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1.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare the clinical severity in patients who were coinfected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and rhinovirus or monoinfected with a single one of these viruses. METHODS: The study period ranged from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 (one year). SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses were identified by real-time reverse-transcription-PCR as part of the routine work at Marseille University hospitals. Bacterial and fungal infections were detected by standard methods. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from medical files. This study was approved by the ethical committee of our institute. RESULTS: A total of 6034/15,157 (40%) tested patients were positive for at least one respiratory virus. Ninety-three (4.3%) SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were coinfected with another respiratory virus, with rhinovirus being the most frequent (62/93, 67%). Patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus were significantly more likely to report a cough than those with SARS-CoV-2 monoinfection (62% vs. 31%; p = 0.0008). In addition, they were also significantly more likely to report dyspnea than patients with rhinovirus monoinfection (45% vs. 36%; p = 0.02). They were also more likely to be transferred to an intensive care unit and to die than patients with rhinovirus monoinfection (16% vs. 5% and 7% vs. 2%, respectively) but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: A close surveillance and investigation of the co-incidence and interactions of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses is needed. The possible higher risk of increased clinical severity in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients coinfected with rhinovirus warrants further large scale studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Coinfection/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 95(2): 419-424, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469694

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, is a virus that has caused a global pandemic. Health workers (HWs) are major players in the fight against this infection and are occupationally exposed to the virus in the course of their work. In this context, this study presents surveillance data on 1714 workers in a hospital center in the south of France for the period from March 17 to April 20, 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Symptomatic HWs, contact cases and those with high anxiety were tested. Diagnosis of COVID-19 was performed by RT-PCR after nasopharyngeal sampling. RESULTS: During this period, 30.4% of hospital staff received 3028 nasal swabs. Of these, 8.0% were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Among the SARS-CoV-2 positive HWs, 24.3% were asymptomatic. Among COVID unit and non COVID unit, the positive HWs for SARS-CoV-2 were, respectively, 5.8% and 8.2% (p = 0.2). HWs over 50 years of age were less likely to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.8%) than other younger HWs (9.1%) (p < 0.001). No serious cases of COVID-19 were reported in our population during this period. DISCUSSION: Our study suggests that HWs who tested positive for COVID-19 are often asymptomatic. Therefore, PPE is pivotal to prevent HWs to patients and HWs to HWs transmission during workshifts. Contact tracing and screening is essential to limit the spread of the virus within the hospital. On the other hand, HWs working in COVID-19 units are not more often infected probably because they have a higher risk awareness than other HWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434381

ABSTRACT

Observations of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from mother to foetus have recently been described in the literature. However, the consequences of such transmission, whether foetal or neonatal, are poorly understood. From a case of in utero foetal death at 24 +2 weeks of gestation that occurred seven days after the diagnosis of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the mother, we isolated the incriminating virus by immunochemistry and molecular techniques in several foetal tissues, with a variant analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Moreover, the foetal demise could be explained by the presence of placental histological lesions, such as histiocytic intervillositis and trophoblastic necrosis, in addition to foetal tissue damage. We observed mild foetal growth retardation and visceral damage to the liver, causing hepatocellular damage and haemosiderosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of foetal demise secondary to maternal-foetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 with a congenital infection and a pathological description of placental and foetal tissue damage. SARS-CoV-2 was identified in both specimens by three independent techniques (immunochemistry, RT-qPCR and RT-dPCR). Furthermore, the incriminating variant has been identified.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 154-156, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385692

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are a major cause of mortality worldwide and in France, where they cause several thousands of deaths every year. University Hospital Institute-Méditerranée Infection performs real-time surveillance of all diagnoses of infections and associated deaths in public hospitals in Marseille, Southeastern France. This study compared mortality associated with diagnoses of respiratory viruses during the colder months of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 (week 47-week 14). In 2018-2019, 73 patients (0.17% of 42,851 hospitalized patients) died after being diagnosed with a respiratory virus; 40 and 13 deaths occurred in patients diagnosed with influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), respectively. In 2019-2020, 50 patients (0.10% of 49,043 patients hospitalized) died after being diagnosed with a common respiratory virus; seven and seven deaths occurred in patients diagnosed with influenza A virus and RSV, respectively. Additionally, 55 patients died after being diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2. The proportion of respiratory virus-associated deaths among hospitalized patients was thus significantly lower for common respiratory viruses in 2019-2020 than in 2018-2019 (102 versus 170 per 100,000 hospitalized patients; p = 0.003), primarily as a consequence of a decrease in influenza A virus (-83%) and RSV (-46%)-associated deaths. Overall, the proportion of respiratory virus-associated deaths among hospitalized patients was higher, but not significantly, in 2019-2020 than in 2018-2019 (214 versus 170 per 100,000 hospitalized patients; p = 0.08, Yates-corrected Chi-square test). These findings put into perspective the death burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections in this geographical area.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273466

ABSTRACT

The Méditerranée Infection University Hospital Institute (IHU) is located in a recent building, which includes experts on a wide range of infectious disease. The IHU strategy is to develop innovative tools, including epidemiological monitoring, point-of-care laboratories, and the ability to mass screen the population. In this study, we review the strategy and guidelines proposed by the IHU and its application to the COVID-19 pandemic and summarise the various challenges it raises. Early diagnosis enables contagious patients to be isolated and treatment to be initiated at an early stage to reduce the microbial load and contagiousness. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, we had to deal with a shortage of personal protective equipment and reagents and a massive influx of patients. Between 27 January 2020 and 5 January 2021, 434,925 nasopharyngeal samples were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Of them, 12,055 patients with COVID-19 were followed up in our out-patient clinic, and 1888 patients were hospitalised in the Institute. By constantly adapting our strategy to the ongoing situation, the IHU has succeeded in expanding and upgrading its equipment and improving circuits and flows to better manage infected patients.

9.
J Clin Virol ; 133: 104682, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the persistent COVID-19 pandemic, there is an urgent need to use rapid and reliable diagnostic tools for highly urgent cases. Antigen tests are disappointing with their lack of sensitivity. Among molecular tools allowing a diagnosis in less than an hour, only one, the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay, has exhibited a good sensitivity. However, we are also facing a global shortage of reagents and kits. Thus, it is imperative to evaluate other point-of-care molecular tests. METHODS: We evaluated the VitaPCR™ RT-PCR assay, whose sample analysis time is of approximately 20 min, in nasopharyngeal secretions from 534 patients presenting to our Institute, for the diagnosis of COVID-19, and compared it to our routine RT-PCR assay. We also compared the two assays with tenfold dilutions of a SARS-CoV-2 strain. RESULTS: Compared to our routine RT-PCR and the previous diagnosis of COVID-19, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of VitaPCR™ can be evaluated to be 99.3 % (155/156), 94.7 % (358/378), 88.6 % (155/175) and 99.7 % (358/359), respectively. Tenfold dilutions of a SARS-CoV-2 strain show that the VitaPCR™ was more sensitive that our routine RT-PCR assay. CONCLUSION: The VitaPCR™ SARS-CoV-2 is an accurate rapid test, suitable for clinical practice that can be performed as part of a point-of-care testing, for the rapid diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Testing , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors , Young Adult
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 121-125, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic presents a poorly understood epidemiological cycle. We aimed to compare the age and weekly distributions of the five human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, that circulated in southeastern France. METHODS: We analyzed all available diagnoses of respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, performed between 09/2013 and 05/2020 at the University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection in Marseille, southeastern France. RESULTS: For SARS-CoV-2, positive children <15 years of age represented 3.4% (228/6,735) of all positive cases, which is significantly less than for endemic coronaviruses (46.1%; 533/1,156; p < 0.001). Among 10,026 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 and endemic coronaviruses in 2020, children <15 years represented a significantly lower proportion of all positive cases for SARS-CoV-2 than for endemic coronaviruses [2.2% (24/1,067) vs. 33.5% (149/445), respectively; p < 0.001]. Epidemic curves for endemic coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 in 91,722 patients showed comparable bell-shaped distributions with a slight time lag. In contrast, the age distribution of endemic coronaviruses and 14 other respiratory viruses differed significantly compared to that of SARS-CoV-2, which was the only virus to relatively spare children. CONCLUSIONS: We observed for SARS-CoV-2 a temporal distribution resembling that of endemic coronaviruses but an age distribution that relatively spares the youngest subjects, who are those the most exposed to endemic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , France , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Young Adult
11.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(10): 1983-1987, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737821

ABSTRACT

Previous reports have suggested that children are less affected than adults by SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses between February 27, 2020, and March 14, 2020, and mortality among positive patients in Marseille university hospitals. Of 4050 tested individuals, 228 were positive. Deaths occurred in 2/99 documented cases (both > 85 year-old). Children were majorly asymptomatic. Incidence increased by 7.4-fold between 1-5 and 45-65 years then decreased. It was significantly lower among 0-1 year- (0%) and 1-5 (1.1%) and 5-10 (3.6%)-year-old children than among subjects > 18 years (6.5%). Viral loads did not differ between children and adults. Children may not contribute significantly to virus circulation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Viral Load , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101738, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively report on 1061 SARS-CoV-2 positive tested patients treated for at least three days with the following regimen: HCQ (200 mg three times daily for ten days) + AZ (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the next four days). Outcomes were death, clinical worsening (transfer to ICU, and >10 day hospitalization) and viral shedding persistence (>10 days). RESULTS: A total of 1061 patients were included in this analysis (46.4% male, mean age 43.6 years - range 14-95 years). Good clinical outcome and virological cure were obtained in 973 patients within 10 days (91.7%). Prolonged viral carriage was observed in 47 patients (4.4%) and was associated to a higher viral load at diagnosis (p < .001) but viral culture was negative at day 10. All but one, were PCR-cleared at day 15. A poor clinical outcome (PClinO) was observed for 46 patients (4.3%) and 8 died (0.75%) (74-95 years old). All deaths resulted from respiratory failure and not from cardiac toxicity. Five patients are still hospitalized (98.7% of patients cured so far). PClinO was associated with older age (OR 1.11), severity of illness at admission (OR 10.05) and low HCQ serum concentration. PClinO was independently associated with the use of selective beta-blocking agents and angiotensin II receptor blockers (p < .05). A total of 2.3% of patients reported mild adverse events (gastrointestinal or skin symptoms, headache, insomnia and transient blurred vision). CONCLUSION: Administration of the HCQ+AZ combination before COVID-19 complications occur is safe and associated with a very low fatality rate in patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Young Adult
13.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 36: 101632, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-14125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid virological diagnosis is needed to limit the length of isolation for suspected COVID-19 cases. METHOD: We managed the first 280 patients suspected to have COVID-19 through a rapid care circuit and virological diagnosis in our infectious disease reference hospital in Marseille, France. Rapid viral detection was performed on sputum and nasopharyngeal samples. RESULTS: Over our study period, no SARS-CoV-2 was detected. Results were obtained within approximately 3 h of the arrival of patient samples at the laboratory. Other viral infections were identified in 49% of the patients, with most common pathogens being influenza A and B viruses, rhinovirus, metapneumovirus and common coronaviruses, notably HKU1 and NL63. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of COVID-19 is critical to isolate confirmed cases and prevent further transmission. Early rule-out of COVID-19 allows public health containment measures to be adjusted by reducing the time spent in isolation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum/virology , Young Adult
14.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(5): 105947, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-13738

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus from China, is spreading around the world, causing a huge reaction despite its current low incidence outside China and the Far East. Four common coronaviruses are in current circulation and cause millions of cases worldwide. This article compares the incidence and mortality rates of these four common coronaviruses with those of SARS-CoV-2 in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. It is concluded that the problem of SARS-CoV-2 is probably being overestimated, as 2.6 million people die of respiratory infections each year compared with less than 4000 deaths for SARS-CoV-2 at the time of writing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Fear , Humans , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , SARS-CoV-2
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