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1.
Inflammation ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2027559

ABSTRACT

A cytokine storm (CS) is an out-of-control inflammatory response closely associated with the progression of diseases, such as multiple organ failure (MOF), severe sepsis, and severe or critical COVID-19. However, there is currently a lack of reliable diagnostic markers to distinguish CS from normal inflammatory responses. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) includes transmembrane TNF-α (tmTNF-α) and secreted TNF-α (sTNF-α). The MOF mouse model in this study showed that the tmTNF-α expression changes in the neutrophils differed from the serum TNF-α and serum IL-18, INF-γ, IL-4, and IL-6. Furthermore, tmTNF-α, instead of serum TNF-α, IL-18, INF-γ, IL-4, and IL-6, reflected liver and kidney tissue damage and increased with the aggravation of these injuries. Analysis of the ROC results showed that tmTNF-α effectively distinguished between inflammatory responses and CS and efficiently differentiated between surviving and dead mice. It also significantly improved the diagnostic value of the traditional CRP marker for CS. These results indicated that the tmTNF-α expressed in the neutrophils could be used to diagnose CS in MOF mice, providing an experimental basis to further develop tmTNF-α for diagnosing CS patients.

2.
8th International Conference on Education and Training Technologies, ICETT 2022 ; : 9-15, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020407

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic early in 2020, it had versed the learning mode of offline into online teaching and learning in many parts of the world, while students from different cultural backgrounds may have different perceptions and responses toward online learning. Students' engagement, particularly the emotional dimension is discussed in this study to evaluate different students' perceptions about online learning to represent how culture impact on students' online learning by using Bamberg (1997)'s narrative analysis. 48 interviews were held and 2 interviews of their participants from Macau and Mainland China were particularly picked out to represent how students from different cultural backgrounds are going to position themselves in the discourse of online learning engagement with the involvement of online technologies. Through this study, it was found that students from the high-context cultural learning background (Macau) would hold a more positive attitude with online learning activities compared to students from the low-context learning context, position themselves as relaxed online capabilities. While students from a relatively low-context cultural background (Mainland China) eager to pursue high-efficiency of learning, with a negative attitude towards online learning, position themselves as positive efficiency seekers, underestimate the high-ambiguity and low-efficiency of online learning. Hence, after the rough understanding of students' different perceptions of online learning from different cultural backgrounds, this study further proved the influence of different cultures on learning engagement and provided some implications from different perspectives for pedagogical implementation and instructors to improve online curriculum design. © 2022 ACM.

3.
Arch Public Health ; 80(1):194, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2002231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to use a moderated mediation model to understand and examine the relationship between negative emotions and creativity among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic, using psychological resilience as a mediator and posttraumatic growth as a moderator. METHODS: A sample of 881 college students in mainland China completed a self-report questionnaire that included four scales: the Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale, Psychological Resilience Scale, Runco Ideational Behavior Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. RESULTS: Findings indicated that:(1) negative emotions were a strong predictor of creativity;(2) psychological resilience partially mediated the association between negative emotions and creativity;and (3) posttraumatic growth moderated the positive effect of psychological resilience, such that the indirect effect between negative emotions and creativity via psychological resilience was stronger for someone with a low level of resilience. CONCLUSION: The findings further clarify the mechanisms that affect the relationship between negative emotions and creativity among college students.

4.
Global Health ; 18(1):77, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2002201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At a time when a highly contagious pandemic and global political and economic turmoil are intertwined, worldwide cooperation under the leadership of an international organization has become increasingly important. This study aimed to estimate the effect of COVID-19 on public confidence in the World Health Organization (WHO), which will serve as a reference for other international organizations regarding the maintenance of their credibility in crisis management and ability to play a greater role in global health governance. METHODS: We obtained individual data from the World Values Survey (WVS). A total of 44,775 participants aged 16 and older from 40 countries in six WHO regions were included in this study. The COVID-19 pandemic was used as a natural experiment. We obtained difference-in-differences (DID) estimates of the pandemic's effects by exploiting temporal variation in the timing of COVID-19 exposure across participants interviewed from 2017 to 2020 together with the geographical variation in COVID-19 severity at the country level. Public confidence in the WHO was self-reported by the respondents. RESULTS: Among the participants, 28,087 (62.73%) reported having confidence in the WHO. The DID estimates showed that the COVID-19 pandemic could significantly decrease the likelihood of people reporting confidence in the WHO after controlling for multiple covariates (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.49-0.61), especially during the global outbreak (0.35, 0.24-0.50). The effect was found in both younger individuals (0.58, 0.51-0.66) and older adults (0.49, 0.38-0.63) and in both males (0.47, 0.40-0.55) and females (0.62, 0.53-0.72), with a vulnerability in males (adjusted P for interaction = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Our findings are relevant regarding the impact of COVID-19 on people's beliefs about social institutions of global standing, highlighting the need for the WHO and other international organizations to shoulder the responsibility of global development for the establishment and maintenance of public credibility in the face of emergencies, as well as the prevention of confidence crises.

5.
BMC Med ; 20(1):314, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2002177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether a genetic predisposition to psychiatric disorders is associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. METHODS: Our analytic sample consisted of 287,123 white British participants in UK Biobank who were alive on 31 January 2020. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis for each psychiatric disorder (substance misuse, depression, anxiety, psychotic disorder, and stress-related disorders) in a randomly selected half of the study population ("base dataset"). For the other half ("target dataset"), the polygenic risk score (PRS) was calculated as a proxy of individuals' genetic predisposition to a given psychiatric phenotype using discovered genetic variants from the base dataset. Ascertainment of COVID-19 was based on the Public Health England dataset, inpatient hospital data, or death registers in UK Biobank. COVID-19 cases from hospitalization records or death records were considered "severe cases." The association between the PRS for psychiatric disorders and COVID-19 risk was examined using logistic regression. We also repeated PRS analyses based on publicly available GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: A total of 143,562 participants (including 10,868 COVID-19 cases) were used for PRS analyses. A higher genetic predisposition to psychiatric disorders was associated with an increased risk of any COVID-19 and severe COVID-19. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for any COVID-19 was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.13) and 1.06 (95% CI 1.01-1.11) among individuals with a high genetic risk (above the upper tertile of the PRS) for substance misuse and depression, respectively, compared with individuals with a low genetic risk (below the lower tertile). Slightly higher ORs were noted for severe COVID-19, and similar result patterns were obtained in analyses based on publicly available GWAS summary statistics. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a potential role of genetic factors in the observed phenotypic association between psychiatric disorders and COVID-19. Our data underscore the need for increased medical surveillance for this vulnerable population during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
IEEE Access ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1985441

ABSTRACT

The detection of traces of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a prerequisite for avoiding the rapid spread of the virus. However, too much patient privacy data uploaded to the cloud centre will overwhelm the network and cause user information security to not be guaranteed. In this paper, we propose a personal prediction method for COVID-19 infections by perceiving the information of worn biosensors and monitoring equipment in a body area network (BAN). Edge computing and blockchain technology are introduced to solve the problems of user privacy protection and perceptual data transmission and storage. We first construct an edge body area network (EBAN) and characterize the maximization function of the edge blockchain cost by considering the constraints on the bandwidth, storage space, and energy consumption. Then we build a blockchain without redundant perception information and select effective transmission paths by using the edge blockchain construction efficiency maximization (EBCEM) algorithm. Finally, we use the network simulator (NS-2) to simulate the performance of the EBCEM algorithm and compare it with the excellent assignment game algorithm (AGA) in terms of the effective requester ratio (ERR), effective provider ratio (EPR), edge blockchain construction success ratio (EBCSR), and average storage usage ratio (ASUR) in the EBAN. Author

7.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 41(11):821-828, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957485

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) belong to the β-coronavirus genus. Since the discovery in 1967, HCoV-OC43 has been continuously circulating in human population and has become one of the common seasonal respiratory viruses. SARS-CoV-2, which has a higher morbidity and fatality rate, appeared at the end of 2019, followed by the emergence of a variety of variants, and the transmission and infection capacity of SARS-CoV-2 has been enhanced. HCoV-OC43 may be similar to SARS-CoV-2 in terms of genomic structure and function, species evolution, epidemic characteristics and clinical manifestations. In this review, the epidemiology, genomics, phylogenetic evolution and other aspects of HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Such an analysis would be helpful to understand the association and differences between the two viruses, and provide reference for understanding the potential threats of HCoV-OC43.

8.
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management ; 52:184-197, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1930960

ABSTRACT

Using visualizations of danmaku and word cooccurrence analysis, the current research evaluates China's live-streaming travel industry by extracting live streamers' and customers' cocreated content to construct a framework of cocreation patterns on live-streaming platforms. The results indicate that streamers and viewers focus on the themes of “hotel amenities and services”, “live-streaming commerce”, “viewers' evaluations and comments”, “business strategy of Ctrip”, and “price of tourism and hospitality products”. Cocreation behaviors on the Ctrip Live platform include the following: “question only”, “answer only”, and “Q&A”. Six categories of cocreation patterns were also identified. Thus, this paper contributes to the literature on live-streaming travel commerce by providing theoretical insights and practical implications, specifically, for tourism enterprises' recovery following the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022 The Authors

10.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1805663

ABSTRACT

In the version of this article initially published, the first name of Chuansheng Zheng was misspelled as Chuangsheng. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article. © The Author(s) 2022.

11.
Yaoxue Xuebao ; 57(2):446-452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1780346

ABSTRACT

As one of the "Three Drugs Three Prescriptions" anti-COVID-19 traditional Chinese medicine, Jinhua Qinggan granules (JHQG) has been proved to have clear clinical effects. With complex medicinal flavors and ingredients, there is no systematic research report on chemical composition in vivo or in vitro. An ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method was developed in this study to identify the components of the anti-COVID-19 traditional Chinese medicine JHQG granules. Analyze the collected rat plasma samples after administration and explore the exposed components in rats within 8 hours after intragastric administration. Preliminary pharmacokinetic analysis was then performed on this basis. Through UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis and verification by standard products, a total of 77 chemical components in JHQG formula have been identified, among which 22 compounds were highly exposed in vivo, mainly derived from three medicinal materials of honeysuckle, scutellaria and forsythia. Through the assessment of the blood drug concentration by the compartment model, 6 PK parameters of 4 high-exposure chemical components have been obtained, clarifying the metabolic characteristics of the main exposed components in JHQG briefly. The method is simple, efficient, sensitive and accurate and provides research basis to the clarification of the pharmacodynamics material basis and mechanism of JHQG, which has certain reference significance for the basics and applications research of the traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions in fighting the SARS-CoV-2.

12.
Frontiers in Political Science ; 3, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1715033

ABSTRACT

Among the many striking features of the COVID 19 pandemic is the geographic heterogeneity of its incidence and its disproportionate effects on low income people. We examine links between individual risk and COVID 19 outcomes in the federal context in Mexico characterized by high socioeconomic and political heterogeneity. Using highly detailed individual mobility data for five Mexican cities, we document the relationship between local income and education factors and the behaviors associated with COVID 19 risk after the national lockdown: staying home, going to work, and going other places. While low income people are disproportionately likely to contract COVID 19 and die from illnesses associated with COVID 19 in Mexico, we find very mixed evidence that people living in low income urban census blocs are engaging in observably riskier behaviors. Both before and after the national lockdown, people in low income locations spend more time at home and less time going other places, suggesting a lower overall risk of contracting the virus based on voluntary movement. However, people in low income and less educated places appear to shift their movement less in response to Mexico’s national lockdown. Less educated people, in particular, show much less change in their movement patterns in response to the lockdown. At the same time, we find enormous variance between cities and in some cities such as Mexico City and Ecatepec people in low income places changed their behavior more after the lockdown. Understanding the reasons for these income and education differences in outcomes is crucial for policy responses–whether the government should focus on educating individuals about their behavior, or whether the response requires a much more difficult overhaul of societal protections. Copyright © 2021 Rogers, Zeng, Marx, Poynor and Lu.

13.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(4): 423-429, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1696762

ABSTRACT

We studied the lung-protective effect and mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of ultra-short-wave diathermy (USWD) in a rat model of LPS-induced acute lung injury. Histological examination of the lung tissues was performed and the levels of oxidative stress-related factors and inflammatory cytokines were measured. It was shown that the lung injury score, the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D), oxidative stress-related factors malondialdehyde and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), and inflammatory cytokines were increased after LPS administration, while USWD treatment reduced these parameters. In addition, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase 4 were decreased in rats with LPS-induced acute lung injury, while USWD therapy up-regulated the expression of these enzymes. Thus, USWD could antagonize lung injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rats with acute lung injury. USWD can be a promising adjunctive treatment to counter oxidative stress and inflammation and a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of patients with this pathology.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Diathermy , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/metabolism , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung , Oxidative Stress , Radio Waves , Rats
14.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 3(12):1081-1089, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1585763

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence provides a promising solution for streamlining COVID-19 diagnoses;however, concerns surrounding security and trustworthiness impede the collection of large-scale representative medical data, posing a considerable challenge for training a well-generalized model in clinical practices. To address this, we launch the Unified CT-COVID AI Diagnostic Initiative (UCADI), where the artificial intelligence (AI) model can be distributedly trained and independently executed at each host institution under a federated learning framework without data sharing. Here we show that our federated learning framework model considerably outperformed all of the local models (with a test sensitivity/specificity of 0.973/0.951 in China and 0.730/0.942 in the United Kingdom), achieving comparable performance with a panel of professional radiologists. We further evaluated the model on the hold-out (collected from another two hospitals without the federated learning framework) and heterogeneous (acquired with contrast materials) data, provided visual explanations for decisions made by the model, and analysed the trade-offs between the model performance and the communication costs in the federated training process. Our study is based on 9,573 chest computed tomography scans from 3,336 patients collected from 23 hospitals located in China and the United Kingdom. Collectively, our work advanced the prospects of utilizing federated learning for privacy-preserving AI in digital health. The COVID-19 pandemic sparked the need for international collaboration in using clinical data for rapid development of diagnosis and treatment methods. But the sensitive nature of medical data requires special care and ideally potentially sensitive data would not leave the organization which collected it. Xiang Bai and colleagues present a privacy-preserving AI framework for CT-based COVID-19 diagnosis and demonstrate it on data from 23 hospitals in China and the United Kingdom.

15.
Blood ; 138:2436, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582209

ABSTRACT

Background: Blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE ®) molecule that directs cytotoxic T-cells to lyse CD19-expressing B lineage cells, has been investigated in NHL (Goebeler JCO 2016, Viardot Blood 2016, Katz ASH 2019). Here, we evaluated subcutaneous (SC) blinatumomab, which may simplify administration, improve convenience, and potentially reduce adverse events (AEs). Methods: Patients (pts;≥18 y) had indolent NHL (follicular, marginal zone, lymphoplasmacytic, mantle cell, or small lymphocytic) that was primary refractory (1+ prior line), relapsed (within 1 y of first response), or that had responded to initial therapy for ≥1 y and relapsed after 2+ lines, including an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Disease must not have been irradiated and was measurable (≥1.5 cm) on PET-CT or CT. Pts had a 3-wk continuous intravenous (cIV) run-in period followed by SC dosing in 5 cohorts, a further 2 wks of cIV dosing, and the option for a second cycle of cIV dosing (Figure). The primary objective was safety and tolerability of SC blinatumomab;secondary objectives included pharmacokinetics (PK), estimating the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), ie, the highest dose at which ≤1/6 pts had a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), and efficacy (NCT 02961881). Results: Pts (n=29) had a median (range) age of 64 (42-75) y, 55% were male, 90% Caucasian, with follicular I-IIIA (76%), marginal zone (10%), mantle cell (10%) and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (3%) subtypes;no pts had prior allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), 38% had prior auto-HSCT. Of the 29 pts, 5 discontinued (D/C) blinatumomab due to AEs (n=3;2 cIV, 1 SC), pt request (1), and disease progression (1);no pts D/C due to COVID-19 control measures;26 pts completed the study;pts received a median (range) of 5 (3-10) doses. AEs leading to D/C in SC treatment included neurologic events of aphasia and seizure. During SC dosing, 2 DLTs occurred (aphasia, n=1;seizure, n=1 ). MTD was not reached. Five pts had grade 3 (G3) AEs (thrombocytopenia, erosive esophagitis, asthenia, device-related infection, hyperglycemia, aphasia, seizure;pts may have had >1 G3 AE);there were no G4 AEs or fatal AEs. AEs of interest included neurologic events (all, n=15;G3, n=2), infection (2;1), and cytokine release syndrome (4;0). One pt had grade 1 injection site erythema. Anti-blinatumomab antibodies have not been detected to date. Preliminary PK results were consistent across the 5 SC cohorts and 3 different dosing regimens. Following the first dose, maximum concentrations (C max) were reached after ~5-12 hours and exposures (C max and area under concentration-time curve [AUC] from 0-12 hours) increased in a dose-related manner. At steady state, exposures (AUC over the dosing interval) increased in a dose-related manner for dosing intervals of once every 12, 24, and 48 hours across cohorts. Blinatumomab bioavailability and apparent terminal elimination half-life were favorable for extending the dosing interval to once every other day and potentially longer intervals. The steady-state concentrations during both cIV infusion periods were consistent with those previously reported in NHL pts. In all pts, the overall response rate (ORR, representative of cIV, 5 wks and SC, 1wk) per Cheson criteria was 69% (evaluable, n=23: complete response [CR], 21%;partial response [PR], 48%;cycle 1 [C1], n=22: ORR, 62%;CR, 14%;PR,48%;cycle 2 [C2], n=17: 45%;17%;28%;respectively);per Lugano criteria, the ORR was 52% (n=21: CR, 24%;PR, 28%;C1, n=18: 45%;17%;28%;C2, n=12: 31%;21%;10%);for follicular lymphoma, ORR was 77% per Cheson (n=19: CR, 23%;PR, 55%) and 55% per Lugano (n=15: CR, 23%;PR, 32%). Conclusions: In pts with R/R indolent NHL, SC blinatumomab had a favorable safety profile, with the caveat that pts who could not tolerate cIV blinatumomab did not advance to SC dosing. Efficacy was comparable with that seen for cIV dosing in prior blinatumomab NHL studies. In contrast to prior blinatumomab trials, no dose dependency in efficacy or toxicity was observed because SC dosi g was administered for only 1 wk, after 3 wks of cIV;pts not tolerating cIV did not receive SC dosing. Safety/tolerability of blinatumomab SC administration over the whole cycle is currently being evaluated in a phase 1 trial of pts with R/R acute lymphoblastic leukemia (NCT 04521231). SC blinatumomab PK, including bioavailability and half-life, showed promising features, warranting further investigation. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Rossi: Astellas: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Amgen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Alexion: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Sanofi: Honoraria;Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy, Honoraria;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Jazz: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Prince: Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria;Amgen: Honoraria, Research Funding;Novartis: Honoraria. Tam: Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;BeiGene: Consultancy, Honoraria;AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;Loxo: Consultancy;Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria;Pharmacyclics: Honoraria. Ku: Roche: Consultancy;Genor Biopharma: Consultancy;Antegene: Consultancy. Thieblemont: Gilead Sciences: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses;Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses, Research Funding;Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Takeda: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Kyte: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses;Bristol Myers Squibb/Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses;Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses;Incyte: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses;Cellectis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses;Hospira: Research Funding;Bayer: Honoraria;Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses. Popplewell: Pfizer: Other: Travel;Hoffman La Roche: Other: Food;Novartis: Other: Travel. Wermke: Novartis, Roche, Pfizer, BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Haioun: Roche: Consultancy, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES (paid by any for-profit health care company);Janssen-Cilag: Consultancy;Celgene: Consultancy, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES (paid by any for-profit health care company);Novartis: Honoraria;Amgen: Honoraria, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES (paid by any for-profit health care company);Servier/Pfizer: Honoraria;Gilead Sciences: Consultancy, Honoraria;Takeda: Consultancy;Miltenyi Biotec: Consultancy. Viardot: Bristol-Myers Squibb: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Kite/Gilead: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;University Hospital of Ulm: Current Employment. Ferreri: Pfizer: Research Funding;x Incyte: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Amgen: Research Funding;Genmab: Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;Hutchison Medipharma: Research Funding;PletixaPharm: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Adienne: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;ADC Therapeutics: Research Funding;Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Ospedale San Raffaele srl: Patents & Royalties;Beigene: Research Funding. Wong: Amgen: Current Employment;Amgen: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Kadu: IQVIA: Current Employment. Zugmaier: Amgen: Current Employment;Micromet/Amgen: Patents & Royalties: Patents 20190300609 and 20130323247 licensed;receives royalties of family members of international applications published as WO2010/052014;WO2010/052013;WO2011/051307;WO2012/055961;WO 2012/062596;WO2014/122251;and WO2015/181683;Amgen: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Zeng: Amgen: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Rambaldi: Celgene: Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses;Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy;Astellas Pharma: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy;Omeros: Consultancy, Honoraria;Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria. OffLabelDisclosure: Blinatumomab is approved in the United States for administration as a continuous intravenous infusion. It has not been approved for subcutaneous administration.

16.
Political Communication in the Time of Coronavirus ; : 33-47, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1549132

ABSTRACT

China has grown into a digital authoritarian with sophisticated and mammoth social control apparatus. But control is set to be met with resistance. In the cyberspace, various actors contest in a nuanced state of coevolution, bringing out porous dynamics beyond control and resistance. This chapter discusses the complex and fluid dynamics in narrative contestation between state and non-state actors over coronavirus outbreak in digital China. Through a case study of ‘Fang Fang Diary’, the most prominent example of citizen-generated digital samizdat amidst the state’s rigid information control during the outbreak, this chapter examines how citizens are galvanized by the public crisis and social media affordances to contest with official narrative, and how the party-state grasps on its paramount control over the digital infrastructure and the participatory nature of social media to flood the cyberspace with official narrative and co-opt non-state actors to drown alternative narrative into ‘digital exodus’ and abeyance. The author thereby suggests ditch the oversimplified control-versus-resistance, or democratization-versus-authoritarianism dichotomous lens in political communication studies. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Peter Van Aelst and Jay G. Blumler.

17.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293214

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) provides a promising substitution for streamlining COVID-19 diagnoses. However, concerns surrounding security and trustworthiness impede the collection of large-scale representative medical data, posing a considerable challenge for training a well-generalised model in clinical practices. To address this, we launch the Unified CT-COVID AI Diagnostic Initiative (UCADI), where the AI model can be distributedly trained and independently executed at each host institution under a federated learning framework (FL) without data sharing. Here we show that our FL model outperformed all the local models by a large yield (test sensitivity /specificity in China: 0.973/0.951, in the UK: 0.730/0.942), achieving comparable performance with a panel of professional radiologists. We further evaluated the model on the hold-out (collected from another two hospitals leaving out the FL) and heterogeneous (acquired with contrast materials) data, provided visual explanations for decisions made by the model, and analysed the trade-offs between the model performance and the communication costs in the federated training process. Our study is based on 9,573 chest computed tomography scans (CTs) from 3,336 patients collected from 23 hospitals located in China and the UK. Collectively, our work advanced the prospects of utilising federated learning for privacy-preserving AI in digital health.

18.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-292843

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) provides a promising substitution for streamlining COVID-19 diagnoses. However, concerns surrounding security and trustworthiness impede the collection of large-scale representative medical data, posing a considerable challenge for training a well-generalised model in clinical practices. To address this, we launch the Unified CT-COVID AI Diagnostic Initiative (UCADI), where the AI model can be distributedly trained and independently executed at each host institution under a federated learning framework (FL) without data sharing. Here we show that our FL model outperformed all the local models by a large yield (test sensitivity /specificity in China: 0.973/0.951, in the UK: 0.730/0.942), achieving comparable performance with a panel of professional radiologists. We further evaluated the model on the hold-out (collected from another two hospitals leaving out the FL) and heterogeneous (acquired with contrast materials) data, provided visual explanations for decisions made by the model, and analysed the trade-offs between the model performance and the communication costs in the federated training process. Our study is based on 9,573 chest computed tomography scans (CTs) from 3,336 patients collected from 23 hospitals located in China and the UK. Collectively, our work advanced the prospects of utilising federated learning for privacy-preserving AI in digital health.

19.
Journal of Fruit Science ; 38(10):1790-1801, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1485533

ABSTRACT

The global trade of kiwifruit started in New Zealand in the 1950s, and entered a stage of rapid development afterwards. In 2019, the trade volume of kiwifruit reached 3.46 billion U.S. dollars. The major exporters include New Zealand, Italy, Belgium and Chile, and meanwhile, China, Japan, Belgium and Germany are playing important roles in importing. At the beginning of the 2020, the COVID-19 broke out in many countries one after another. What drove the world economy down was not simply virus itself, but a series of regulations came after. The epidemic led governments to issue lockdown order, which resulted in a chain reaction and global trade shrinking, and the kiwifruit market had been hit without exception. Farmers who got used to JIT mode suffered the impact from both the upstream and downstream of the supply chain. So far, the existing literatures in relative area mainly focus on the macro market level, in which they quote official data and make speculations base on facts. In the meanwhile, there is merely no analysis of specific industries nor has the quantitative analysis of trade data been made. As a result, our study aimed to understand the fluctuation of the kiwifruit trade volume due to the COVID- 19 worldwide in an empirical way. A time sequence model was built based on the dataset collected from FAO, UN database and customs website of relevant countries to get the monthly predicted trade value in 2020. We selected several most representative import and export countries for analysis, and the results showed that although the total value of kiwifruit trading witnessed a slight drop, the fluctuation was enormously varied from month to month. The most significant import rise appeared in China in February and March, reaching 2425% and 1380%, respectively. In March, the import value in Japan soared by 446% and the export value in New Zealand raised by 167%. In terms of regions, China experienced the raging virus and ushered in the dawn at the end of February. At the beginning of the epidemic, unprecedented strict lockdown measures made it hard to get commodities from international market, which explained the declining of import in January. In February, China's imports and exports had basically recovered to normal, so the import of kiwifruit surged in the next two months. Japan is another fat part in importing kiwifruit, and a small outbreak scale as well as the lack of domestic stocks explained the rise of importing before May. New Zealand is the largest exporter of kiwifruit in the world. Although it was less affected by the epidemic, the decline of global demand at the beginning of 2020 and the short of available labor in the second quarter may be main stumbling blocks ahead their way to export. All in all, the data from January to August reflected that the greater impact had imposed on Asia and Oceania than that on Europe, except the export value in Belgium. When talking about some of the worst affected nations, U.S. A, India and Brazil are the only three countries whose number of infections have exceeded 5 million. After comparing available trade data in 2020 with previous figures separately, we found that conspicuous ups and downs had reflected in those countries. Especially in June in U.S.A and September in India, the growth rate of import reached 100% and 103%, respectively. The huge fluctuations are considered to have connection with disrupted global supply chain, hindered labor mobility, plunging global demand, the rise of trade protectionism as well as the time lag between the spread of the virus among countries. However, as those problems were prominent in North America and Europe attributed to the increasingly serious epidemic, the kiwifruit trade in those two markets may be severely affected in the future. China is one of the very first countries to emerge from the shadow of the COVID-19, which provides an opportunity for Chinese kiwifruit industry to develop the good fruit quality and seize the global market share. As the world's largest producer and importer of kiwifruit, China owned more than 1 2 thousand hectares kiwifruit orchards and yielded more than 2 million tones fruit in 2019. In the same year, China spent more than $450 million in importing kiwifruit, which made it the biggest kiwifruit buyer in international market. Although China's kiwifruit market has huge throughput, its domestic fruit needs to face problems like uneven product quality, low average profit margin and low unit output. In order to settle current problems, we came up with three suggestions: Firstly, strengthen the integration of industry and academia, and tap into regional dominant varieties;Secondly, increase government support in multiple ways in order to build a thorough export system;Finally, construct closer cooperation in worldwide and conform to international standards. All of them are intended to improve the industry of Chinese kiwifruit better and healthier by not only using the existing advantages but also exploring new ways. © 2021, Office of Journal of the Fruit Science. All right reserved.

20.
2021 International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and its Application on Media, ISAIAM 2021 ; : 121-124, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1437946

ABSTRACT

At the moment of COVID-19's continuing popularity, vaccination has become a necessary measure to fight against the COVID-19 under the community of common destiny. In order to provide more reliable vaccines traceability information that will not be tampered with and improve the worldwide COVID-19 vaccination management system, we designed and implemented a COVID-19 vaccines information traceability system. The system has three major functions. Firstly, with the help of blockchain technology, the system provides reliable input and query of traceability information for the production and transportation of COVID-19 vaccines. Secondly, it provides the historical injection information of COVID-19 vaccines. Thirdly, it realizes the safe conversion from historical injection information to QR code. The COVID-19 vaccines information traceability system not only allows people to inquire absolutely true vaccines traceability information, but also provides a standardized management platform of the COVID-19 vaccines for citizens and governments all over the world. © 2021 IEEE.

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