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1.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21228, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689813

ABSTRACT

Background As early as before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, nearly one billion people worldwide suffered from mental health problems. Of all the mental health conditions, major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of global health-related burden. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many uncertain factors affecting mental health accumulated, such as virus transmission, blockade and ban, public transport restrictions, closure of schools and enterprises, and reduction of social interaction, which led to an increase in the potential risk of MDD, further increasing the global health-related burden. Methodology To better clarify the public interest in major depressive disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic, a Google Trends analysis was employed with data from December 2019 to December 2021, taking the cumulative diagnosis rate and cumulative mortality rate of COVID-19 as the reference standard, The changes in public interest and behavior in online searching for major depressive disorder in the three countries most affected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus (i.e. the United States, Brazil, and India) were evaluated. Results We observed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, public interest in major depressive disorder increased significantly on the Internet. At the same time, compared with the United States, this upward trend is more prominent in India and Brazil. The study found that the major depressive disorder search index of the United States reached the maximum at the end of September 2021, the major depressive disorder search index of Brazil reached the maximum at the beginning of July 2021, and the major depressive disorder search index of India reached the maximum at the beginning of June 2021. The above time nodes are the first turning point of decline after the continuous surge of COVID-19 confirmed cases in the United States, Brazil, and India, indicating that there is an important time correlation between the surge of COVID-19 cases and the public online search term major depressive disorder. Conclusion The Google Trends analysis shows that public interest in major depressive disorder is on the rise under the COVID-19 pandemic and that COVID-19 may be associated with MDD. These findings deserve further exploration, especially as a growing body of research reports suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a surge in the prevalence of MDD. The epidemic alerts the vast majority of countries to urgently strengthen mental health systems and provide patients with the necessary interventions based on the determinants of poor mental health.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Stem Cells , Aged , Child , Humans , Lung/cytology , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 82, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397862

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has raised a new challenges to the scientific and industrious fields after over 1-year spread across different countries. The ultimate approach to end the pandemic is the timely application of vaccines to achieve herd immunity. Here, a novel SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) homodimer was developed as a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. Formulated with aluminum adjuvant, RBD dimer elicited strong immune response in both rodents and non-human primates, and protected mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge with significantly reducing viral load and alleviating pathological injury in the lung. In the non-human primates, the vaccine could prevent majority of the animals from SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory tract and reduce lung damage. In addition, antibodies elicited by this vaccine candidate showed cross-neutralization activities to SARS-CoV-2 variants. Furthermore, with our expression system, we provided a high-yield RBD homodimer vaccine without additional biosafety or special transport device supports. Thus, it may serve as a safe, effective, and low-cost SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate.

4.
Case Rep Womens Health ; 31: e00321, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213126

ABSTRACT

The effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first trimester on the pregnant woman and the fetus remain unclear. We describe the complete follow-up of a pregnant woman with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first trimester. The woman tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs in her seventh week of gestation and was admitted to a local hospital for treatment. Although the woman had a BMI above 28 and a total gestational weight gain of 21 kg, no pregnancy complications or severe complications related to SARS-CoV-2 were reported. An ultrasound scan identified no fetal abnormalities at 22 weeks. The pregnancy ended at term (37 weeks), and the newborn's birth weight was 3100 g. Placental insufficiency was revealed by placental histology examination but this appeared not to be related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical tests for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, spike protein 1, and nucleocapsid proteins were negative. However, ACE-2 was positive in samples of the placenta, umbilical cord and fetal membrane. The baby was followed up through to 10 days after birth and grew normally. Our results suggest that asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first trimester of pregnancy might not have significant harmful effects on the mother and the developing fetus. This finding may be of interest to the general public, midwives and general practitioners. However, large population studies are needed to confirm our findings.

6.
Theranostics ; 11(5): 2170-2181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016389

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An increasing number of children with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is being reported, yet the spectrum of disease severity and expression patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in children at different developmental stages are largely unknow. Methods: We analysed clinical features in a cohort of 173 children with COVID-19 (0-15 yrs.-old) between January 22, 2020 and March 15, 2020. We systematically examined the expression and distribution of ACE2 in different developmental stages of children by using a combination of children's lung biopsies, pluripotent stem cell-derived lung cells, RNA-sequencing profiles, and ex vivo SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral infections. Results: It revealed that infants (< 1yrs.-old), with a weaker potency of immune response, are more vulnerable to develop pneumonia whereas older children (> 1 yrs.-old) are more resistant to lung injury. The expression levels of ACE2 however do not vary by age in children's lung. ACE2 is notably expressed not only in Alveolar Type II (AT II) cells, but also in SOX9 positive lung progenitor cells detected in both pluripotent stem cell derivatives and infants' lungs. The ACE2+SOX9+ cells are readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and the numbers of the double positive cells are significantly decreased in older children. Conclusions: Infants (< 1 yrs.-old) with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more vulnerable to lung injuries. ACE2 expression in multiple types of lung cells including SOX9 positive progenitor cells, in cooperation with an unestablished immune system, could be risk factors contributing to vulnerability of infants with COVID-19. There is a need to continue monitoring lung development in young children who have recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/cytology , Stem Cells/metabolism , Adolescent , Biopsy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immune System , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/virology , Male , RNA-Seq , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Stem Cells/virology
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