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Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(2):125-129, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2190925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although severe COVID-19 in children is rare, those with certain pre-existing health conditions are more prone to severe disease. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are potent antiviral agents that reduce adverse clinical outcomes in adults, but are commonly not approved for use in pediatric patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated mAb treatment in children <12 years of age or <40kg with SARS-CoV-2 infection between January 1, 2021, and March 7, 2022, in 12 tertiary care centers in 3 European countries. RESULTS: We received data from 53 patients from Austria, Denmark and Germany. Median age was 5.4 years [0-13.8, interquartile range (IQR) = 6.2], and median body weight was 20 kg (3-50.1, IQR = 13). The most frequent SARS-CoV-2 variant in this study, if known, was Omicron, followed by Delta and Alpha. Pre-existing conditions included immunodeficiency, malignancy, hematologic disease, cardiac disease, chronic lung disease, chronic liver disease, kidney disease and diabetes. Forty-two patients received sotrovimab (79%), 9 casirivimab/imdevimab (17%) and 2 bamlanivimab (4%). All but 1 patient survived. Median duration of hospital stay was 3 days (0-56, IQR = 6). Seven patients required treatment in an intensive care unit, and 5 required high-flow nasal cannula treatment. Potential side effects included neutropenia (6/53, 11%), lymphopenia (3/53, 6%), nausea or vomiting (2/53, 4%), rise of alanine transaminase (1/53, 2%) and hypotonia (1/53, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: MAb treatment was well tolerated by children in this cohort.

3.
Lancet Respiratory Medicine ; 10(9):E80-E80, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083748
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 870493, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987535

ABSTRACT

Background: To date, no oral antiviral drug has proven to be beneficial in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this randomized, controlled, open-label, platform trial, we randomly assigned patients ≥18 years hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia to receive either camostat mesylate (CM) (considered standard-of-care) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV). The primary endpoint was time to sustained clinical improvement (≥48 h) of at least one point on the 7-category WHO scale. Secondary endpoints included length of stay (LOS), need for mechanical ventilation (MV) or death, and 29-day mortality. Results: 201 patients were included in the study (101 CM and 100 LPV/RTV) between 20 April 2020 and 14 May 2021. Mean age was 58.7 years, and 67% were male. The median time from symptom onset to randomization was 7 days (IQR 5-9). Patients in the CM group had a significantly shorter time to sustained clinical improvement (HR = 0.67, 95%-CI 0.49-0.90; 9 vs. 11 days, p = 0.008) and demonstrated less progression to MV or death [6/101 (5.9%) vs. 15/100 (15%), p = 0.036] and a shorter LOS (12 vs. 14 days, p = 0.023). A statistically nonsignificant trend toward a lower 29-day mortality in the CM group than the LPV/RTV group [2/101 (2%) vs. 7/100 (7%), p = 0.089] was observed. Conclusion: In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the use of CM was associated with shorter time to clinical improvement, reduced need for MV or death, and shorter LOS than the use of LPV/RTV. Furthermore, research is needed to confirm the efficacy of CM in larger placebo-controlled trials. Systematic Review Registration: [https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04351724, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001302-30/AT], identifier [NCT04351724, EUDRACT-NR: 2020-001302-30].

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