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1.
2021 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS 2021 ; : 711-713, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1861121

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, many countries worldwide implemented a series of social distancing and containment measures as an attempt to limit its spread. Those measures have led to a significant slowing down of economic activities, drastic drops in road and air traffic, and strong reductions of industrial activities in nonessential sectors, which in turn affected atmospheric emissions and air quality worldwide. Concentrations of short-lived pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, are indicators of changes in economic slowdowns and are comparable to changes in emissions. Nitrogen oxides are mainly produced by human activity and the combustion of (fossil) fuels, such as road traffic, ships, power plants and other industrial facilities. Nitrogen Dioxide can have a significant impact on human health, both directly and indirectly through the formation of ozone and small particles. The Copernicus Sentinel-5P satellite nitrogen dioxide concentrations measurements have been used to investigate COVID-19 impact on air quality from space. Global maps of Copernicus Sentinel-5P tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide measurements have been included – together with other Sentinel measurements – into an on-line tool (dashboard) to provide investigations/results about changes to the Earth environment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic to the public: race.esa.int. © 2021 IEEE.

2.
2021 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS 2021 ; 2021-July:1553-1555, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1746063

ABSTRACT

After the initial COVID-19 lockdown in China during February 2020, NASA and ESA pollution monitoring satellite instruments quickly detected significant decreases in NO2 over the Wuhan region. This change was attributed to reductions in fossil fuel combustion from motor vehicles and industrial activity. The same phenomenon, the satellite measured reduction of NO2, happened next in northern Italy, and then in New York City as the coronavirus spread to these areas. Satellite remote sensing of NO2 has been a useful tool to document changes in fossil fuel combustion and associated economic activity as various countries or regions have implemented lockdowns as a means to try to contain the spread of the virus. In April 2020, ESA reached out to NASA and JAXA and suggested working together to construct an Earth Observing (EO) Dashboard to provide the public with information on the changes occurring within the environment due to the pandemic that are observable from satellites. Satellite air quality data - specifically, tropospheric NO2 - was one of the primary Earth observations provided by this tri-agency COVID-19 satellite data dashboard. © 2021 IEEE.

3.
Geophys Res Lett ; 47(11): e2020GL087978, 2020 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209849

ABSTRACT

Spaceborne NO2 column observations from two high-resolution instruments, Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on board Sentinel-5 Precursor and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, reveal unprecedented NO2 decreases over China, South Korea, western Europe, and the United States as a result of public health measures enforced to contain the coronavirus disease outbreak (Covid-19) in January-April 2020. The average NO2 column drop over all Chinese cities amounts to -40% relative to the same period in 2019 and reaches up to a factor of ~2 at heavily hit cities, for example, Wuhan, Jinan, while the decreases in western Europe and the United States are also significant (-20% to -38%). In contrast with this, although Iran is also strongly affected by the disease, the observations do not show evidence of lower emissions, reflecting more limited health measures.

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