tidal Volume
6.
J Occup Med Toxicol ; 16(1): 43, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, interventions in the upper airways are considered high-risk procedures for otolaryngologists and their colleagues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate limitations in hearing and communication when using a powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) system to protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission and to assess the benefit of a headset. METHODS: Acoustic properties of the PAPR system were measured using a head and torso simulator. Audiological tests (tone audiometry, Freiburg speech test, Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA)) were performed in normal-hearing subjects (n = 10) to assess hearing with PAPR. The audiological test setup also included simulation of conditions in which the target speaker used either a PAPR, a filtering face piece (FFP) 3 respirator, or a surgical face mask. RESULTS: Audiological measurements revealed that sound insulation by the PAPR headtop and noise, generated by the blower-assisted respiratory protection system, resulted in significantly deteriorated hearing thresholds (4.0 ± 7.2 dB hearing level (HL) vs. 49.2 ± 11.0 dB HL, p < 0.001) and speech recognition scores in quiet (100.0 ± 0.0% vs. 2.5 ± 4.2%, p < 0.001; OLSA: 20.8 ± 1.8 dB vs. 61.0 ± 3.3 dB SPL, p < 0.001) when compared to hearing without PAPR. Hearing with PAPR was significantly improved when the subjects were equipped with an in-ear headset (p < 0.001). Sound attenuation by FFP3 respirators and surgical face masks had no clinically relevant impact on speech perception. CONCLUSIONS: The PAPR system evaluated here can be considered for high-risk procedures in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, provided that hearing and communication of the surgical team are optimized by the additional use of a headset.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438630

ABSTRACT

A high incidence of thromboembolic events associated with high mortality has been reported in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections with respiratory failure. The present study characterized post-transcriptional gene regulation by global microRNA (miRNA) expression in relation to activated coagulation and inflammation in 21 critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients. The cohort consisted of patients with moderate respiratory failure (n = 11) and severe respiratory failure (n = 10) at an acute stage (day 0-3) and in the later course of the disease (>7 days). All patients needed supplemental oxygen and severe patients were defined by the requirement of positive pressure ventilation (intubation). Levels of D-dimers, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly higher in patients with severe compared with moderate respiratory failure. Concurrently, next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis demonstrated increased dysregulation of miRNA expression with progression of disease severity connected to extreme downregulation of miR-320a, miR-320b and miR-320c. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed involvement in the Hippo signaling pathway, the transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signaling pathway and in the regulation of adherens junctions. The expression of all miR-320 family members was significantly correlated with CRP, IL-6, and D-dimer levels. In conclusion, our analysis underlines the importance of thromboembolic processes in patients with respiratory failure and emphasizes miRNA-320s as potential biomarkers for severe progressive SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Disease Progression , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/genetics , Male , MicroRNAs/blood , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 62(1): 11-20, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386441

ABSTRACT

Characterization of neonates born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been partially carried out. There has been no systematic review providing a holistic neonatal presentation including possible vertical transmission. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science up to June, 6 2020. Studies on neonates born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. A binary random effect model was used for prevalence and 95% confidence interval. 32 studies involving 261 neonates were included in meta-analysis. Most neonates born to infected mothers did not show any clinical abnormalities (80.4%). Clinical features were dyspnea in 11 (42.3%) and fever in 9 newborns (19.1%). Of 261 neonates, 120 neonates were tested for infection, of whom 12 (10.0%) tested positive. Swabs from placenta, cord blood and vaginal secretion were negative. Neonates are mostly non affected by the mother's SARS-CoV-2 infection. The risk of vertical transmission is low.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy
10.
Ophthalmologe ; 117(7): 602-608, 2020 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384398

ABSTRACT

Early ophthalmological care of patients in intensive care with SARS-CoV­2 (Severe-Acute-Respiratory-Syndrom-Corona-Virus-2) infections is very time-consuming; however, this approach might prevent other ophthalmological diseases, such as lagophthalmos. There is no difference in ophthalmological treatment between SARS-CoV­2 positive and other intensive care patients. Due to the small number of cases in our observational study, a specific ophthalmological clinical pattern related to SARS-CoV­2 infections cannot currently be identified; however, the increased occurrence of subconjunctival hemorrhage in intensive care SARS-CoV­2 patients is remarkable. It remains unclear how ocular symptoms in SARS-CoV­2 infections are related or how they occur in different stages of the disease. Therefore, further studies are necessary for representative statements.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Eye Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 295, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intensive Care Resources are heavily utilized during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, risk stratification and prediction of SARS-CoV-2 patient clinical outcomes upon ICU admission remain inadequate. This study aimed to develop a machine learning model, based on retrospective & prospective clinical data, to stratify patient risk and predict ICU survival and outcomes. METHODS: A Germany-wide electronic registry was established to pseudonymously collect admission, therapeutic and discharge information of SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients retrospectively and prospectively. Machine learning approaches were evaluated for the accuracy and interpretability of predictions. The Explainable Boosting Machine approach was selected as the most suitable method. Individual, non-linear shape functions for predictive parameters and parameter interactions are reported. RESULTS: 1039 patients were included in the Explainable Boosting Machine model, 596 patients retrospectively collected, and 443 patients prospectively collected. The model for prediction of general ICU outcome was shown to be more reliable to predict "survival". Age, inflammatory and thrombotic activity, and severity of ARDS at ICU admission were shown to be predictive of ICU survival. Patients' age, pulmonary dysfunction and transfer from an external institution were predictors for ECMO therapy. The interaction of patient age with D-dimer levels on admission and creatinine levels with SOFA score without GCS were predictors for renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Using Explainable Boosting Machine analysis, we confirmed and weighed previously reported and identified novel predictors for outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Using this strategy, predictive modeling of COVID-19 ICU patient outcomes can be performed overcoming the limitations of linear regression models. Trial registration "ClinicalTrials" (clinicaltrials.gov) under NCT04455451.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Machine Learning , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253778, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Therapy of severely affected coronavirus patient, requiring intubation and sedation is still challenging. Recently, difficulties in sedating these patients have been discussed. This study aims to describe sedation practices in patients with 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective monocentric analysis of sedation regimens in critically ill intubated patients with respiratory failure who required sedation in our mixed 32-bed university intensive care unit. All mechanically ventilated adults with COVID-19-induced ARDS requiring continuously infused sedative therapy admitted between April 4, 2020, and June 30, 2020 were included. We recorded demographic data, sedative dosages, prone positioning, sedation levels and duration. Descriptive data analysis was performed; for additional analysis, a logistic regression with mixed effect was used. RESULTS: In total, 56 patients (mean age 67 (±14) years) were included. The mean observed sedation period was 224 (±139) hours. To achieve the prescribed sedation level, we observed the need for two or three sedatives in 48.7% and 12.8% of the cases, respectively. In cases with a triple sedation regimen, the combination of clonidine, esketamine and midazolam was observed in most cases (75.7%). Analgesia was achieved using sufentanil in 98.6% of the cases. The analysis showed that the majority of COVID-19 patients required an unusually high sedation dose compared to those available in the literature. CONCLUSION: The global pandemic continues to affect patients severely requiring ventilation and sedation, but optimal sedation strategies are still lacking. The findings of our observation suggest unusual high dosages of sedatives in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. Prescribed sedation levels appear to be achievable only with several combinations of sedatives in most critically ill patients suffering from COVID-19-induced ARDS and a potential association to the often required sophisticated critical care including prone positioning and ECMO treatment seems conceivable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
13.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(7): e448, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283655
14.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther ; 56(3): 157-158, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177144
15.
Shock ; 55(4): 472-478, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140043

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading worldwide. Since the main route of infection with SARS-CoV-2 is probably via contact with virus-containing droplets of the exhaled air, any method of securing the airway is of extremely high risk for the health care professionals involved. We evaluated the aerosol exposure to the interventional team during a tracheotomy in a semiquantitative fashion. In addition, we present novel protective measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To visualize the air movements occurring during a tracheotomy, we used a breathing simulator filled with artificial fog. Normal breathing and coughing were simulated under surgery. The speed of aerosol propagation and particle density in the direct visual field of the surgeon were evaluated. RESULTS: Laminar air flow (LAF) in the OR reduced significantly the aerosol exposure during tracheostomy. Only 4.8 ±â€Š3.4% of the aerosol was in contact with the surgeon. Without LAF, however, the aerosol density in the inspiratory area of the surgeon is 10 times higher (47.9 ±â€Š10.8%, P < 0.01). Coughing through the opened trachea exposed the surgeon within 400 ms with 76.0 ±â€Š8.0% of the aerosol-independent of the function of the LAF. Only when a blocked tube was inserted into the airway, no aerosol leakage could be detected. DISCUSSION: Coughing and expiration during a surgical tracheotomy expose the surgical team considerably to airway aerosols. This is potentially associated with an increased risk for employees being infected by airborne-transmitted pathogens. Laminar airflow in an operating room leads to a significant reduction in the aerosol exposure of the surgeon and is therefore preferable to a bedside tracheotomy in terms of infection prevention. Ideal protection of medical staff is achieved when the procedure is performed under endotracheal intubation and muscle relaxation.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19/transmission , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Exposure , Surgeons , Tracheotomy , Cough/complications , Environment, Controlled , Humans , Operating Rooms , Patient Simulation , Point-of-Care Systems , Respiration , Risk , Virion , Visual Fields
16.
Anesthesiology ; 134(3): 457-467, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The hemostatic balance in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) seems to be shifted toward a hypercoagulable state. The aim of the current study was to assess the associated coagulation alterations by point-of-care-diagnostics, focusing on details of clot formation and lysis in these severely affected patients. METHODS: The authors' prospective monocentric observational study included critically ill patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Demographics and biochemical data were recorded. To assess the comprehensive hemostatic profile of this patient population, aggregometric (Multiplate) and viscoelastometric (CloPro) measures were performed in the intensive care unit of a university hospital at a single occasion. Coagulation analysis and assessment of coagulation factors were performed. Data were compared to healthy controls. RESULTS: In total, 27 patients (21 male; mean age, 60 yr) were included. Impedance aggregometry displayed no greater platelet aggregability in COVID-19 in comparison with healthy controls (area under the curve [AUC] in adenosine diphosphate test, 68 ± 37 U vs. 91 ± 29 U [-27 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, -48 to -1); P = 0.043]; AUC in arachidonic acid test, 102 ± 54 U vs. 115 ± 26 U [-21 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, -51 to 21); P = 0.374]; AUC in thrombin receptor activating peptide 6 test, 114 ± 61 U vs. 144 ± 31 U [-31 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, -69 to -7); P = 0.113]). Comparing the thromboelastometric results of COVID-19 patients to healthy controls, the authors observed significant differences in maximum clot firmness in fibrin contribution to maximum clot firmness assay (37 ± 11 mm vs. 15 ± 4 mm [21 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, 17 to 26); P < 0.001]) and lysis time in extrinsic activation and activation of fibrinolysis by tissue plasminogen activator assay (530 ± 327 s vs. 211 ± 80 s [238 (Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, 160 to 326); P < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboelastometry in COVID-19 patients revealed greater fibrinolysis resistance. The authors did not find a greater platelet aggregability based on impedance aggregometric tests. These findings may contribute to our understanding of the hypercoagulable state of critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibrinolysis , Critical Illness , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombelastography , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
17.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 56-61, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has caused a pandemic with tens of millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths. The infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease of the respiratory system of divergent severity. In the current study, humoral immune responses were characterized in a cohort of 143 patients with COVID-19 from the University Hospital Frankfurt am Main, Germany. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-specific-antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus NL63 neutralization activity was analyzed with pseudotyped lentiviral vectors. RESULTS: The severity of COVID-19 increased with age, and male patients encountered more serious symptoms than female patients. Disease severity was correlated with the amount of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA and the neutralization activity of the antibodies. The amount of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies decreased with time after polymerase chain reaction conformation of the infection, and antibodies directed against the nucleoprotein waned faster than spike protein-directed antibodies. In contrast, for the common flu coronavirus NL63, COVID-19 disease severity seemed to be correlated with low NL63-neutralizing activities, suggesting the possibility of cross-reactive protection. CONCLUSION: The results describe the humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and might aid the identification of correlates of protection needed for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Germany , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 38, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has become an integral part of modern intensive therapy. The choice of support mode depends largely on the indication. Patients with respiratory failure are predominantly treated with a venovenous (VV) approach. We hypothesized that mortality in Germany in ECLS therapy did not differ from previously reported literature METHODS: Inpatient data from Germany from 2007 to 2018 provided by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany were analysed. The international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems codes (ICD) and process keys (OPS) for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) types, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and hospital mortality were used. RESULTS: In total, 45,647 hospitalized patients treated with ECLS were analysed. In Germany, 231 hospitals provided ECLS therapy, with a median of 4 VV-ECMO and 9 VA-ECMO in 2018. Overall hospital mortality remained higher than predicted in comparison to the values reported in the literature. The number of VV-ECMO cases increased by 236% from 825 in 2007 to 2768 in 2018. ARDS was the main indication for VV-ECMO in only 33% of the patients in the past, but that proportion increased to 60% in 2018. VA-ECMO support is of minor importance in the treatment of ARDS in Germany. The age distribution of patients undergoing ECLS has shifted towards an older population. In 2018, the hospital mortality decreased in VV-ECMO patients and VV-ECMO patients with ARDS to 53.9% (n = 1493) and 54.4% (n = 926), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ARDS is a severe disease with a high mortality rate despite ECLS therapy. Although endpoints and timing of the evaluations differed from those of the CESAR and EOLIA studies and the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry, the reported mortality in these studies was lower than in the present analysis. Further prospective analyses are necessary to evaluate outcomes in ECMO therapy at the centre volume level.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/standards , Mortality/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 599533, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005805

ABSTRACT

Background: Proportions of patients dying from the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vary between different countries. We report the characteristics; clinical course and outcome of patients requiring intensive care due to COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods: This is a retrospective, observational multicentre study in five German secondary or tertiary care hospitals. All patients consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in any of the participating hospitals between March 12 and May 4, 2020 with a COVID-19 induced ARDS were included. Results: A total of 106 ICU patients were treated for COVID-19 induced ARDS, whereas severe ARDS was present in the majority of cases. Survival of ICU treatment was 65.0%. Median duration of ICU treatment was 11 days; median duration of mechanical ventilation was 9 days. The majority of ICU treated patients (75.5%) did not receive any antiviral or anti-inflammatory therapies. Venovenous (vv) ECMO was utilized in 16.3%. ICU triage with population-level decision making was not necessary at any time. Univariate analysis associated older age, diabetes mellitus or a higher SOFA score on admission with non-survival during ICU stay. Conclusions: A high level of care adhering to standard ARDS treatments lead to a good outcome in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

20.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(4): 344-347, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In light of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, how resources are managed and the critically ill are allocated must be reviewed. Although ethical recommendations have been published, strategies for dealing with overcapacity of critical care resources have so far not been addressed. OBJECTIVES: Assess expert opinion for allocation preferences regarding the growing imbalance between supply and demand for medical resources. DESIGN: A 10-item questionnaire was developed and sent to the most prominent members of the European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (ESAIC). SETTING: Survey via a web-based platform. PATIENTS: Respondents were members of the National Anaesthesiologists Societies Committee and Council Members of the ESAIC; 74 of 80 (92.5%), responded to the survey. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Responses were analysed thematically. The majority of respondents (83.8%), indicated that resources for COVID-19 were available at the time of the survey. Of the representatives of the ESAIC governing bodies, 58.9% favoured an allocation of excess critical care capacity: 69% wished to make them available to supraregional patients, whereas 30.9% preferred to keep the resources available for the local population. Regarding the type of distribution of resources, 35.3% preferred to make critical care available, 32.4% favoured the allocation of medical equipment and 32.4% wished to support both options. The majority (59.5%) supported the implementation of a central European institution to manage such resource allocation. CONCLUSION: Experts in critical care support the allocation of resources from centres with overcapacity. The results indicate the need for centrally administered allocation mechanisms that are not based on ethically disputable triage systems. It seems, therefore, that there is wide acceptance and solidarity among the European anaesthesiological community that local medical and human pressure should be relieved during a pandemic by implementing national and international re-allocation strategies among healthcare providers and healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiologists , COVID-19/therapy , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Resource Allocation , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Delivery of Health Care , Europe/epidemiology , European Union , Health Personnel , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
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