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2.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platelet activation at the early stage of COVID-19 is poorly described. The need for antiplatelet therapy in patients with COVID-19 remains controversial. We characterized the platelet activation profile in hospitalized patients at the early stage of COVID-19 using the modified prothrombinase Platelet Activation State (PAS) assay. METHODS: Sixteen patients admitted to the emergency department of the IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute (Milano, Italy) between February 8 and April 2021 were enrolled. All patients presented with respiratory symptoms and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Platelet activation was measured via the PAS assay within 24 hours from patients' hospital admission. Data were compared with those measured in n=24 healthy subjects (controls). RESULTS: Platelet activation was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with respect to controls (PAS = 0.63 [0.58-0.98]% vs. 0.46 [0.40-0.65]%, respectively; p=0.03). Of note, highest PAS values were measured in the two patients with the worst clinical outcome, i.e., death because of respiratory failure (PAS = 2.09% and 1.20%, respectively). No differences in standard coagulation parameters were noted between these two patients and those who were later discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidences of significant platelet activation state at the early stage of COVID-19 and suggests that the patient-specific platelet activation profile is a reliable clinical marker to stratify COVID-19 patients at high risk of poor clinical outcome who might potentially benefit from antiplatelet therapy.

3.
Minerva Med ; 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability is often seen in Covid-19 patients and thromboembolic events appear frequent; antithrombotic treatment has been proposed therefore as part of standard treatment for Covid-19. Under these premises, prior-to-infection antithrombotic treatment may have a protective effect with respect to Covid-19 related thromboembolic events. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of prior-to-infection anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment on Covid-19 outcomes. METHODS: Beneficiaries of the Regional Health Service of the Lombardy region of Italy aged ≥40 years with a Covid-19 diagnosis made between February 21st and July 18th, 2020 were included in the present study. The impact on Covid-19 mortality of pre-existing and chronic therapy with anticoagulant drugs (vitamin-K antagonist or New Oral Anticoagulants) was evaluated. Analyses were repeated with antiplatelets drugs. RESULTS: Among 79,934 Sars-cov-2 patients beneficiaries of the Regional Healthcare System of the Lombardy Region who received a diagnosis between February 21st and July 18th, 2020, chronic preexisting anticoagulant assumption was present in 6.0% and antiplatelets in 12.7%. The overall unadjusted mortality rate was 20.6%, with male sex, age category and comorbidity burden being significantly associated to increased mortality risk. Anticoagulant chronic treatment was not associated with a reduction in mortality. Similar results were observed when repeating the analyses for pre-existing oral anti-platelet treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population-based study evaluating more than 79,000 Covid-19 patients, pre-existing antithrombotic therapy was not associated to a benefit in terms of mortality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of antithrombotic therapy as standard treatment among Covid-19 patients.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324910

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of angiotensin II (ANGII) in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients is controversial. Its effect on markers of organ function is unknown. Methods: We used ANGII either as rescue vasopressor agent or as low dose vasopressor support. Patients treated before ANGII availability or in an adjacent COVID-19 ICU served as controls. For data analysis, we applied Bayesian modelling as appropriate. We assessed the effects of ANG on markers of organ function. Results: We compared 46 ANGII patients with 53 controls. Compared with controls, ANGII increased MAP (median difference, 9.05 mmHg [95% confidence interval, 1.87 to 16.22];p = 0.013) and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio (median difference, 23.17 [95% confidence interval, 3.46 to 42.88];p = 0.021). ANGII had no effect on lactate, urinary output, serum creatinine, C-Reactive protein, platelet count, or thromboembolic complications. However, it significantly decreased the odd ratio of liver dysfunction (odds ratio: 0.32;0.09 to 0.94) and, on Bayesian modelling, in patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine, ANGII carried a 95.7% probability of decreasing renal replacement therapy use. Conclusions: In ventilated COVID-19 patients, ANGII therapy was associated with increased blood pressure and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratios, decreased odds ratio of liver dysfunction, and a high probability of decreasing renal replacement therapy use in patients with abnormal baseline serum creatinine.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321957

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of early treatment with corticosteroids on SARS-CoV-2 clearance in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.Retrospective analysis on patients admitted to the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy) with moderate/severe COVID-19 and availability of at least two nasopharyngeal swabs.The primary outcome was the time to nasopharyngeal swab negativization.A multivariable Cox model was fitted to determine factors associated with nasopharyngeal swab negativization.Of 280 patients included, 59 (21.1%) patients were treated with steroids.Differences observed between steroid users and non-users included the proportion of patients with a baseline PaO 2 /FiO 2 ≤200 mmHg (45.8% vs 34.4% in steroids and non-steroids users, respectively;p=0.023) or ≤100 mmHg (16.9% vs 12.7%;p=0.027), and length of hospitalization (20 vs 14 days;p<0.001).Time to negativization of nasopharyngeal swabs was similar in steroid and non-steroid users (p=0.985).According to multivariate analysis, SARS-CoV-2 clearance was associated with age ≤70 years, a shorter duration of symptoms at admission, a baseline PaO 2 /FiO 2 >200 mmHg, and a lymphocyte count at admission >1.0*10 9 /L. SARS-CoV-2 clearance was not associated with corticosteroid use.Our study shows that delayed SARS-CoV-2 clearance in moderate/severe COVID-19 is associated with older age and a more severe disease, but not with early use of corticosteroids

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306620

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently characterized by dysregulated host immune response with hyperinflammation and self-induced host inflammatory damage that results in severe respiratory failure and frequently death. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) appeared among the key cytokines involved in COVID-19 associated cytokine storm. Therefore, several trials investigated whether IL-6 inhibition with tocilizumab or sarilumab could improve symptoms and outcome of COVID-19 patients. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials to test this hypothesis.Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane central register and medRxiv were searched by two independent investigators up to February 23rd, 2021. Inclusion criteria were: administration of tocilizumab or sarilumab, COVID-19 pneumonia, randomized controlled trials. Studies in setting other than adult human COVID-19 were excluded. The primary outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up available. Secondary outcomes included need for intubation and incidence of adverse events. Two independent investigators examined and extracted data from eligible trials.Results: A total of 371 studies were assessed, with a total of 10 studies (6,465 patients) finally included in the meta-analysis. All the trials were multicentre and the majority were open-label vs standard treatment. IL-6 inhibitors use was associated with reduced all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up available (823/3,310 [24·9%] in the IL-6 inhibitors group versus 902/3,038 [29·7%] in the control group, RR = 0·89;95% CI 0·82 to 0·96;p for effect = 0·003, I2 = 6%, with eight studies included). Use of IL-6 inhibitors was associated with a significant reduction in need for intubation, while we found no difference in rate of adverse events and secondary infections.Conclusion: Administration of IL-6 inhibitors may reduce all-cause longest follow-up mortality and need for intubation in COVID-19 patients, without increasing risk of adverse events. However, these findings need to be confirmed in high-quality randomized controlled trials.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: None.

7.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung damage leading to gas-exchange deficit and sepsis leading to systemic hypoperfusion are well-known features of severe pneumonia. Although frequently described in COVID-19, their prognostic impact in COVID-19-related pneumonia vs COVID-19-urelated pneumonia has never been compared. This study assesses fundamental gas-exchange and hemodynamic parameters and explores their prognostic impact in COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated arterial pO2/FiO2, alveolar to arterial O2 gradient, shock index, and serum lactate in 126 COVID-19 pneumonia patients, aged 18- 65, presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-hypercapnic respiratory failure. As a control group we identified 1:1 age-, sex-, and pO2/FiO2-matched COVID-19-urelated pneumonia patients. Univariate and multivariable predictors of 30-day survival were identified in both groups. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lower arterial serum lactate concentration (p<0.001) and shock index (p<0.001) values as compared to non-COVID-19 patients. While we did not observe differences in lactate concentration or in shock index values in deceased vs surviving COVID-19 patients (respectively, p=0.7 and p=0.6), non-COVID-19 deceased patients showed significantly higher lactate and shock index than non-COVID-19 survivors (p<0.001 and p=0.03). The pO2/FiO2 was the most powerful determinant of survival by Cox regression multivariate analysis in COVID-19 patients (p=0.006), while it was lactate in non-COVID-19 patients (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to COVID19-unrelated pneumonia, COVID-19 pneumonia outcome seems more strictly correlated to the extent of lung damage, rather than to the systemic circulatory and metabolic derangements typical of sepsis.

8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(5): e33-e42, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An unprecedented wave of patients with acute respiratory failure due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease 2019 (COVID-19) hit emergency departments (EDs) in Lombardy, starting in the second half of February 2020. This study describes the direct and indirect impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak on an urban major-hospital ED. METHODS: Data regarding all patients diagnosed with COVID-19 presenting from February 1 to March 31, 2020, were prospectively collected, while data regarding non-COVID patients presenting within the same period in 2019 were retrospectively retrieved. RESULTS: ED attendance dropped by 37% in 2020. Two-thirds of this reduction occurred early after the identification of the first autochthonous COVID-19 case in Lombardy, before lockdown measures were enforced. Hospital admissions of non-COVID patients fell by 26%. During the peak of COVID-19 attendance, the ED faced an extraordinary increase in: patients needing oxygen (+239%) or noninvasive ventilation (+725%), transfers to the intensive care unit (+57%), and in-hospital mortality (+309%), compared with the same period in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak determined an unprecedented upsurge in respiratory failure cases and mortality. Fear of contagion triggered a spontaneous, marked reduction of ED attendance, and, presumably, some as yet unknown quantity of missed or delayed diagnoses for conditions other than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fear , Humans , Retrospective Studies
9.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 47(2): 147-150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide spectrum of effects, including acute kidney injury (AKI) in up to 40% of hospitalized patients. Given the established relationship between AKI and poor prognosis, whether AKI might be a prognostic indicator for patients admitted to the hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection would allow for a straightforward risk stratification of these patients. METHODS: We analyzed data of 623 patients admitted to San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, IT) between February 25 and April 19, 2020, for laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Incidence of AKI at hospital admission was calculated, with AKI defined according to the KDIGO criteria. Multivariable Cox regression models assessed the association between AKI and overall mortality and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: Overall, 108 (17%) patients had AKI at hospital admission for SARS-CoV-2 infection. After a median follow-up for survivors of 14 days (interquartile range: 8, 23), 123 patients died, while 84 patients were admitted to the ICU. After adjusting for confounders, patients who had AKI at hospital admission were at increased risk of overall mortality compared to those who did not have AKI (hazards ratio [HR]: 2.00; p = 0.0004), whereas we did not find evidence of an association between AKI and ICU admission (HR: 0.95; p = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that AKI might be an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and as such, given its readily availability, it might be used to improve risk stratification at hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
10.
Environ Res ; 206: 112614, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While the beneficial effect of vaccination, restrictive measures, and social distancing in reducing mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 is intuitive and taken for granted, seasonality (predictable fluctuation or pattern that recurs or repeats over a one-year period) is still poorly understood and insufficiently taken into consideration. We aimed to examine SARS-CoV-2 seasonality in countries with temperate climate. METHODS: We identified countries with temperate climate and extracted average country temperature data from the National Center for Environmental information and from the Climate Change Knowledge Portal. We obtained mortality and vaccination rates from an open access database. We used the stringency index derived from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker to quantify restriction policies. We used Spearman's and rank-correlation non-parametric test coefficients to investigate the association between COVID-19 mortality and temperature values. We employed multivariate regression models to analyze how containment measures, vaccinations, and monthly temperatures affected COVID-19 mortality rates. RESULTS: The time series for daily deaths per million inhabitants and average monthly temperatures of European countries and US states with a temperate climate had a negative correlation (p < 0.0001 for all countries, 0.40 < R < 0.86). When running multivariate regression models with country fixed effects, we noted that mortality rates were significantly lower when temperature were higher. Interestingly, when adding an interaction term between monthly temperatures and vaccination rates, we found that as monthly temperatures dropped, the effect of the vaccination campaign on mortality was larger than at higher temperatures. DISCUSSION: Deaths attributed to SARS-CoV-2 decreased during the summer period in temperate countries. We found that the effect of vaccination rates on mortality was stronger when temperatures were lower. Stakeholders should consider seasonality in managing SARS-CoV-2 and future pandemics to minimize mortality, limit the pressure on hospitals and intensive care units while maintaining economic and social activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Temperature
12.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S354-S355, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564848

ABSTRACT

Background Evidence regarding the impact of remdesivir (RDV) on SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance (VC) is scarce. Aim of this study was to compare VC timing in COVID-19 patients who received RDV with those who did not. Methods Matched-cohort study conducted (25 February 2020-15 April 2021) at the IRCSS San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. The study enrolled hospitalized patients with pneumonia and a SARS-CoV-2 positive nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) at admission and at least one NPS during follow-up. Follow-up started at hospital admission and ended at the date of the first negative NPS (within 30 days after discharge). Patients who received RDV (cases) and patients who did not (controls) were matched based on age (±5 years), sex and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F;±10 mmHg) values at admission. NPS were analyzed with RT-PCR. Results described as median (IQR) or frequency (%). Time to VC was estimated with Kaplan-Meier curve and compared with log-rank test. Results 648 patients were enrolled: 216 cases and 432 controls. Patients’ characteristics at admission are reported in Table 1. VC was observed in 490 patients (75.6%) in a median time of 25 (16-34) days. Overall, time to VC was similar in patients receiving or not receiving remdesivir (p=0.519). However, time to VC was different when considering both the use of RDV (yes vs no) and age (≤ or > 63 years), as shown in Figure 1A. A significant finding was also observed considering the use of RDV and P/F values at admission (≤ or > 200 mmHg), as reported in Figure 1B. Among the 490 patients who reached VC during follow-up, overall time to VC was similar in patients receiving or not receiving RDV (p=0.075;Figure 2A);however, RDV use was associated with a higher probability of VC in the subgroup of patients with P/F admission values ≤ 200mmHg (p=0.035;Figure 2B), in the age group 55-65 years (p=0.025;Figure 2C) and in patients with comorbidities (p=0.028). Time to viral clearance among the 490 patients who reached VC during follow-up. Panel A: time to VC according to RDV use. Panel B: time to VC according to RDV and P/F ratio value at admission. Panel C: time to VC according to RDV in the age group 55-65 years. Conclusion Time to viral clearance was similar in patients receiving or not receiving remdesivir;however the use of RDV was associated with a benefit on time to viral clearance in younger patients and in those with a P/F ratio at admission ≤200 mmHg. Disclosures Vincenzo Spagnuolo, MD, ViiV Healthcare (Other Financial or Material Support, Preparation of educational material) Antonella Castagna, MD, Gilead Sciences (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)Jansenn-Cilag (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)MSD (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)Theratechnologies (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)ViiV Healthcare (Other Financial or Material Support, Speaking fee)

13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(5): 1354-1363, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Data on long-term survival of these patients are lacking. The authors investigated 1-year survival, quality of life, and functional recovery of patients with COVID-19 ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Tertiary-care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with COVID-19 ARDS receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and discharged alive from hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were contacted by phone after 1 year. Functional, cognitive, and psychological outcomes were explored through a questionnaire and assessed using validated scales. Patients were offered the possibility to undergo a follow-up chest computed tomography (CT) scan. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The study included all adult (age ≥18 years) patients with COVID-19-related ARDS admitted to an ICU of the authors' institution between February 25, 2020, and April 27, 2020, who received at least 1 day of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Of 116 patients who received IMV, 61 (52.6%) survived to hospital discharge. These survivors were assessed 1 year after discharge and 56 completed a battery of tests of cognition, activities of daily living, and interaction with family members. They had overall good functional recovery, with >80% reporting good recovery and no difficulties in usual activities. A total of 52 (93%) of patients had no dyspnea at rest. Severe anxiety/depression was reported by 5 (8.9%) patients. Comparing 2-month and 1-year data, the authors observed the most significant improvements in the areas of working status and exertional dyspnea. One-year chest CT scans were available for 36 patients; fibrotic-like changes were present in 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: All patients who survived the acute phase of COVID-19 and were discharged from the hospital were alive at the 1-year follow up, and the vast majority of them had good overall recovery and quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Activities of Daily Living , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(2): 223-231, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) is a disease that often requires invasive ventilation. Little is known about COVID-19 ARDS sequelae. We assessed the mid-term lung status of COVID-19 survivors and investigated factors associated with pulmonary sequelae. METHODS: All adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit from 25th February to 27th April 2020 were included. Lung function was evaluated through chest CT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of persisting lung alterations. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (75%) completed lung assessment. Chest CT scan was performed after a median (interquartile range) time of 97 (89-105) days, whilst PFT after 142 (133-160) days. The median age was 58 (52-65) years and most patients were male (90%). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 11 (6-16) days. Median tidal volume/ideal body weight (TV/IBW) was 6.8 (5.71-7.67) ml/Kg. 59% and 63% of patients showed radiological and functional lung sequelae, respectively. The diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO ) was reduced by 59%, with a median per cent of predicted DLCO of 72.1 (57.9-93.9) %. Mean TV/IBW during invasive ventilation emerged as an independent predictor of persistent CT scan abnormalities, whilst the duration of mechanical ventilation was an independent predictor of both CT and PFT abnormalities. The extension of lung involvement at hospital admission (evaluated through Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema, RALE score) independently predicted the risk of persistent alterations in PFTs. CONCLUSIONS: Both the extent of lung parenchymal involvement and mechanical ventilation protocols predict morphological and functional lung abnormalities months after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
15.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021419, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Europe, Italy and Lombardy, in autumn 2020, there was a steep increase in reported cases due to the second epidemic wave of SARS-Cov-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of COVID-19 patients' admissions to the ED of the San Raffaele Hospital. METHODS: We compared data between the inter-wave period (IWP, from 1st to 30th September) and the second wave period (WP, 1st October to 15th November) focusing on the ED presentation, discharge priority colour code and outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 977 admissions with a SARS-Cov-2 positive swab, 6% were in the IWP and 94% in the WP. Red, yellow and white code increased (these latter from 1.8% to 5.4%) as well as self-presented in yellow and white code. Discharges home increased from 1.8% to 5.4%, while hospitalizations decreased from 63% to 51%. DISCUSSION: We found a rise in white codes (among self-presented patients), indicating inappropriateness of admissions. The increase in discharges suggests that several patients did not require hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic brought out the fundamental role of primary care to manage patients with low-intensity needs. The important increase in ED admissions of COVID-19 patients caused a reduction of NO-COVID-19 patients, with possible inadequate treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 152, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496221

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 is characterized by dysregulated immune response, respiratory failure and a relevant mortality rate among hospitalized patients. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in COVID-19-associated cytokine storm, and several trials investigated whether its inhibition could improve patients' outcome. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials (RCT) to test this hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two independent investigators searched PubMed, Scopus, ClnicalTrials.gov and medRxiv up to September 1st, 2021. Inclusion criteria were: administration of tocilizumab or sarilumab; COVID-19 adult patients with pneumonia; and being a RCT. Primary outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up. Secondary outcomes included intubation rate and incidence of adverse events. Two independent investigators extracted data from eligible trials. RESULTS: Of the 763 studies assessed, 15 RCTs were included (9,320 patients), all were multicentre, and the majority open-label vs standard treatment. IL-6 inhibitors were associated with reduced all-cause mortality at the longest follow-up (1315/5,380 [24.4%] in the IL-6 inhibitors group versus 1080/3,814 [28.3%] in the control group, RR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.96; p for effect = 0.003, I2 = 0%, with 13 studies included), with reduction in 28/30-day mortality and intubation rates, and with no increase in adverse events and secondary infections. CONCLUSION: IL-6 inhibitors reduced longest follow-up mortality and intubation in COVID-19 patients. Findings need to be confirmed in high-quality RCTs.

17.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 52(1): e13703, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488194

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 may result in a systemic disease and a proportion of patients ranging 15%-44% experienced cardiac injury (CI) diagnosed by abnormal troponin levels. The aim of the present study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of a large series of hospitalized patients for COVID-19 in order to identify predisposing and/or protective factors of CI and the outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is an observational, retrospective study on patients hospitalized in two Italian centres (San Raffaele Hospital and Cremona Hospital) for COVID-19 and at least one high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTnt) measurement during hospitalization. CI was defined if at least one hs-cTnt value was above the 99th percentile. The primary end-point was the occurrence of CI during hospitalization. We included 750 patients (median age 67, IQR 56-77 years; 69% males), of whom 46.9% had history of hypertension, 14.7% of chronic coronary disease and 22.3% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Abnormal troponin levels (median troponin 74, IQR 34-147 ng/l) were detected in 390 patients (52%) during the hospitalization. At multivariable analysis age, CKD, cancer, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were independently associated with CI. Independent predictors of very high troponin levels were chronic kidney disease and CRP levels. Patients with CI showed higher rate of all-cause mortality (40.0% vs. 9.1%, p = 0.001) compared to those without CI. CONCLUSION: This large, multicentre Italian study confirmed the high prevalence of CI and its prognostic role in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, highlighting the leading role of systemic inflammation for the occurrence of CI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/virology , Inflammation/virology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Troponin/blood
18.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 28(6): 423-431, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests increased during the COVID-19 pandemic and a direct mechanism of cardiac arrest in infected patients was hypothesized. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to April 05, 2021. We included studies comparing out-of-hospital cardiac arrests patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection versus noninfected patients. The primary outcome was survival at hospital discharge or at 30 days. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation, cardiac arrest witnessed and occurring at home, bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation, proportion of nonshockable rhythm and resuscitation attempted, and ambulance arrival time. RESULTS: In the ten included studies, 18% (1341/7545) of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurred in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and SARS-CoV-2 infection had reduced rates of survival (16/856 [1.9%] vs. 153/2344 [6.5%]; odds ratio (OR) = 0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.65; P = 0.001; I2 = 28%) and return of spontaneous circulation (188/861 [22%] vs. 640/2403 [27%]; OR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) when compared to noninfected patients. Ambulance arrived later (15 ± 10 vs. 13 ± 7.5 min; mean difference = 1.64; 95% CI, 0.41-2.88; P = 0.009; I2 = 61%) and nonshockable rhythms (744/803 [93%] vs. 1828/2217 [82%]; OR = 2.79; 95% CI, 2.08-3.73; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) occurred more frequently. SARS-CoV-2 positive patients suffered a cardiac arrest at home more frequently (1186/1263 [94%] vs. 3598/4055 [89%]; OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.45-2.40; P<0.001; I2 = 0%) but witnessed rate (486/890 [55%] vs. 1385/2475 [56%]; OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.82-1.14; P = 0.63; I2 = 0%) and bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate (439/828 [53%] vs. 1164/2304 [51%]; OR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.24; P = 0.70; I2 = 53%) were similar. CONCLUSIONS: One-fifth of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection. These patients had low rates of return of spontaneous circulation and survival and were characterized by higher nonshockable rhythms but similar bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation rate. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO - CRD42021243540.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Humans , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483168

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite growing expertise and wide application of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of different origin and during pandemics (H1N1 Influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2), large reports are few and pertain mostly to multicenter registries, and randomized trials are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to report outcomes, trends, and innovations of VV ECMO treatment over the last 11 years. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study on 142 patients treated at the IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital in Milan from June 2009 (year of the H1N1 pandemic) to May 2020 (SARS-CoV-2 pandemic). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main causes of ARDS were H1N1 pneumonia in 36% of patients, bacterial pneumonia in 17%, and SARS-CoV-2 in 9%. Seventy-two percent of patients were centralized from remote hospitals, of whom 33% had implanted VV ECMO before transport. The most common cannulation strategy was the dual-lumen catheter cannulation system (55%), and anticoagulation was performed with bivalirudin in most patients (79%). Refractory hypoxia was treated with intravenous beta-blockers (64%), nitric oxide (20%), and pronation (8%). Almost one-third of patients (32%) were extubated while on ECMO. Forty-nine percent of patients were discharged from the intensive care unit, and hospital discharge was 46%; survival was lower in patients requiring VV ECMO for more than three weeks compared with shorter support duration (23% v 56%, p = 0.007). Anticoagulation with bivalirudin was associated with higher survival, compared with heparin (55% v 31%, p = 0.03), and lower thrombocytopenia incidence (69% v 35%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: VV ECMO is the pivotal rescue treatment for refractory ARDS-timely treatment and optimal care are needed to optimize therapy, as duration of support is associated with outcome. Anticoagulation with bivalirudin may improve outcome.

20.
Crit Care Med ; 50(3): 491-500, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are concerns of a high barotrauma rate in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. However, a few studies were published, and reported rates were highly variable. We performed a systematic literature review to identify rates of barotrauma, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum in coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. DATA SOURCE: PubMed and Scopus were searched for studies reporting barotrauma event rate in adult coronavirus disease 2019 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. STUDY SELECTION: We included all studies investigating adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation. Case reports, studies performed outside ICU setting, and pediatric studies were excluded. Two investigators independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators abstracted data on study characteristics, rate of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and overall barotrauma events, and mortality. When available, data from noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were also collected. Pooled estimates for barotrauma, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum were calculated. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 13 studies with 1,814 invasively ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 patients and 493 noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients were included. A total of 266/1,814 patients (14.7%) had at least one barotrauma event (pooled estimates, 16.1% [95% CI, 11.8-20.4%]). Pneumothorax occurred in 132/1,435 patients (pooled estimates, 10.7%; 95% CI, 6.7-14.7%), whereas pneumomediastinum occurred in 162/1,432 patients (pooled estimates, 11.2%; 95% CI, 8.0-14.3%). Mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 patients who developed barotrauma was 111/198 patients (pooled estimates, 61.6%; 95% CI, 50.2-73.0%). In noncoronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, barotrauma occurred in 31/493 patients (6.3%; pooled estimates, 5.7%; 95% CI, -2.1% to 13.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Barotrauma occurs in one out of six coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and is associated with a mortality rate of about 60%. Barotrauma rate may be higher than noncoronavirus disease 2019 controls.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Barotrauma/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/mortality , Pneumothorax/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
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