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1.
Int J Prev Med ; 13: 23, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753759

ABSTRACT

Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic is the most discussed subject in medical researches worldwide. As the knowledge is expanded about the disease, more hypotheses become created. A recent study on the viral protein interaction map revealed that SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame 8 (ORF8) interacts with human DNA methyl transferase1 (DNMT1), an active epigenetic agent in DNA methylation. Moreover, DNMT1 is a contributor to a variety of chronic diseases which could cause some epigenetic dysregulation in infected cells, especially leukocytes, pancreatic beta, and endothelial cells. Regarding the fact that epigenetic alterations have a partial, but not completely reversible phenomena, it raises the question that if this interaction may cause long-term complications such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Accordingly, long follow-up studies on the recovered patients from COVID-19 are recommended.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320612

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a new highly contagious Coronavirus with a positive-sense RNA encoding 16 non-structural proteins (nsps16, nsp15, nsp3). In this study, the coronavirus pathogenicity and the losartan functional ligand for inhibiting TRPM2 and macrodomain have been molecularly evaluated.Material and method: In this study, the structures of macrodomain binding ADP ribose in CoVs and human Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 2 (TRPM2) protein were downloaded from protein data bank. Then, a virtual screening was done to recognize the hit compounds from GalaXi_2019-10, KnowledgeSpace_2019-05, and REALspace_2019-12 databases. This collection, then, was imported to the ligandScout software, on the base of Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose (ADPR) pharmacophore model. Result: Among seven compounds, five compounds were finally evaluated as the structural analogs of ADPR or other nucleotides, from which one compound was a non-FDA-approved sulphonamide and was removed. The other compound, losartan, was finally selected for molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation. According to the virtual screening and docking, losartan was candidate as an effective ligand for TRPM2 and macrodomain. Conclusion: In the current study losartan earned a proper dock score and binding affinity to create the complexes with TRPM2 and macrodomain. The inhibitory effect of losartan on PARP has been shown and it could interfere positively in several points (PARP, PARG- macrodomain and TRPM2) and decreases oxidative stress and apoptosis in COVID-19.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314474

ABSTRACT

The emerging new Coronaviridae member, nCoV 19, outbreak announced a pandemic by WHO with an increased morbidity and mortality rate worldwide. nCoV 19 known as the third highly pathogen coronavirus in the human population after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the nCoV 19. The renin-angiotensin (RAS) signaling pathway, oxidative stress and cell death, cytokines storm and endothelial dysfunction are four major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of nCoV 19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) generally develops with a massive oxidative/nitrosative stress following virus entry and RAS activation. The DNA damage subsequent to oxidative burst activates poly-ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), viral macrodomain (NSP3) poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and transient receptor potential channel, melastatin 2 (TRPM2) in a sequential manner ultimately leading to apoptosis and necrosis due to NAD and ATP depletion. Regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in nCoV 19 pathogenesis, angiotensin II receptor blockers and/or PARP, PARG and TRPM2 blockers could be engaged as therapeutic candidates for inhibition of RAS and quenching oxidative stress, respectively. In this review, the molecular aspects of nCoV 19 pathogenesis would be studied precisely and possible therapeutic targets would be proposed. It is recommended to evaluate the proposed drugs and supplements via registered clinical trials along with conventional guideline-based multi-drug regimen.

4.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503913

ABSTRACT

Several studies have indicated that selenium deficiency may be detrimental in the context of various viral disorders, and in the case of COVID-19, several studies have reported heterogeneous results concerning the association of selenium deficiency with the severity of disease. To summarize the available data surrounding the association of body selenium levels with the outcomes of COVID-19, a systematic search was performed in the Medline database (PubMed), Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science using keywords including "SARS-CoV-2," "COVID-19," and "selenium," Studies evaluating the association of COVID-19 with body selenium levels were included. Among 1,862 articles viewed in the database search, 10 articles were included after title, abstract, and full-text review. One study was further included after searching the literature again for any newly published articles. Out of 11 included studies, 10 studies measured serum selenium level, and one study investigated urinary selenium level. Three of 10 studies measured serum SELENOP level as well as selenium level. Glutathione peroxidase-3 level in serum was also assessed in one study. The reported outcomes were severity, mortality, and risk of COVID-19. Nine studies indicated that a lower serum selenium level is associated with worse outcomes. Two studies reported no significant association between serum selenium level and COVID-19. In one study, urinary selenium level was reported to be higher in severe and fatal cases compared to non-severe and recovered patients, respectively. In most cases, selenium deficiency was associated with worse outcomes, and selenium levels in COVID-19 patients were lower than in healthy individuals. Thus, it could be concluded that cautious selenium supplementation in COVID-19 patients may be helpful to prevent disease progression. However, randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244038

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, a new member of the Coronaviridae family, officially designated as "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), emerged and spread rapidly. The Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak was accompanied by a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Within the Coronaviridae family, SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be the third most highly pathogenic virus that infects humans, following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Four major mechanisms are thought to be involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis, including the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling pathway, oxidative stress and cell death, cytokine storm, and endothelial dysfunction. Following virus entry and RAS activation, acute respiratory distress syndrome develops with an oxidative/nitrosative burst. The DNA damage induced by oxidative stress activates poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), viral macrodomain of non-structural protein 3, poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), and transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 (TRPM2) channel in a sequential manner which results in cell apoptosis or necrosis. In this review, blockers of angiotensin II receptor and/or PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, including vitamin D3, trehalose, tannins, flufenamic and mefenamic acid, and losartan, have been investigated for inhibiting RAS activation and quenching oxidative burst. Moreover, the application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles, including liposomes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and iron oxides, as therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2 were fully reviewed. In the present review, the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are explained by focusing on molecular mechanisms. Potential therapeutic targets, including the RAS signaling pathway, PARP, PARG, and TRPM2, are also discussed in depth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cholecalciferol/pharmacology , GTPase-Activating Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , TRPM Cation Channels/antagonists & inhibitors , TRPM Cation Channels/metabolism , Tannins/pharmacology , Trehalose/pharmacology
6.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 92(2): 134-146, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723272

ABSTRACT

The widespread COVID-19 pandemic has been, currently, converted to a catastrophic human health challenge. Vitamin D (VD) and its metabolites have been used as a palliative treatment for chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases from ancient times. In the current study, some molecular aspects of the potential effects of VD against COVID-19 side-effects have been discussed. An arguable role in autophagy or apoptosis control has been suggested for VD through calcium signaling at the mitochondrial and ER levels. 1,25(OH)2D3 is also an immunomodulator that affects the development of B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells in both innate and acquired immunity. The production of some anti-microbial molecules such as defensins and cathelicidins is also stimulated by VD. The overexpression of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and down-regulation of NADPH oxidase are induced by VD to reduce the oxidative stress. Moreover, the multi-organ failure due to a cytokine storm induced by SARS-CoV2 in COVID-19 may be prevented by the immunomodulatory effects of VD. It can also downregulate the renin-angiotensin system which has a protective role against cardiovascular complications induced by COVID-19. Given the many experimental and molecular evidences due to the potential protective effects of VD on the prevention of the COVID-19-induced morbidities, a VD supplementation is suggested to prevent the lethal side-effects of the infection. It is particularly recommended in VD-deficient patients or those at greater risk of serious or critical effects of COVID-19, including the elderly, and patients with pre-existing chronic diseases, especially those in nursing homes, care facilities, and hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism
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