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1.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S76, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189530

ABSTRACT

Background. COVID-19 presents a serious health risk to pregnant people and pregnancy outcomes. However, pregnant people were not included in pivotal phase III COVID-19 vaccine efficacy trials. Methods. We used Cox regression models in a cohort study to determine hazard ratios (HR) of a PCR positive test ("infection") comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated pregnant persons in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. HRs were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, type of insurance coverage, geographical area, BMI, preexisting diabetes, hypertension, parity, time since pregnancy onset and smoking status. Vaccine effectiveness (VE), calculated as 1 minus adjusted HR, was estimated for fully vaccinated < 150 and >= 150 days prior to infection. VE was estimated for before and during Delta, and Omicron. We also calculated incidence rates of COVID-pneumonia associated hospitalization by vaccination status. Results. Among 68836 pregnancies between 12/15/2020 and 3/31/2022, 21834 (31.7%) were fully vaccinated and 5980 (8.7%) were boosted by the end of pregnancy. Compared with unvaccinated persons, the HRs of infection for fully vaccinated < 150 days prior were 0.13 (95% CI: 0.07 - 0.23;VE=87% [77% - 93%]) before Delta;0.25 (CI: 0.20 - 0.30;VE=75% [70% - 80%]) during Delta and 0.76 (CI: 0.61 - 0.94;VE= 24% [16% - 39%]) during Omicron. The HRs for >= 150 days prior were 0.38 (CI: 0.31 - 0.46;VE=62 % [54% - 69%]) during Delta and 1.04 (CI: 0.89 - 1.22;VE= -0.04% [-0.22% - 0.11%]) during Omicron. The HRs for boosted persons were 0.10 (CI: 0.04 - 0.25;VE= 90% [75% - 96%]) during Delta and 0.42 (CI: 0.34 - 0.52;VE=58% [48% - 66%]) during Omicron periods. Incidence rates (IR) per 1000 person-years for hospitalization before delta were 0.75 among unvaccinated and zero among vaccinated. During Delta, the IR was 6.64 for unvaccinated and zero for fully vaccinated and boosted. During Omicron, the IR was 10.27 for unvaccinated, zero for fully vaccinated < 150 days prior, 2.48 for fully vaccinated >= 150 days prior and zero for those boosted. Conclusion. COVID-19 vaccines protect against infection and hospitalization among pregnant people. However, vaccine effectiveness against infection wanes over time and was lower during Omicron. Booster doses are necessary for continuous protection.

2.
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America ; 06, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2188616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination coverage remains lower in communities with higher social vulnerability. Factors such as SARS-CoV-2 exposure risk and access to health care are often correlated with social vulnerability and may therefore contribute to a relationship between vulnerability and observed vaccine effectiveness (VE). Understanding whether these factors impact VE could contribute to our understanding of real-world VE. METHOD(S): We used electronic health record data from seven health systems to assess vaccination coverage among patients with medically attended COVID-19-like illness. We then used a test-negative design to assess VE for 2- and 3-dose mRNA adult (>=18 years) vaccine recipients across Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) quartiles. SVI rankings were determined by geocoding patient addresses to census tracts;rankings were grouped into quartiles for analysis. RESULT(S): In July 2021, primary series vaccination coverage was higher in the least vulnerable quartile than in the most vulnerable quartile (56% vs. 36%, respectively). In February 2022, booster dose coverage among persons who had completed a primary series was higher in the least vulnerable quartile than in the most vulnerable quartile (43% vs. 30%). VE among 2-dose and 3-dose recipients during the Delta and Omicron BA.1 periods of predominance was similar across SVI quartiles. CONCLUSION(S): COVID-19 vaccination coverage varied substantially by SVI. Differences in VE estimates by SVI were minimal across groups after adjusting for baseline patient factors. However, lower vaccination coverage among more socially vulnerable groups means that the burden of illness is still disproportionately borne by the most socially vulnerable populations. Copyright Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America 2023.

3.
MMWR - Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(5152):1616-1624, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204207

ABSTRACT

During June-October 2022, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.5 sublineage accounted for most of the sequenced viral genomes in the United States, with further Omicron sublineage diversification through November 2022.* Bivalent mRNA vaccines contain an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain component plus an updated component of the Omicron BA.4/BA.5 sublineages. On September 1, 2022, a single bivalent booster dose was recommended for adults who had completed a primary vaccination series (with or without subsequent booster doses), with the last dose administered >=2 months earlier (1). During September 13-November 18, the VISION Network evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of a bivalent mRNA booster dose (after 2, 3, or 4 monovalent doses) compared with 1) no previous vaccination and 2) previous receipt of 2, 3, or 4 monovalent-only mRNA vaccine doses, among immunocompetent adults aged >=18 years with an emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) encounter or hospitalization for a COVID-19-like illness. VE of a bivalent booster dose (after 2, 3, or 4 monovalent doses) against COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounters was 56% compared with no vaccination, 31% compared with monovalent vaccination only with last dose 2-4 months earlier, and 50% compared with monovalent vaccination only with last dose >=11 months earlier. VE of a bivalent booster dose (after 2, 3, or 4 monovalent doses) against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations was 57% compared with no vaccination, 38% compared with monovalent vaccination only with last dose 5-7 months earlier, and 45% compared with monovalent vaccination only with last dose >=11 months earlier. Bivalent vaccines administered after 2, 3, or 4 monovalent doses were effective in preventing medically attended COVID-19 compared with no vaccination and provided additional protection compared with past monovalent vaccination only, with relative protection increasing with time since receipt of the last monovalent dose. All eligible persons should stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations, including receiving a bivalent booster dose. Persons should also consider taking additional precautions to avoid respiratory illness this winter season, such as masking in public indoor spaces, especially in areas where COVID-19 community levels are high.

5.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(7):255-263, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812722

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Protection against COVID-19 after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine wanes, but little is known about durability of protection after 3 doses. What is added by this report? Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits and hospitalizations was higher after the third dose than after the second dose but waned with time since vaccination. During the Omicron-predominant period, VE against COVID-19-associated ED/UC visits and hospitalizations was 87% and 91%, respectively, during the 2 months after a third dose and decreased to 66% and 78% by the fourth month after a third dose. Protection against hospitalizations exceeded that against ED/UC visits. What are the implications for public health practice? All eligible persons should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations to best protect against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and ED/UC visits.

9.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 70(29):985-990, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1344834

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is critical to ending the COVID-19 pandemic. Members of minority racial and ethnic groups have experienced disproportionate COVID-19–associated morbidity and mortality (1);however, COVID-19 vaccination coverage is lower in these groups (2). CDC used data from CDC’s Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD)* to assess disparities in vaccination coverage among persons aged ≥16 years by race and ethnicity during December 14, 2020–May 15, 2021. Measures of coverage included receipt of ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine dose (i.e., receipt of the first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines or 1 dose of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine [Johnson And Johnson]) and full vaccination (receipt of 2 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines or 1 dose of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine). Among 9.6 million persons aged ≥16 years enrolled in VSD during December 14, 2020–May 15, 2021, ≥1-dose coverage was 48.3%, and 38.3% were fully vaccinated. As of May 15, 2021, coverage with ≥1 dose was lower among non-Hispanic Black (Black) and Hispanic persons (40.7% and 41.1%, respectively) than it was among non-Hispanic White (White) persons (54.6%). Coverage was highest among non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) persons (57.4%). Coverage with ≥1 dose was higher among persons with certain medical conditions that place them at higher risk for severe COVID-19 (high-risk conditions) (63.8%) than it was among persons without such conditions (41.5%) and was higher among persons who had not had COVID-19 (48.8%) than it was among those who had (42.4%). Persons aged 18–24 years had the lowest ≥1-dose coverage (28.7%) among all age groups. Continued monitoring of vaccination coverage and efforts to improve equity in coverage are critical, especially among populations disproportionately affected by COVID-19. VSD is a collaboration between CDC’s Immunization Safety Office and eight integrated health care organizations in six U.S. states.† VSD captures information on COVID-19 vaccine doses administered, regardless of where they are received, based on an automated search within the organizations’ facilities (outpatient and inpatient records) and external systems (e.g., health insurance claims and state or local immunization What is already known about this topic? Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic persons experience higher COVID-19–associated morbidity and mortality, yet COVID-19 vaccination coverage is lower in these groups. What is added by this report? As of May 15, 2021, 48.3% of persons identified in CDC’s Vaccine Safety Datalink aged ≥16 years had received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine dose and 38.3% were fully vaccinated. Coverage with ≥1 dose was lower among non-Hispanic Black (40.7%) and Hispanic persons (41.1%) than among non-Hispanic White persons (54.6%);coverage was highest (57.4%) among non-Hispanic Asian persons. What are the implications for public health practice? Continued monitoring of vaccination coverage and efforts to improve equity in vaccination coverage are critical, especially among populations disproportionately affected by COVID-19. © 2021 Department of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.

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