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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(2): 259-278, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650730

ABSTRACT

Kidney disease is a known risk factor for poor outcomes of COVID-19 and many other serious infections. Conversely, infection is the second most common cause of death in patients with kidney disease. However, little is known about the underlying secondary immunodeficiency related to kidney disease (SIDKD). In contrast to cardiovascular disease related to kidney disease, which has triggered countless epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental research activities or interventional trials, investments in tracing, understanding, and therapeutically targeting SIDKD have been sparse. As a call for more awareness of SIDKD as an imminent unmet medical need that requires rigorous research activities at all levels, we review the epidemiology of SIDKD and the numerous aspects of the abnormal immunophenotype of patients with kidney disease. We propose a definition of SIDKD and discuss the pathogenic mechanisms of SIDKD known thus far, including more recent insights into the unexpected immunoregulatory roles of elevated levels of FGF23 and hyperuricemia and shifts in the secretome of the intestinal microbiota in kidney disease. As an ultimate goal, we should aim to develop therapeutics that can reduce mortality due to infections in patients with kidney disease by normalizing host defense to pathogens and immune responses to vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Adaptive Immunity , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/prevention & control , Immunophenotyping , Models, Immunological , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
2.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 12, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a toll on health care systems worldwide, which has led to increased mortality of different diseases like myocardial infarction. This is most likely due to three factors. First, an increased workload per nurse ratio, a factor associated with mortality. Second, patients presenting with COVID-19-like symptoms are isolated, which also decreases survival in cases of emergency. And third, patients hesitate to see a doctor or present themselves at a hospital. To assess if this is also true for sepsis patients, we asked whether non-COVID-19 sepsis patients had an increased 30-day mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the SepsisDataNet.NRW study, a multicentric, prospective study that includes septic patients fulfilling the SEPSIS-3 criteria. Within this study, we compared the 30-day mortality and disease severity of patients recruited pre-pandemic (recruited from March 2018 until February 2020) with non-COVID-19 septic patients recruited during the pandemic (recruited from March 2020 till December 2020). RESULTS: Comparing septic patients recruited before the pandemic to those recruited during the pandemic, we found an increased raw 30-day mortality in sepsis-patients recruited during the pandemic (33% vs. 52%, p = 0.004). We also found a significant difference in the severity of disease at recruitment (SOFA score pre-pandemic: 8 (5 - 11) vs. pandemic: 10 (8 - 13); p < 0.001). When adjusted for this, the 30-day mortality rates were not significantly different between the two groups (52% vs. 52% pre-pandemic and pandemic, p = 0.798). CONCLUSIONS: This led us to believe that the higher mortality of non-COVID19 sepsis patients during the pandemic might be attributed to a more severe septic disease at the time of recruitment. We note that patients may experience a delayed admission, as indicated by elevated SOFA scores. This could explain the higher mortality during the pandemic and we found no evidence for a diminished quality of care for critically ill sepsis patients in German intensive care units.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Sepsis/mortality , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(2): 97-98, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569157
4.
J Crit Care ; 67: 108-117, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565598

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a contributor to adverse outcomes. Preventive measures reduce AKI incidence in high risk patients, identified by biomarkers [TIMP-2]*[IGFBP7] (Nephrocheck®). This study investigate clinical AKI risk assessment by healthcare professionals and the added value of the biomarker result. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult patients were prospectively included. Healthcare professionals predicted CSA-AKI, with and without biomarker result knowledge. Predicted outcomes were AKI based on creatinine, AKI stage 3 on urine output, anuria and use of kidney replacement therapy (KRT). RESULTS: One-hundred patients were included. Consultant and ICU residents were best in AKI prediction, respectively AUROC 0.769 (95% CI, 0.672-0.850) and 0.702 (95% CI, 0.599-0.791). AUROC of NephroCheck® was 0.541 (95% CI, 0.438-0.642). AKI 3 occurred in only 4 patients; there was no anuria or use of KRT. ICU nurses and ICU residents had an AUROC for prediction of AKI 3 of respectively 0.867 (95% CI, 0.780-0.929) and 0.809 (95% CI, 0.716-0.883); for NephroCheck® this was 0.838 (95% CI, 0.750-0.904). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals performed poor or fair in predicting CSA-AKI and knowledge of Nephrocheck® result did not improved prediction. No conclusions could be made for prediction of severe AKI, due to limited number of events.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Biomarkers , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins , Prospective Studies , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
6.
Blood ; 139(14): 2130-2144, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457448

ABSTRACT

Modulation of neutrophil recruitment and function is crucial for targeting inflammatory cells to sites of infection to combat invading pathogens while, at the same time, limiting host tissue injury or autoimmunity. The underlying mechanisms regulating recruitment of neutrophils, 1 of the most abundant inflammatory cells, have gained increasing interest over the years. The previously described classical recruitment cascade of leukocytes has been extended to include capturing, rolling, adhesion, crawling, and transmigration, as well as a reverse-transmigration step that is crucial for balancing immune defense and control of remote organ endothelial leakage. Current developments in the field emphasize the importance of cellular interplay, tissue environmental cues, circadian rhythmicity, detection of neutrophil phenotypes, differential chemokine sensing, and contribution of distinct signaling components to receptor activation and integrin conformations. The use of therapeutics modulating neutrophil activation responses, as well as mutations causing dysfunctional neutrophil receptors and impaired signaling cascades, have been defined in translational animal models. Human correlates of such mutations result in increased susceptibility to infections or organ damage. This review focuses on current advances in the understanding of the regulation of neutrophil recruitment and functionality and translational implications of current discoveries in the field with a focus on acute inflammation and sepsis.


Subject(s)
Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Animals , Humans , Inflammation , Integrins , Neutrophil Infiltration
7.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339532

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils act as the first line of defense during infection and inflammation. Once activated, they are able to fulfil numerous tasks to fight inflammatory insults while keeping a balanced immune response. Besides well-known functions, such as phagocytosis and degranulation, neutrophils are also able to release "neutrophil extracellular traps" (NETs). In response to most stimuli, the neutrophils release decondensed chromatin in a NADPH oxidase-dependent manner decorated with histones and granule proteins, such as neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase, and cathelicidins. Although primarily supposed to prevent microbial dissemination and fight infections, there is increasing evidence that an overwhelming NET response correlates with poor outcome in many diseases. Lung-related diseases especially, such as bacterial pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspergillosis, influenza, and COVID-19, are often affected by massive NET formation. Highly vascularized areas as in the lung are susceptible to immunothrombotic events promoted by chromatin fibers. Keeping this fragile equilibrium seems to be the key for an appropriate immune response. Therapies targeting dysregulated NET formation might positively influence many disease progressions. This review highlights recent findings on the pathophysiological influence of NET formation in different bacterial, viral, and non-infectious lung diseases and summarizes medical treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Neutrophils/microbiology , Neutrophils/virology , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology
8.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3125-3139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Citrullination , Complement Activation , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/etiology
9.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(1): 49-64, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065885

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding of the fundamental processes underlying the versatile clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is incomplete without comprehension of how different immune cells are recruited to various compartments of virus-infected lungs, and how this recruitment differs among individuals with different levels of disease severity. As in other respiratory infections, leukocyte recruitment to the respiratory system in people with COVID-19 is orchestrated by specific leukocyte trafficking molecules, and when uncontrolled and excessive it results in various pathological complications, both in the lungs and in other organs. In the absence of experimental data from physiologically relevant animal models, our knowledge of the trafficking signals displayed by distinct vascular beds and epithelial cell layers in response to infection by SARS-CoV-2 is still incomplete. However, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus elicit partially conserved inflammatory responses in the different respiratory epithelial cells encountered early in infection and may trigger partially overlapping combinations of trafficking signals in nearby blood vessels. Here, we review the molecular signals orchestrating leukocyte trafficking to airway and lung compartments during primary pneumotropic influenza virus infections and discuss potential similarities to distinct courses of primary SARS-CoV-2 infections. We also discuss how an imbalance in vascular activation by leukocytes outside the airways and lungs may contribute to extrapulmonary inflammatory complications in subsets of patients with COVID-19. These multiple molecular pathways are potential targets for therapeutic interventions in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Movement/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Epidemics , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(1): 49-64, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936143

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding of the fundamental processes underlying the versatile clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is incomplete without comprehension of how different immune cells are recruited to various compartments of virus-infected lungs, and how this recruitment differs among individuals with different levels of disease severity. As in other respiratory infections, leukocyte recruitment to the respiratory system in people with COVID-19 is orchestrated by specific leukocyte trafficking molecules, and when uncontrolled and excessive it results in various pathological complications, both in the lungs and in other organs. In the absence of experimental data from physiologically relevant animal models, our knowledge of the trafficking signals displayed by distinct vascular beds and epithelial cell layers in response to infection by SARS-CoV-2 is still incomplete. However, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus elicit partially conserved inflammatory responses in the different respiratory epithelial cells encountered early in infection and may trigger partially overlapping combinations of trafficking signals in nearby blood vessels. Here, we review the molecular signals orchestrating leukocyte trafficking to airway and lung compartments during primary pneumotropic influenza virus infections and discuss potential similarities to distinct courses of primary SARS-CoV-2 infections. We also discuss how an imbalance in vascular activation by leukocytes outside the airways and lungs may contribute to extrapulmonary inflammatory complications in subsets of patients with COVID-19. These multiple molecular pathways are potential targets for therapeutic interventions in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Movement/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Epidemics , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 16(12): 747-764, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872710

ABSTRACT

Kidney involvement in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common, and can range from the presence of proteinuria and haematuria to acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT; also known as kidney replacement therapy). COVID-19-associated AKI (COVID-19 AKI) is associated with high mortality and serves as an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. The pathophysiology and mechanisms of AKI in patients with COVID-19 have not been fully elucidated and seem to be multifactorial, in keeping with the pathophysiology of AKI in other patients who are critically ill. Little is known about the prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI. The emergence of regional 'surges' in COVID-19 cases can limit hospital resources, including dialysis availability and supplies; thus, careful daily assessment of available resources is needed. In this Consensus Statement, the Acute Disease Quality Initiative provides recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI based on current literature. We also make recommendations for areas of future research, which are aimed at improving understanding of the underlying processes and improving outcomes for patients with COVID-19 AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Consensus , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Anesth Analg ; 131(1): 93-96, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-606360

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, several cases of pneumonia of unknown origin were reported from China, which in early January 2020 were announced to be caused by a novel coronavirus. The virus was later denominated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and defined as the causal agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite massive attempts to contain the disease in China, the virus has spread globally, and COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. Here we provide a short background on coronaviruses, and describe in more detail the novel SARS-CoV-2 and attempts to identify effective therapies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Anesthesiologists , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Critical Care , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
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