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1.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(2)2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690192

ABSTRACT

In December 2019 the SARS-CoV-2 virus appeared in the world, mainly presenting as an acute infection of the lower respiratory tract, namely pneumonia. Nearly 10% of all patients show significant pulmonary fibrotic changes after the infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of potassium canrenoate in the treatment of COVID-19-associated pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis. We performed a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of potassium canrenoate vs placebo. A total of 55 patients were randomized and 49 were included in the final analysis (24 allocated to the intervention group and 25 allocated to the control group). Patients were assessed by physical examination, lung ultrasound, CT imaging and blood samples that underwent biochemical analysis. This RCT has shown that the administration of potassium canrenoate to patients with COVID-19 induced pneumonia was not associated with shorter mechanical ventilation time, shorter passive oxygenation, shorter length of hospitalization or less fibrotic changes on CT imaging. The overall mortality rate was not significantly different between the two groups. Adverse events recorded in this study were not significantly increased by the administration of potassium canrenoate. The negative outcome of the study may be associated with the relatively small number of patients included. Any possible benefits from the use of potassium canrenoate as an antifibrotic drug in COVID-19 patients require further investigation.

2.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609200

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, appeared, causing a wide range of symptoms, mainly respiratory infection. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic, therefore the efforts of scientists around the world are focused on finding the right treatment and vaccine for the novel disease. COVID-19 has spread rapidly over several months, affecting patients across all age groups and geographic areas. The disease has a diverse course; patients may range from asymptomatic to those with respiratory failure, complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). One possible complication of pulmonary involvement in COVID-19 is pulmonary fibrosis, which leads to chronic breathing difficulties, long-term disability and affects patients' quality of life. There are no specific mechanisms that lead to this phenomenon in COVID-19, but some information arises from previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemics. The aim of this narrative review is to present the possible causes and pathophysiology of pulmonary fibrosis associated with COVID-19 based on the mechanisms of the immune response, to suggest possible ways of prevention and treatment.

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