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1.
Phytochemistry ; 201: 113284, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886026

ABSTRACT

In this work, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was used to isolate 26 phenolic compounds from the ethyl acetate partition of an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC. Among them, 8 prenylated phenolic compounds (glycyuralins Q-X) were described for the first time. The two enantiomers of glycyuralin Q were purified and their absolute configurations were established by ECD spectral calculations. (1″R, 2″S)-glycyuralin Q and (1″S, 2″R)-glycyuralin Q showed significant inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 virus proteases 3CLpro with IC50 values of 1.5 ± 1.0 and 4.0 ± 0.3 µM, and PLpro with IC50 values of 2.4 ± 0.2 and 1.9 ± 0.1 µM, respectively. Four compounds showed potent cytotoxic activities against A549, Huh-7, and HepG2 human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Glycyrrhiza , Humans , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Components, Aerial , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(4): 682-699, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742083

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 includes the entry into the target cells, replicase translation, replicating and transcribing genomes, translating structural proteins, assembling and releasing new virions. Entering host cells is a crucial stage in the early life cycle of the virus, and blocking this stage can effectively prevent virus infection. SARS enters the target cells mediated by the interaction between the viral S protein and the target cell surface receptor angiotensin- converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as well as the cleavage effect of a type-II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) on the S protein. Therefore, the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 are important targets for SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors. Herein, we provide a concise report/information on drugs with potential therapeutic value targeting virus-ACE2 or virus-TMPRSS2 interactions to provide a reference for the design and discovery of potential entry inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Serine Endopeptidases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Virus Internalization
3.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674735

ABSTRACT

Viral infections pose a persistent threat to human health. The relentless epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global health problem, with millions of infections and fatalities so far. Traditional approaches such as random screening and optimization of lead compounds by organic synthesis have become extremely resource- and time-consuming. Various modern innovative methods or integrated paradigms are now being applied to drug discovery for significant resistance in order to simplify the drug process. This review provides an overview of newly emerging antiviral strategies, including proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC), ribonuclease targeting chimera (RIBOTAC), targeted covalent inhibitors, topology-matching design and antiviral drug delivery system. This article is dedicated to Prof. Dr. Erik De Clercq, an internationally renowned expert in the antiviral drug research field, on the occasion of his 80th anniversary.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Design/methods , Drug Design/trends , Drug Discovery/trends , Drug Repositioning/methods , Drug Repositioning/trends , Humans , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
4.
Signal transduction and targeted therapy ; 7(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652408

ABSTRACT

As a highly pathogenic human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has to counteract an intricate network of antiviral host responses to establish infection and spread. The nucleic acid-induced stress response is an essential component of antiviral defense and is closely related to antiviral innate immunity. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 regulates the stress response pathway to achieve immune evasion remains elusive. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 NSP5 and N protein were found to attenuate antiviral stress granule (avSG) formation. Moreover, NSP5 and N suppressed IFN expression induced by infection of Sendai virus or transfection of a synthetic mimic of dsRNA, poly (I:C), inhibiting TBK1 and IRF3 phosphorylation, and restraining the nuclear translocalization of IRF3. Furthermore, HEK293T cells with ectopic expression of NSP5 or N protein were less resistant to vesicular stomatitis virus infection. Mechanistically, NSP5 suppressed avSG formation and disrupted RIG-I–MAVS complex to attenuate the RIG-I–mediated antiviral immunity. In contrast to the multiple targets of NSP5, the N protein specifically targeted cofactors upstream of RIG-I. The N protein interacted with G3BP1 to prevent avSG formation and to keep the cofactors G3BP1 and PACT from activating RIG-I. Additionally, the N protein also affected the recognition of dsRNA by RIG-I. This study revealed the intimate correlation between SARS-CoV-2, the stress response, and innate antiviral immunity, shedding light on the pathogenic mechanism of COVID-19.

6.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 12(2): 581-599, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377653

ABSTRACT

Novel therapies are urgently needed to improve global treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein, we briefly provide a concise report on the medicinal chemistry strategies towards the development of effective SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors with representative examples in different strategies from the medicinal chemistry perspective.

7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1322: 219-260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309020

ABSTRACT

Recent coronavirus outbreaks of SARS-CoV-1 (2002-2003), MERS-CoV (since 2012), and SARS-CoV-2 (since the end of 2019) are examples of how viruses can damage health care and generate havoc all over the world. Coronavirus can spread quickly from person to person causing high morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the antiviral armamentarium is insufficient to fight these infections. In this chapter, we provide a detailed summary of the current situation in the development of drugs directed against pandemic human coronaviruses. Apart from the recently licensed remdesivir, other antiviral agents discussed in this review include molecules targeting viral components (e.g., RNA polymerase inhibitors, entry inhibitors, or protease inhibitors), compounds interfering with virus-host interactions, and drugs identified in large screening assays, effective against coronavirus replication, but with an uncertain mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(4): 682-699, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197459

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The life cycle of SARS-CoV-2 includes the entry into the target cells, replicase translation, replicating and transcribing genomes, translating structural proteins, assembling and releasing new virions. Entering host cells is a crucial stage in the early life cycle of the virus, and blocking this stage can effectively prevent virus infection. SARS enters the target cells mediated by the interaction between the viral S protein and the target cell surface receptor angiotensin- converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as well as the cleavage effect of a type-II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) on the S protein. Therefore, the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 are important targets for SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors. Herein, we provide a concise report/information on drugs with potential therapeutic value targeting virus-ACE2 or virus-TMPRSS2 interactions to provide a reference for the design and discovery of potential entry inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Serine Endopeptidases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Virus Internalization
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 299, 2020 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997814

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly spread worldwide and has affected more than 10 million individuals. A typical feature of COVID-19 is the suppression of type I and III interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral immunity. However, the molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades antiviral immunity remains elusive. Here, we reported that the SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein inhibits the production of type I and III IFNs induced by the cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathway mediated by RIG-I/MDA-5-MAVS signaling. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 M protein suppresses type I and III IFN induction stimulated by SeV infection or poly (I:C) transfection. Mechanistically, the SARS-CoV-2 M protein interacts with RIG-I, MAVS, and TBK1, thus preventing the formation of the multiprotein complex containing RIG-I, MAVS, TRAF3, and TBK1 and subsequently impeding the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and activation of IRF3. Consequently, ectopic expression of the SARS-CoV-2 M protein facilitates the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. Taken together, these results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 M protein antagonizes type I and III IFN production by targeting RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling, which subsequently attenuates antiviral immunity and enhances viral replication. This study provides insight into the interpretation of SARS-CoV-2-induced antiviral immune suppression and illuminates the pathogenic mechanism of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Interferons/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
11.
J Med Chem ; 63(21): 12256-12274, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598389

ABSTRACT

Recently, a novel coronavirus initially designated 2019-nCoV but now termed SARS-CoV-2 has emerged and raised global concerns due to its virulence. SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of "coronavirus disease 2019", abbreviated to COVID-19, which despite only being identified at the very end of 2019, has now been classified as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). At this time, no specific prophylactic or postexposure therapy for COVID-19 are currently available. Viral entry is the first step in the SARS-CoV-2 lifecycle and is mediated by the trimeric spike protein. Being the first stage in infection, entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells is an extremely attractive therapeutic intervention point. Within this review, we highlight therapeutic intervention strategies for anti-SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and other coronaviruses and speculate upon future directions for SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitor designs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cathepsin L/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Line , Humans , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors
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