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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(4)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDVaccine-elicited adaptive immunity is a prerequisite for control of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) differentially target humoral and cellular immunity. A comprehensive comparison of the effects of MS DMTs on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-specific immunity is needed, including quantitative and functional B and T cell responses.METHODSSpike-specific Ab and T cell responses were measured before and following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a cohort of 80 study participants, including healthy controls and patients with MS in 6 DMT groups: untreated and treated with glatiramer acetate (GA), dimethyl fumarate (DMF), natalizumab (NTZ), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators, and anti-CD20 mAbs. Anti-spike-Ab responses were assessed by Luminex assay, VirScan, and pseudovirus neutralization. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were characterized by activation-induced marker and cytokine expression and tetramer.RESULTSAnti-spike IgG levels were similar between healthy control participants and patients with untreated MS and those receiving GA, DMF, or NTZ but were reduced in anti-CD20 mAb- and S1P-treated patients. Anti-spike seropositivity in anti-CD20 mAb-treated patients was correlated with CD19+ B cell levels and inversely correlated with cumulative treatment duration. Spike epitope reactivity and pseudovirus neutralization were reduced in anti-CD20 mAb- and S1P-treated patients. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivity remained robust across all groups, except in S1P-treated patients, in whom postvaccine CD4+ T cell responses were attenuated.CONCLUSIONThese findings from a large cohort of patients with MS exposed to a wide spectrum of MS immunotherapies have important implications for treatment-specific COVID-19 clinical guidelines.FUNDINGNIH grants 1K08NS107619, K08NS096117, R01AI159260, R01NS092835, R01AI131624, and R21NS108159; NMSS grants TA-1903-33713 and RG1701-26628; Westridge Foundation; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub; Maisin Foundation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology
2.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(12): 1503-1509, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482083

ABSTRACT

Importance: Neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 have been reported in the pediatric population. Objective: To determine whether anti-SARS-CoV-2 and autoreactive antibodies are present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of pediatric patients with COVID-19 and subacute neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series includes 3 patients with recent SARS-CoV-2 infection as confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or IgG serology with recent exposure history who were hospitalized at the University of California, San Francisco Benioff Children's Hospital and for whom a neurology consultation was requested over a 5-month period in 2020. During this period, 18 total children were hospitalized and tested positive for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen test. Main Outcomes and Measures: Detection and characterization of CSF anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and antineural antibodies. Results: Of 3 included teenaged patients, 2 patients had intrathecal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. CSF IgG from these 2 patients also indicated antineural autoantibodies on anatomic immunostaining. Autoantibodies targeting transcription factor 4 (TCF4) in 1 patient who appeared to have a robust response to immunotherapy were also validated. Conclusions and Relevance: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 and prominent subacute neuropsychiatric symptoms, ranging from severe anxiety to delusional psychosis, may have anti-SARS-CoV-2 and antineural antibodies in their CSF and may respond to immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Autoantibodies/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Mental Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Mental Disorders/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Animals , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Autoimmunity , Female , Humans , Male , Marijuana Smoking/immunology , Mice , Movement Disorders/etiology , Neurologic Examination , Transcription Factor 4/immunology
3.
Nature ; 591(7848): 124-130, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368933

ABSTRACT

Although infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some individuals1-3, many others experience milder symptoms. Here, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the distinction between severe and mild phenotypes in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its origins, we performed a whole-blood-preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major immune cell types of the blood-including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of the serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 exhibit a coordinated pattern of expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)3 across every cell population, whereas these ISG-expressing cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Paradoxically, individuals with severe COVID-19 produce very high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and have a lower viral load compared to individuals with mild disease. Examination of the serum from patients with severe COVID-19 shows that these patients uniquely produce antibodies that functionally block the production of the ISG-expressing cells associated with mild disease, by activating conserved signalling circuits that dampen cellular responses to interferons. Overzealous antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many patients with COVID-19, and perhaps also in individuals with other viral infections. Our findings reveal potential targets for immunotherapies in patients with severe COVID-19 to re-engage viral defence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Base Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Protein Domains , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Viral Load/immunology
5.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(5): 100288, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213573

ABSTRACT

Individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently develop neurological symptoms, but the biological underpinnings of these phenomena are unknown. Through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and cytokine analyses of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood from individuals with COVID-19 with neurological symptoms, we find compartmentalized, CNS-specific T cell activation and B cell responses. All affected individuals had CSF anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies whose target epitopes diverged from serum antibodies. In an animal model, we find that intrathecal SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are present only during brain infection and not elicited by pulmonary infection. We produced CSF-derived monoclonal antibodies from an individual with COVID-19 and found that these monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) target antiviral and antineural antigens, including one mAb that reacted to spike protein and neural tissue. CSF immunoglobulin G (IgG) from 5 of 7 patients showed antineural reactivity. This immune survey reveals evidence of a compartmentalized immune response in the CNS of individuals with COVID-19 and suggests a role of autoimmunity in neurologic sequelae of COVID-19.

6.
Res Sq ; 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903184

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a wholeblood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferonstimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and autodirected antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense.

7.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(7): 100123, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793949

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive understanding of the serological response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is important for both pathophysiologic insight and diagnostic development. Here, we generate a pan-human coronavirus programmable phage display assay to perform proteome-wide profiling of coronavirus antigens enriched by 98 COVID-19 patient sera. Next, we use ReScan, a method to efficiently sequester phage expressing the most immunogenic peptides and print them onto paper-based microarrays using acoustic liquid handling, which isolates and identifies nine candidate antigens, eight of which are derived from the two proteins used for SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays: spike and nucleocapsid proteins. After deployment in a high-throughput assay amenable to clinical lab settings, these antigens show improved specificity over a whole protein panel. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that ReScan will have broad applicability for other emerging infectious diseases or autoimmune diseases that lack a valid biomarker, enabling a seamless pipeline from antigen discovery to diagnostic using one recombinant protein source.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptide Library , Protein Array Analysis , Proteome/immunology , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/immunology
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