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Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019


OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
Hosp Pharm ; 57(4): 546-554, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582776


Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 is a global health threat often accompanied with coagulopathy. Despite use of thromboprophylaxis in this population, thrombotic event rates are high. Materials and methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective cohort study comparing the safety and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis strategies at 2 institutions in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Regimen A utilized a higher-than-standard thromboprophylaxis dosage and Regimen B received full-dose anticoagulation for any D-dimer 3 mcg/mL or greater and prophylactic for less than 3 mcg/mL. The primary outcome compared the rate of thrombotic events between treatment groups. Secondary endpoints compared rates of major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding as well as the proportion of patients in each group experiencing thrombotic events within 30 days of discharge. Results: One-hundred fifty-three patients were included in the analysis, 64 receiving Regimen A and 89 receiving Regimen B. Seven (4.6%) thrombotic events occurred, 3 (4.7%) in patients receiving Regimen A, and 4 (4.5%) in Regimen B (P = 1.0). Twelve patients (13.5%) receiving Regimen B had a bleeding event versus 2 (3.1%) in Regimen A (P = .04), half of which were major in each group. All patients who bled in either treatment group were receiving mechanical ventilation, and 12 of 14 were receiving full-dose anticoagulation. One patient receiving Regimen A was readmitted with a pulmonary embolism. Conclusions: In this study, the thromboprophylactic regimen impacted bleeding, but no significant difference was seen with thrombotic outcomes. Almost all patients who experienced a bleed were mechanically ventilated and receiving full-dose anticoagulation. The use of full-dose anticoagulation should be cautioned in this population without an additional indication.