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Environ Res ; 228: 115886, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297095


Intoxication with methanol most commonly occurs as a consequence of ingesting, inhaling, or coming into contact with formulations that include methanol as a base. Clinical manifestations of methanol poisoning include suppression of the central nervous system, gastrointestinal symptoms, and decompensated metabolic acidosis, which is associated with impaired vision and either early or late blindness within 0.5-4 h after ingestion. After ingestion, methanol concentrations in the blood that are greater than 50 mg/dl should raise some concern. Ingested methanol is typically digested by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and it is subsequently redistributed to the body's water to attain a volume distribution that is about equivalent to 0.77 L/kg. Moreover, it is removed from the body as its natural, unchanged parent molecules. Due to the fact that methanol poisoning is relatively uncommon but frequently involves a large number of victims at the same time, this type of incident occupies a special position in the field of clinical toxicology. The beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an increase in erroneous assumptions regarding the preventative capability of methanol in comparison to viral infection. More than 1000 Iranians fell ill, and more than 300 of them passed away in March of this year after they consumed methanol in the expectation that it would protect them from a new coronavirus. The Atlanta epidemic, which involved 323 individuals and resulted in the deaths of 41, is one example of mass poisoning. Another example is the Kristiansand outbreak, which involved 70 people and resulted in the deaths of three. In 2003, the AAPCC received reports of more than one thousand pediatric exposures. Since methanol poisoning is associated with high mortality rates, it is vital that the condition be addressed seriously and managed as quickly as feasible. The objective of this review was to raise awareness about the mechanism and metabolism of methanol toxicity, the introduction of therapeutic interventions such as gastrointestinal decontamination and methanol metabolism inhibition, the correction of metabolic disturbances, and the establishment of novel diagnostic/screening nanoparticle-based strategies for methanol poisoning such as the discovery of ADH inhibitors as well as the detection of the adulteration of alcoholic drinks by nanoparticles in order to prevent methanol poisoning. In conclusion, increasing warnings and knowledge about clinical manifestations, medical interventions, and novel strategies for methanol poisoning probably results in a decrease in the death load.

COVID-19 , Poisoning , Humans , Child , Methanol/metabolism , Methanol/toxicity , Pandemics , Iran , Poisoning/therapy
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 69-84, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530555


OBJECTIVE: In this systematic scoping review, it was aimed to assess the epidemiology of methanol poisoning, clinical findings and patients' management, causes, and recommendations regarding prevention or reduction of methanol poisoning during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Three Electronic databases [Medline (accessed from PubMed), Scopus, and Science Direct] were searched systematically from December 01, 2019 to September 10, 2020, using MESH terms and the related keywords in English language. Considering the titles and abstracts, unrelated studies were excluded. The full texts of the remained studies were evaluated by authors, independently. Then, the studies' findings were assessed and reported. RESULTS: Total of 86 articles were obtained within the first step of searching, and 64 ones remained after removing the duplications. Through the title and abstract screening, 35 were removed. Finally, after reading the full text of the remained articles, 15 ones included in data extraction. Most of the previous reported evidence (13/15) were letter to editor, commentary and short reports. None of them were interventional, and none of them followed the patients. Findings were summarized in four categories: 1) epidemiology; 2) clinical findings and patients' management; 3) causes; and 4) recommendation regarding prevention or reduction of methanol poisoning during COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The recent outbreak is the largest methanol mass poisoning outbreak throughout Iran and the world in recent decades. The causes of methanol poisoning during the COVID-19 pandemic are intertwined, and most of them are modifiable by health policy makers. Building trust, educating and warning, as well as controlling and monitoring are three main recommendation for prevention or reduction of methanol poisoning.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Methanol/poisoning , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Hand Sanitizers/poisoning , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2