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1.
Microorganisms ; 10(5)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855707

ABSTRACT

Previous studies assessing the antibody response (AbR) to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are limited by short follow-up, hampering the analysis of AbR kinetics. We present the ORCHESTRA SOT recipients cohort assessed for AbR at first dose (t0), second dose (t1), and within 3 ± 1 month (t2) after the first dose. We analyzed 1062 SOT patients (kidney, 63.7%; liver, 17.4%; heart, 16.7%; and lung, 2.5%) and 5045 health care workers (HCWs). The AbR rates in the SOTs and HCWs were 52.3% and 99.4%. The antibody levels were significantly higher in the HCWs than in the SOTs (p < 0.001). The kinetics showed an increase (p < 0.001) in antibody levels up to 76 days and a non-significant decrease after 118 days in the SOT recipients versus a decrease up to 76 days (p = 0.02) and a less pronounced decrease between 76 and 118 days (p = 0.04) in the HCWs. Upon multivariable analysis, liver transplant, ≥3 years from SOT, mRNA-1273, azathioprine, and longer time from t0 were associated with a positive AbR at t2. Older age, other comorbidities, mycophenolate, steroids, and impaired graft function were associated with lower AbR probability. Our results may be useful to optimize strategies of immune monitoring after COVID-19 vaccination and indications regarding timing for booster dosages calibrated on SOT patients' characteristics.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 853682, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822362

ABSTRACT

The antibody and T cell responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination have not been formally compared between kidney and liver transplant recipients. Using a multiplex assay, we measured IgG levels against 4 epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleocapsid (NC) antigen, SARS-CoV-2 variants, and common coronaviruses in serial blood samples from 52 kidney and 50 liver transplant recipients undergoing mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We quantified IFN-γ/IL-2 T cells reactive against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by FluoroSpot. We used multivariable generalized linear models to adjust for the differences in immunosuppression between groups. In liver transplant recipients, IgG levels against every SARS-CoV-2 spike epitope increased significantly more than in kidney transplant recipients (MFI: 19,617 vs 6,056; P<0.001), a difference that remained significant after adjustments. Vaccine did not affect IgG levels against NC nor common coronaviruses. Elicited antibodies recognized all variants tested but at significantly lower strength than the original Wuhan strain. Anti-spike IFN-γ-producing T cells increased significantly more in liver than in kidney transplant recipients (IFN-γ-producing T cells 28 vs 11 spots/5x105 cells), but this difference lost statistical significance after adjustments. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicits a stronger antibody response in liver than in kidney transplant recipients, a phenomenon that is not entirely explained by the different immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Kidney , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common, familial genitourinary disorder, and a major cause of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) and kidney failure. The genetic basis of VUR is not well understood. METHODS: A diagnostic analysis sought rare, pathogenic copy number variant (CNV) disorders among 1737 patients with VUR. A GWAS was performed in 1395 patients and 5366 controls, of European ancestry. RESULTS: Altogether, 3% of VUR patients harbored an undiagnosed rare CNV disorder, such as the 1q21.1, 16p11.2, 22q11.21, and triple X syndromes ((OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.54; P=6.35×10-8) The GWAS identified three study-wide significant and five suggestive loci with large effects (ORs, 1.41-6.9), containing canonical developmental genes expressed in the developing urinary tract (WDPCP, OTX1, BMP5, VANGL1, and WNT5A). In particular, 3.3% of VUR patients were homozygous for an intronic variant in WDPCP (rs13013890; OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.39 to 5.56; P=1.86×10-9). This locus was associated with multiple genitourinary phenotypes in the UK Biobank and eMERGE studies. Analysis of Wnt5a mutant mice confirmed the role of Wnt5a signaling in bladder and ureteric morphogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity of VUR. Altogether, 6% of patients with VUR harbored a rare CNV or a common variant genotype conferring an OR >3. Identification of these genetic risk factors has multiple implications for clinical care and for analysis of outcomes in VUR.

4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 710543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403498

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients are at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 due to the coexistence of several transplant-related comorbidities (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes) and chronic immunosuppression. As a consequence, a large part of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients have been managed with a reduction of immunosuppression. The mTOR-I, together with antimetabolites, have been often discontinued in order to minimize the risk of pulmonary toxicity and to antagonize pharmacological interaction with antiviral/anti-inflammatory drugs. However, at our opinion, this therapeutic strategy, although justified in kidney transplant recipients with severe COVID-19, should be carefully evaluated in asymptomatic/paucisymptomatic patients in order to avoid the onset of acute allograft rejections, to potentially exploit the mTOR-I antiviral properties, to reduce proliferation of conventional T lymphocytes (which could mitigate the cytokine storm) and to preserve Treg growth/activity which could reduce the risk of progression to severe disease. In this review, we discuss the current literature regarding the therapeutic potential of mTOR-Is in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 with a focus on pulmonary fibrosis.

7.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3149-3161, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835285

ABSTRACT

Whether kidney transplant recipients are capable of mounting an effective anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) adaptive immune response despite chronic immunosuppression is unknown and has important implications for therapy. Herein, we analyzed peripheral blood cell surface and intracellular cytokine phenotyping by flow cytometry along with serum antibody testing in 18 kidney transplant recipients with active coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and 36 matched, transplanted controls without COVID-19. We observed significantly fewer total lymphocytes and fewer circulating memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the COVID-19 subjects. We also showed fewer anergic and senescent CD8+ T cells in COVID-19 individuals, but no differences in exhausted CD8+ T cells, nor in any of these CD4+ T cell subsets between groups. We also observed greater frequencies of activated B cells in the COVID-19 patients. Sixteen of 18 COVID-19 subjects tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies showed positive immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin G titers. Additional analyses showed no significant correlation among immune phenotypes and degrees of COVID-19 disease severity. Our findings indicate that immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipients admitted to the hospital with acute COVID-19 infection can mount SARS-CoV-2-reactive adaptive immune responses. The findings raise the possibility that empiric reductions in immunosuppressive therapy for all kidney transplant recipients with active COVID-19 may not be required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Transplant Recipients , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency/surgery , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 423, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704524

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a world health emergency. The disease predominantly effects individuals between 30 and 79 years of age with 81% of cases being classified as mild. Despite the majority of the general population displaying symptoms similar to the common cold, COVID-19 has also induced alveolar damage resulting in progressive respiratory failure with fatalities noted in 6.4% of cases. Direct viral injury, uncontrolled inflammation, activation of coagulation, and complement cascades are thought to participate in disease pathogenesis. Patients with COVID-19 have displayed kidney damage through acute kidney injury, mild proteinuria, hematuria, or slight elevation in creatinine possibly as consequence of kidney tropism of the virus and multiorgan failure. The impact of COVID-19 on patients with pre-existing kidney impairment, including those with chronic kidney disease, kidney transplant recipients, and individuals on hemodialysis (HD) has not yet been clearly established. No specific treatments for COVID-19 have been found yet. Research has revealed several agents that may have potential efficacy against COVID-19, and many of these molecules have demonstrated preliminary efficacy against COVID-19 and are currently being tested in clinical trials.

9.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3140-3148, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638753

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients may be at a high risk of developing critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness due to chronic immunosuppression and comorbidities. We identified hospitalized adult kidney transplant recipients at 12 transplant centers in the United States, Italy, and Spain who tested positive for COVID-19. Clinical presentation, laboratory values, immunosuppression, and treatment strategies were reviewed, and predictors of poor clinical outcomes were determined through multivariable analyses. Among 9845 kidney transplant recipients across centers, 144 were hospitalized due to COVID-19 during the 9-week study period. Of the 144 patients, 66% were male with a mean age of 60 (±12) years, and 40% were Hispanic and 25% were African American. Prevalent comorbidities included hypertension (95%), diabetes (52%), obesity (49%), and heart (28%) and lung (19%) disease. Therapeutic management included antimetabolite withdrawal (68%), calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal (23%), hydroxychloroquine (71%), antibiotics (74%), tocilizumab (13%), and antivirals (14%). During a median follow-up period of 52 days (IQR: 16-66 days), acute kidney injury occurred in 52% cases, with respiratory failure requiring intubation in 29%, and the mortality rate was 32%. The 46 patients who died were older, had lower lymphocyte counts and estimated glomerular filtration rate levels, and had higher serum lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 levels. In sum, hospitalized kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 have higher rates of acute kidney injury and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , North America/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
J Nephrol ; 33(4): 667-680, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505584

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first Western country to face the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we report the results of a national survey on kidney transplantation activity in February and March 2020, and the results of a three-round Delphi consensus promoted by four scientific societies: the Italian Society of Organ Transplantation, the Italian Society of Nephrology, the Italian Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, and the Italian Group on Antimicrobial Stewardship. All 41 Italian transplant centers were invited to express their opinion in the Delphi rounds along with a group of seven experts. The survey revealed that, starting from March 2020, there was a decline in kidney transplantation activity in Italy, especially for living-related transplants. Overall, 60 recipients tested positive for SARS-CoV2 infection, 57 required hospitalization, 17 were admitted to the ICU, and 11 died. The online consensus had high response rates at each round (95.8%, 95.8%, and 89.5%, respectively). Eventually, 27 of 31 proposed statements were approved (87.1%), 12 at the first or second round (38.7%), and 3 at the third (9.7%). Based on the Italian experience, we discuss the reasons for the changes in kidney transplantation activity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Western countries. We also provide working recommendations for the organization and management of kidney transplantation under these conditions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Living Donors , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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