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1.
Heart ; 107(SUPPL 1):A91, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1325144

ABSTRACT

Background Limitation of activity and restriction of movement have been widely, and effectively, enforced to reduce COVID- 19 transmission. Physical activity is however a critical measure in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating, disease driven by small vessel vascular remodeling, leading to right heart failure. Exercise capacity relates to clinical outcomes and exercise training improves key indicators of cardiopulmonary function. Here, we describe the temporal effects of UK government restriction measures on daily activity, heart rate and quality-of-life (QoL) in patients with PAH. Methods From November 2019 to March 2020 patients were enrolled into the arrhythmia sub-study of The UK National Cohort Study of Idiopathic and Heritable PAH (REC:13/EE/ 0203) and implanted with insertable cardiac monitors. Daily heart rate, heart rate variability and activity were transmitted remotely. Standard questionnaires were administered remotely to assess QoL (EmPHasis-10), anxiety (GAD-7) and depression (PHQ-9). Results Median age of the 26 patients implanted with insertable cardiac monitors was 49 years, 23(88%) were female and 5(19%) had heritable PAH with mutations in BMPR2. At enrolment 10(38.5%) patients were low risk (<5% 1-year mortality), 10(38.5%) were intermediate risk (5-10%) and 6 (23%) were high risk (>10%). The mean duration from insertion to census date was 21.1weeks±5.7. No complications were reported. Completeness of remote monitoring data was 100%. Following lockdown, mean activity was reduced (3.16vrs 2.68hours, -0.48 hours, 95%CI -0.27-0.69, 16%, p<0.0001). During the period April 14th to 23rd QoL was reduced (26(18-38)vrs 32 (17-47), p<0.01) and anxiety (1(0- 9)vrs 10 (5-18), p<0.001) and depression scores increased (3 (1-16)vrs 11 (3-17), p<0.001) compared to pre-lockdown levels. The observed increase in depression scores persisted to the census date (3(1-16)vrs 11(8-17), p<0.01). No change in day or night heart rate, or heart rate variability, was observed and no patients developed COVID-19. Conclusion In this cohort of patients with idiopathic and heritable PAH, UK protective health measures were effective in preventing COVID-19 in patients thought to be vulnerable. However, these protective measures resulted in reduced daily activity and QoL and were associated increased anxiety and depression indicators. Patients may decondition through periods of reduced activity. This may have implications for riskassessment and endpoint adjudication in clinical studies, both of which use measures of exercise capacity.

3.
Cureus ; 12(6): e8582, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646304

ABSTRACT

First reported in China, the coronavirus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to 213 countries and territories around the world as of April 26, 2020. This study was designed to explore COVID-19 trends in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), with a particular focus on Pakistan. Daily reports and updates from the Ministry of National Health Services Regulations and Coordination COVID-19 Pakistan and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control were collected and study-specific data were extracted and analyzed. Our analysis revealed that, as of April 26, 2020, a total of 22 countries and territories in the EMR have reported COVID-19 cases. Iran had the highest number of cases (89,329) followed by Saudi Arabia (16,299), Pakistan (12,723), and the United Arab Emirates (9,813). Egypt (7.1%), Iran (6.3%), and Iraq (4.9%) had high case fatality rates; Lebanon (3.4%) and Pakistan (2.1%) had moderate case fatality rates; Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates had low case fatality rates of 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. Iran (76.3%) and Iraq (69.4 %) had the highest recovery rate followed by Pakistan (22.5%), the United Arab Emirates (19.2%), and Saudi Arabia (13.6%). If the current trend continues, based on the susceptible, infected, recovered (SIR) epidemiological model, we predict that EMR countries might experience a surge in the number of COVID-19 cases, resulting in as many as 2.12 million cases in Iran, 0.58 million in Saudi Arabia, and 0.51 million in Pakistan by June 20, 2020. Pakistan is the most populated country in the EMR and was the third most-affected country in terms of the number of cases with moderate case fatality and recovery rates. We predict that Pakistan's weak healthcare system would not be able to sustain care if there is an explosive increase in the number of cases due to insufficient and inconsistent disease prevention and control policies. The best strategy for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic is to strictly follow recommendations based on epidemiological principles.

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