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1.
Acta Neurol Belg ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935892

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 70-year-old man coming to our attention for new onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) in a rapidly evolving CJD during SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Our case report describes a fulminant CJD evolution associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, which led to patient death after 15 days from admission. First EEG presented continuous diffuse spikes, sharp waves and sharp-and-slow wave complexes, pattern consistent with a non-convulsive status epilepticus (NORSE). Our case supports how CJD with SARS-CoV-2 co-infection could be characterized by an accelerated evolution, as already hypothesize for others microorganism infections, and how the diagnosis might be more challenging due to its uncommon presentations, such as NORSE.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266740, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785203

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 of patients affected by COVID-19 in olfactory mucosa (OM), sampled with nasal brushing (NB) and biopsy, and to assess whether a non-invasive procedure, such as NB, might be used as a large-scale procedure for demonstrating SARS-CoV-2 presence in olfactory neuroepithelium. Nasal brushings obtained from all the COVID-19 patients resulted positive to SARS-CoV-2 immunocytochemistry while controls were negative. Double immunofluorescence showed that SARS-CoV-2 positive cells included supporting cells as well as olfactory neurons and basal cells. OM biopsies showed an uneven distribution of SARS-CoV-2 positivity along the olfactory neuroepithelium, while OM from controls were negative. SARS-CoV-2 was distinctively found in sustentacular cells, olfactory neurons, and basal cells, supporting what was observed in NB. Ultrastructural analysis of OM biopsies showed SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in the cytoplasm of sustentacular cells. This study shows the presence of SARS-CoV-2 at the level of the olfactory neuroepithelium in patients affected by COVID-19. For the first time, we used NB as a rapid non-invasive tool for assessing a potential neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3019-e3026, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent findings indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related neurological manifestations involve cytokine release syndrome along with endothelial activation, blood brain barrier dysfunction, and immune-mediated mechanisms. Very few studies have fully investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlates of SARS-CoV-2 encephalitis. METHODS: Patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and encephalitis (COV-Enc), encephalitis without SARS-CoV-2 infection (ENC), and healthy controls (HC) underwent an extended panel of CSF neuronal (neurofilament light chain [NfL], T-tau), glial (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 [sTREM2], chitinase-3-like protein 1 [YKL-40]) and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL-6, Il-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF] α, CXCL-13, and ß2-microglobulin). RESULTS: Thirteen COV-Enc, 21 ENC, and 18 HC entered the study. In COV-Enc cases, CSF was negative for SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR but exhibited increased IL-8 levels independently from presence of pleocytosis/hyperproteinorracchia. COV-Enc patients showed increased IL-6, TNF- α, and ß2-microglobulin and glial markers (GFAP, sTREM2, YKL-40) levels similar to ENC but normal CXCL13 levels. Neuronal markers NfL and T-tau were abnormal only in severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-related encephalitis were associated with prominent glial activation and neuroinflammatory markers, whereas neuronal markers were increased in severe cases only. The pattern of CSF alterations suggested a cytokine-release syndrome as the main inflammatory mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-related encephalitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Neurol Sci ; 43(1): 99-104, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446168

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It is reported that recovery from COVID-19 chemosensory deficit generally occurs in a few weeks, although olfactory dysfunction may persist longer. Here, we provide a detailed follow-up clinical investigation in a very young female patient (17-year-old) with a long-lasting anosmia after a mild infection, with partial recovery 15 months after the onset. METHODS: Neuroimaging and neurophysiologic assessments as well as olfactory mucosa swabbing for microbiological and immunocytochemical analyses were performed. Olfactory and gustatory evaluations were conducted through validated tests. RESULTS: Chemosensory evaluations were consistent with anosmia associated with parosmia phenomena and gustatory impairment, the latter less persistent. Brain MRI (3.0 T) showed no microvascular injury in olfactory bulbs and brain albeit we cannot rule out slight structural abnormalities during the acute phase, and a high-density EEG was negative. Immunocytochemistry of olfactory mucosa swabs showed high expression of ACE2 in sustentacular cells and lower dot-like cytoplasmic positivity in neuronal-shaped cells. DISCUSSION: The occurrence of long-term persistent olfactory deficit in spite of the absence of structural brain and olfactory bulb involvement supports the view of a possible persistent dysfunction of both sustentacular cells and olfactory neurons. The gustatory dysfunction even if less persisting for the described features could be related to a primary gustatory system involvement. Future longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the persistence of chemosensory impairment, which could have a relevant impact on the daily life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders
5.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 28-37, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several preclinical and clinical investigations have argued for nervous system involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Some sparse case reports have described various forms of encephalitis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, but very few data have focused on clinical presentations, clinical course, response to treatment, and outcomes. METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 related encephalopaties (ENCOVID) multicenter study included patients with encephalitis with full infectious screening, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection recruited from 13 centers in northern Italy. Clinical presentation and laboratory markers, severity of COVID-19 disease, response to treatment, and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases of encephalitis positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. CSF showed hyperproteinorrachia and/or pleocytosis in 68% of cases whereas SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction resulted negative. Based on MRI, cases were classified as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM; n = 3), limbic encephalitis (LE; n = 2), encephalitis with normal imaging (n = 13), and encephalitis with MRI alterations (n = 7). ADEM and LE cases showed a delayed onset compared to the other encephalitis cases (P = .001) and were associated with previous, more severe COVID-19 respiratory involvement. Patients with MRI alterations exhibited worse response to treatment and final outcomes compared to those with other encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a wide spectrum of encephalitis characterized by different clinical presentation, response to treatment, and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis/classification , Encephalitis/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged
6.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(2): 218-220, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873577
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