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1.
Molecules ; 27(24):8829, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2163528

ABSTRACT

Current therapy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are based on the use of Remdesivir 1, Molnupiravir 2, and the recently identified Nirmatrelvir 3. Unfortunately, these three drugs showed some limitations regarding potency and possible drug-drug interactions. A series of derivatives coming from a decoration approach of the privileged scaffold s-triazines were synthesized and evaluated against SAR-CoV-2. One derivative emerged as the hit of the series for its micromolar antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity. Mode of action and pharmacokinetic in vitro preliminary studies further confirm the role as candidates for a future optimization campaign of the most active derivative identified with this work.

2.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997528

ABSTRACT

Despite the major target of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, being the respiratory system, clinical evidence suggests that the male reproductive system may represent another viral target organ. Revealing the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on testis and sperm is a priority for reproductive biology, as well as for reproductive medicine. Here, we confirmed that the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed on human testis and ejaculated sperm; moreover, we provide evidence for the expression of the co-receptors transmembrane protease/serine (TMPRSS2), Basigin (BSG), and Catepsin L (CTSL). Human sperm were readily infected, both in vivo and in vitro, by SARS-CoV-2, as demonstrated by confocal and electron microscopy. The demonstration that the seminiferous epithelium and sperm support SARS-CoV-2 viral replication suggests the possibility that the spermatogenetic process may be detrimentally affected by the virus, and at the same time, supports the need to implement safety measures and guidelines to ensure specific care in reproductive medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen/metabolism , Spermatozoa/metabolism , Testis/metabolism
3.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 14(1): e2022050, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988182

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and at high risk of progression, casirivimab/imdevimab and bamlanivimab/etesivimab were utilized in Umbria from late April to November 2021. This period was characterized by an initial prevalence of alpha (B1.1.1.7) and its progressive substitution with the delta variant (B1.617.2). Many delta infections occurred in patients already recently vaccinated.Our study aimed to observe the clinical outcome of patients treated with mAbs associations in a subgroup in which viral isolation was obtained, the pre and post-infusion neutralizing antibody activity against their viral isolate. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, the clinical outcome before and 30 days after infusion, the baseline neutralizing activity of sera against their viral isolate, and the titers of neutralizing antibodies (NAbTs) one-hour post-infusion relative to the type of mAbs associations were evaluated. Results: Better efficacy of the mAbs combinations relative to monotherapy regarding global hospitalization (p = 0.021) and 30 days symptoms (p<0.001) were seen. Infections after vaccination mostly occurred in the absence of neutralizing antibody titers (NAbT). SARS-CoV-2 delta variants were isolated within 2-4 months from vaccinations without NAbTs, or in the presence of high specific neutralizing activity after 5-6 months. NAbTs were higher after casirivimab/imdevimab infusion (p=0.001). Conclusions: Alpha infections occurred prevalently in unvaccinated patients or after 5-6 months, while delta infections prevailed in vaccinated ones. A poor neutralizing activity in most of these patients was seen. A higher NAbT after infusion of casirivimab/imdevimab was observed.

4.
Viruses ; 14(7), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970442

ABSTRACT

Newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants may escape monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antiviral drugs. By using live virus assays, we assessed the ex vivo inhibition of the B.1 wild-type (WT), delta and omicron BA.1 and BA.2 lineages by post-infusion sera from 40 individuals treated with bamlanivimab/etesevimab (BAM/ETE), casirivimab/imdevimab (CAS/IMD), and sotrovimab (SOT) as well as the activity of remdesivir, nirmatrelvir and molnupiravir. mAbs and drug activity were defined as the serum dilution (ID50) and drug concentration (IC50), respectively, showing 50% protection of virus-induced cytopathic effect. All pre-infusion sera were negative for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity. BAM/ETE, CAS/IMD, and SOT showed activity against the WT (ID50 6295 (4355–8075) for BAM/ETE;18,214 (16,248–21,365) for CAS/IMD;and 456 (265–592) for SOT) and the delta (14,780 (ID50 10,905–21,020) for BAM/ETE;63,937 (47,211–79,971) for CAS/IMD;and 1103 (843–1334) for SOT). Notably, only SOT was active against BA.1 (ID50 200 (37–233)), whereas BA.2 was neutralized by CAS/IMD (ID50 174 (134–209) ID50) and SOT (ID50 20 (9–31) ID50), but not by BAM/ETE. No significant inter-variant IC50 differences were observed for molnupiravir (1.5 ± 0.1/1.5 ± 0.7/1.0 ± 0.5/0.8 ± 0.01 μM for WT/delta/BA.1/BA.2, respectively), nirmatrelvir (0.05 ± 0.02/0.06 ± 0.01/0.04 ± 0.02/0.04 ± 0.01 μM) or remdesivir (0.08 ± 0.04/0.11 ± 0.08/0.05 ± 0.04/0.08 ± 0.01 μM). Continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2 requires updating the mAbs arsenal, although antivirals have so far remained unaffected.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969548

ABSTRACT

We report the time course of neutralizing antibody (NtAb) response, as measured by authentic virus neutralization, in healthcare workers (HCWs) with a mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection diagnosed at the onset of the pandemic, with no reinfection throughout and after a three-dose schedule of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with an overall follow-up of almost two years since infection. Forty-eight HCWs (median age 47 years, all immunocompetent) were evaluated: 29 (60.4%) were asymptomatic. NtAb serum was titrated at eight subsequent time points: T1 and T2 were after natural infection, T3 on the day of the first vaccine dose, T4 on the day of the second dose, T5, T6, and T7 were between the second and third dose, and T8 followed the third dose by a median of 34 days. NtAb titers at all postvaccination time points (T4 to T8) were significantly higher than all those at prevaccination time points (T1 to T3). The highest NtAb increase was following the first vaccine dose while subsequent doses did not further boost NtAb titers. However, the third vaccine dose appeared to revive waning immunity. NtAb levels were positively correlated at most time points suggesting an important role for immunogenetics.

6.
Microorganisms ; 10(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The development of effective vaccines has partially mitigated the trend of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; however, the need for orally administered antiviral drugs persists. This study aims to investigate the activity of molnupiravir in combination with nirmatrelvir or GC376 on SARS-CoV-2 to verify the synergistic effect. METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 strains 20A.EU, BA.1 and BA.2 were used to infect Vero E6 in presence of antiviral compounds alone or in combinations using five two-fold serial dilution of compound concentrations ≤EC90. After 48 and 72 h post-infection, viability was performed using MTT reduction assay. Supernatants were collected for plaque-assay titration. All experiments were performed in triplicate, each being repeated at least three times. The synergistic score was calculated using Synergy Finder version 2. RESULTS: All compounds reached micromolar EC90. Molnupiravir and GC376 showed a synergistic activity at 48 h with an HSA score of 19.33 (p < 0.0001) and an additive activity at 72 h with an HSA score of 8.61 (p < 0.0001). Molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir showed a synergistic activity both at 48 h and 72 h with an HSA score of 14.2 (p = 0.01) and 13.08 (p < 0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Molnupiravir associated with one of the two protease-inhibitors nirmatrelvir and GC376 showed good additive-synergic activity in vitro.

7.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911650

ABSTRACT

Newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants may escape monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antiviral drugs. By using live virus assays, we assessed the ex vivo inhibition of the B.1 wild-type (WT), delta and omicron BA.1 and BA.2 lineages by post-infusion sera from 40 individuals treated with bamlanivimab/etesevimab (BAM/ETE), casirivimab/imdevimab (CAS/IMD), and sotrovimab (SOT) as well as the activity of remdesivir, nirmatrelvir and molnupiravir. mAbs and drug activity were defined as the serum dilution (ID50) and drug concentration (IC50), respectively, showing 50% protection of virus-induced cytopathic effect. All pre-infusion sera were negative for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity. BAM/ETE, CAS/IMD, and SOT showed activity against the WT (ID50 6295 (4355-8075) for BAM/ETE; 18,214 (16,248-21,365) for CAS/IMD; and 456 (265-592) for SOT) and the delta (14,780 (ID50 10,905-21,020) for BAM/ETE; 63,937 (47,211-79,971) for CAS/IMD; and 1103 (843-1334) for SOT). Notably, only SOT was active against BA.1 (ID50 200 (37-233)), whereas BA.2 was neutralized by CAS/IMD (ID50 174 (134-209) ID50) and SOT (ID50 20 (9-31) ID50), but not by BAM/ETE. No significant inter-variant IC50 differences were observed for molnupiravir (1.5 ± 0.1/1.5 ± 0.7/1.0 ± 0.5/0.8 ± 0.01 µM for WT/delta/BA.1/BA.2, respectively), nirmatrelvir (0.05 ± 0.02/0.06 ± 0.01/0.04 ± 0.02/0.04 ± 0.01 µM) or remdesivir (0.08 ± 0.04/0.11 ± 0.08/0.05 ± 0.04/0.08 ± 0.01 µM). Continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2 requires updating the mAbs arsenal, although antivirals have so far remained unaffected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
8.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809730

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may affect female reproductive health. Here, we investigated the potential of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the follicular microenvironment, in particular granulosa (GCs) and cumulus cells (CCs), thus providing evidence for a productive infection. GCs and CCs were recovered from women (n = 25) who underwent in vitro fertilization at the Assisted Reproductive Unit, Siena University Hospital. Follicular ovarian cells were co-cultured with SARS-CoV-2 and then analyzed by qPCR, immunofluorescence (IF), western blot (WB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, cell culture supernatant was used to infect VERO6 cells. We demonstrated the expression of cell host factors ACE2, TRPMSS2, BSG and CTSL, which are pivotal for the virus life cycle. Cultured GCs and CCs incubated with SARS-CoV-2 revealed productive SARS-CoV-2 infection at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post-adsorption. Indeed, SARS-CoV-2 RNA, spike and nucleocapsid proteins were detected in GCs and CCs, and their cell culture supernatant successfully infected the standard VERO E6 cells. Finally, TEM showed full-size virions attached to the membrane and located inside the cytoplasm. This in vitro study reveals the susceptibility of human ovarian cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting a potential detrimental effect of COVID-19 infection on female human fertility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Fertility , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786093

ABSTRACT

We described the long-term decay of neutralizing antibody (NtAb) to the wild-type and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variant after three antigen stimulations (mild or asymptomatic natural infection followed by two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine after a median of 296 days) in immunocompetent healthcare workers (HCWs). Live virus microneutralization against the B.1 and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants was performed in VERO E6 cell cultures. The median NtAb titers for B.1 and Delta were comparable and highly correlated at both 20 and 200 days after the second vaccine dose in the 23 HCWs enrolled (median age, 46 years). A small group of naturally infected unvaccinated HCWs had comparable NtAb titers for the two strains after a median follow-up of 522 days from infection diagnosis. The NtAb response to the Delta VoC appears to follow the same long-term dynamics as the wild-type response regardless of the vaccinal boost; data collected after three antigen stimulations (natural infection followed by two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine) may be helpful for tailoring the continuous monitoring of vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants over time.

11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 40-44, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654526

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the longitudinal evolution of neutralizing antibody titres (NtAb) in three different cohorts of healthcare workers (HCWs), including vaccinated HCWs with and without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and previously infected unvaccinated HCWs. COVID-19 was mild or asymptomatic in those experiencing infection. METHODS: NtAb was tested before BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (V0), 20±2 days after the first dose (V1_20), 20±3 days (V2_20) and 90±2 days (V2_90) after the second dose in vaccinated HCWs and after about 2 months (N_60), 10 months (N_300) and 13 months (N_390) from natural infection in unvaccinated HCWs. NtAb were measured by authentic virus neutralization with a SARS-CoV-2 B.1 isolate circulating in Italy at HCW enrolment. RESULTS: Sixty-two HCWs were enrolled. NtAb were comparable in infected HCWs with no or mild disease at all the study points. NtAb of uninfected HCWs were significantly lower with respect to those of previously infected HCWs at V1_20, V2_20 and V2_90. The median NtAb fold decrease from V2_20 to V2_90 was higher in the uninfected HCWs with respect to those with mild infection (6.26 vs 2.58, p=0.03) and to asymptomatic HCWs (6.26 vs 3.67, p=0.022). The median Nabt at N_390 was significantly lower than at N_60 (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In uninfected HCWs completing the two-dose vaccine schedule, a third mRNA vaccine dose is a reasonable option to counteract the substantial NtAb decline occurring at a significantly higher rate compared with previously infected, vaccinated HCWs. Although low, Nabt were still at a detectable level after 13 months in two-thirds of previously infected and unvaccinated HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Health Personnel , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
12.
ChemMedChem ; 16(23):3495-3495, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1557779

ABSTRACT

The Front Cover shows bithiazole derivatives acting as broad-spectrum antiviral agents (BSAAs) by targeting human host cells. These molecules block the replication of human rhinoviruses (hRVs) and Zika virus (ZIKV) via inhibition of the intracellular protein PI4KIII? while the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication seems to be connected with the modulation of an additional target. Cover design by Marco Radi. More information can be found in the Communication by Maria?Grazia Martina, Marco Radi et?al.

13.
ChemMedChem ; 16(23): 3548-3552, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400781

ABSTRACT

Over half a century since the description of the first antiviral drug, "old" re-emerging viruses and "new" emerging viruses still represent a serious threat to global health. Their high mutation rate and rapid selection of resistance toward common antiviral drugs, together with the increasing number of co-infections, make the war against viruses quite challenging. Herein we report a host-targeted approach, based on the inhibition of the lipid kinase PI4KIIIß, as a promising strategy for inhibiting the replication of multiple viruses hijacking this protein. We show that bithiazole inhibitors of PI4KIIIß block the replication of human rhinoviruses (hRV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and SARS-CoV-2 at low micromolar and sub-micromolar concentrations. However, while the anti-hRV/ZIKV activity can be directly linked to PI4KIIIß inhibition, the role of PI4KIIIß in SARS-CoV-2 entry/replication is debated.


Subject(s)
1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Zika Virus/physiology , 1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Drug Stability , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thiazoles/metabolism , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/pathology
14.
Life (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374447

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate neutralizing antibody titers (NtAbT) to the P.1 and B.1 SARS-CoV-2 variants in a cohort of healthy health care workers (HCW), including 20 previously infected individuals tested at baseline (BLinf, after a median of 298 days from diagnosis) and 21 days after receiving one vaccine dose (D1inf) and 15 uninfected subjects tested 21 days after the second-dose vaccination (D2uninf). All the subjects received BNT162b2 vaccination. D1inf NtAbT increased significantly with respect to BLinf against both B.1 and P.1 variants, with a fold-change significantly higher for P.1. D1inf NtAbT were significantly higher than D2uninf NtAbT, against B.1 and P.1. NtAbT against the two strains were highly correlated. P.1 NtAbT were significantly higher than B.1 NtAbT. This difference was significant for post-vaccination sera in infected and uninfected subjects. A single-dose BNT162b2 vaccination substantially boosted the NtAb response to both variants in the previously infected subjects. NtAb titers to B.1 and P.1 lineages were highly correlated, suggesting substantial cross-neutralization. Higher titers to the P.1 than to the B.1 strain were driven by the post-vaccination titers, highlighting that cross-neutralization can be enhanced by vaccination.

15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 176-178, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NtAb) titres in previously infected or uninfected health care workers who received one or two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: NtAbs were titrated as dose-inhibiting 50% virus replication (ID50) by live virus microneutralization. We evaluated 41 health care workers recovering from mild or asymptomatic infection at first vaccination dose (T1_inf) and 21 days later (T2_inf). Sixteen uninfected health care workers were evaluated 20 days after first dose (T2_uninf) and 20 days after second vaccine dose (T3_uninf). RESULTS: At T2_inf, but not at T1_inf, there was a significant correlation between days from diagnosis (median 313, interquartile range 285-322) and NtAb levels (P = 0.011). NtAb titres increased at T2_inf with respect to T1_inf (1544 (732-2232) vs 26 (10-88), P < 0.001). Similarly, there was a significant increase in NtAb titres at T3_uninf compared with T2_uninf (183 (111-301) vs 5 (5-15), P < 0001). However, NtAb levels at T2_inf were significantly higher than those at T2_uninf and T3_uninf (P < 0.0001 for both analyses). CONCLUSIONS: A single vaccination in people with mild or asymptomatic previous infection further boosts SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity to levels higher than those obtained by complete two-vaccination in uninfected subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , RNA, Messenger
18.
J Infect ; 83(4): 467-472, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of new variants of concern (VOCs) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world significantly complicated the exit from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum neutralizing activity of three cohorts. METHODS: BNT162b2-elicited serum (N = 103), candidates as hyper-immune plasma donors (N = 90) and patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 P1 variant (N = 22) were enrolled. Three strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been tested: 20A.EU1, B.1.1.7 (alpha) and P.1 (gamma). Neutralizing antibodies (NT-Abs) titers against SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated. RESULTS: B.1.1.7 and P.1 are less efficiently neutralized by convalescent wild-type infected serums if compared to 20A.EU1 strain (mean titer 1.6 and 6.7-fold lower respectively). BNT162b2 vaccine-elicited human sera show an equivalent neutralization potency on the B.1.1.7 but it is significantly lower for the P.1 variant (mean titer 3.3-fold lower). Convalescent P.1 patients are less protected from other SARS-CoV-2 strains with an important reduction of neutralizing antibodies against 20A.EU1 and B.1.1.7, about 12.2 and 10.9-fold, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccine confers immunity against all the tested VOCs, while previous SARS-CoV-2 infection may be less protective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
19.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab312, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322652

ABSTRACT

We describe the time course of neutralizing antibody (NtAb) titer in a cohort of health care workers with mild or asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection. NtAb levels decreased over time; however, serum neutralizing activity remained detectable after a median of 7 months from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in the majority of cases.

20.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308455

ABSTRACT

The recent spreading of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, carrying several mutations in the spike protein, could impact immune protection elicited by natural infection or conferred by vaccination. In this study, we evaluated the neutralizing activity against the viral variants that emerged in the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7), Brazil (P.1), and South Africa (B.1.351) in human serum samples from hospitalized patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the first pandemic wave in Italy in 2020. Of the patients studied, 59.5% showed a decrease (≥2 fold) in neutralizing antibody titer against B.1.1.7, 83.3% against P.1, and 90.5% against B.1.351 with respect to the original strain. The reduction in antibody titers against all analyzed variants, and in particular P.1 and B.1.351, suggests that previous symptomatic infection might be not fully protective against exposure to SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying a set of relevant spike mutations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Mutation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , South Africa/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vero Cells
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