Subject(s)COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mycobiome , Humans , Cytokines , Follow-Up Studies
The oral bacteriome, gut bacteriome, and gut mycobiome are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the oral fungal microbiota in COVID-19 remains unclear. This article aims to characterize the oral mycobiome in COVID-19 and recovered patients. Tongue coating specimens of 71 COVID-19 patients, 36 suspected cases (SCs), 22 recovered COVID-19 patients, 36 SCs who recovered, and 132 controls from Henan are collected and analyzed using internal transcribed spacer sequencing. The richness of oral fungi is increased in COVID-19 versus controls, and beta diversity analysis reveals separate fungal communities for COVID-19 and control. The ratio of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota is higher in COVID-19, and the opportunistic pathogens, including the genera Candida, Saccharomyces, and Simplicillium, are increased in COVID-19. The classifier based on two fungal biomarkers is constructed and can distinguish COVID-19 patients from controls in the training, testing, and independent cohorts. Importantly, the classifier successfully diagnoses SCs with positive specific severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G antibodies as COVID-19 patients. The correlation between distinct fungi and bacteria in COVID-19 and control groups is depicted.. These data suggest that the oral mycobiome may play a role in COVID-19.
BACKGROUND: Due to the outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more than 160 million patients have become convalescents worldwide to date. Significant alterations have occurred in the gut and oral microbiome and metabonomics of patients with COVID-19. However, it is unknown whether their characteristics return to normal after the 1-year recovery. METHODS: We recruited 35 confirmed patients to provide specimens at discharge and one year later, as well as 160 healthy controls. A total of 497 samples were prospectively collected, including 219 tongue-coating, 129 stool and 149 plasma samples. Tongue-coating and stool samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing, and plasma samples were subjected to untargeted metabolomics testing. RESULTS: The oral and gut microbiome and metabolomics characteristics of the 1-year convalescents were restored to a large extent but did not completely return to normal. In the recovery process, the microbial diversity gradually increased. Butyric acid-producing microbes and Bifidobacterium gradually increased, whereas lipopolysaccharide-producing microbes gradually decreased. In addition, sphingosine-1-phosphate, which is closely related to the inflammatory factor storm of COVID-19, increased significantly during the recovery process. Moreover, the predictive models established based on the microbiome and metabolites of patients at the time of discharge reached high efficacy in predicting their neutralizing antibody levels one year later. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to characterize the oral and gut microbiome and metabonomics in 1-year convalescents of COVID-19. The key microbiome and metabolites in the process of recovery were identified, and provided new treatment ideas for accelerating recovery. And the predictive models based on the microbiome and metabolomics afford new insights for predicting the recovery situation which benefited affected individuals and healthcare.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Metabolomics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
BACKGROUND: Reduning injection is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with known efficacy against a variety of viral infections, but there is no data about its efficacy against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: To explore the efficacy and safety of Reduning injection in the treatment of COVID-19, a randomized, open-labeled, multicenter, controlled trial was conducted from 12 general hospitals between 2020.02.06 and 2020.03.23. Patients with COVID-19 who met the diagnostic criteria of the "Diagnosis and Treatment Program for Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia (Trial Fifth Edition)". Patients were randomized to routine treatment with or without Reduning injection (20 mL/day for 14 days) (ChiCTR2000029589). The primary endpoint was the rate of achieving clinical symptom recovery on day 14 of treatment. RESULTS: There were 77 and 80 participants in the Reduning and control groups. The symptom resolution rate at 14 days was higher in the Reduning injection than in controls [full-analysis set (FAS): 84.4% vs. 60.0%, P=0.0004]. Compared with controls, the Reduning group showed shorter median time to resolution of the clinical symptoms (143 vs. 313.5 h, P<0.001), shorter to nucleic acid test turning negative (146.5 vs. 255.5 h, P<0.001), shorter hospital stay (14.1 vs. 18.1 days, P<0.001), and shorter time to defervescence (29 vs. 71 h, P<0.001). There was no difference in AEs (3.9% vs. 8.8%, P=0.383). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary trial suggests that Reduning injection might be effective and safe in patients with symptomatic COVID-19.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. To date, no specific drug for COVID-19 has been developed. Thus, this randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial (ChiCTR2000029853) was performed in China. A total of 20 mild and common COVID-19 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive azvudine and symptomatic treatment (FNC group), or standard antiviral and symptomatic treatment (control group). The mean times of the first nucleic acid negative conversion (NANC) of ten patients in the FNC group and ten patients in the control group are 2.60 (SD 0.97; range 1-4) d and 5.60 (SD 3.06; range 2-13) d, respectively (p = 0.008). The mean times of the first NANC of four newly diagnosed subjects in the FNC group and ten subjects in the control group are 2.50 (SD 1.00; range 2-4) d and 9.80 (SD 4.73; range 3-19) d, respectively (starting from the initial treatment) (p = 0.01). No adverse events occur in the FNC group, while three adverse events occur in the control group (p = 0.06). The preliminary results show that FNC treatment in the mild and common COVID-19 may shorten the NANC time versus standard antiviral treatment. Therefore, clinical trials of FNC treating COVID-19 with larger sample size are warranted.