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1.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062604

ABSTRACT

Obtaining antiretroviral therapy (ART) was a challenge for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. On 26 January 2020, the Chinese Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention issued a nationwide directive to relax restrictions on where and when PLHIV could refill ART. This qualitative study explored unexpected barriers under this directive and recommendations to improve future ART delivery. Between February 11 and February 15 2020, in-depth interviews of 4 groups of stake holders related to ART refilling (i.e., PLHIV, community-based organization employees, CDC staff, infectious disease physicians and nurses), were conducted via WeChat. Data were managed by NVivo 11.0 and transcripts were coded using thematic analysis. Sixty-two interviews were conducted. The main barriers to refilling ART included: (1) inconsistent documentation requirements to refill ART, (2) lack of specific protocols on ART refilling, (3) insufficient staffing, and (4) regimen verification and drug shortages. The most common recommendations to improve future ART delivery were: (1) to establish a nationwide system to distribute ART and (2) increase the number of pills delivered with each ART refill. Strengthening protocols and systems to refill ART and improving collaboration is key to preventing interruptions in ART among PLHIV during public health emergencies.

2.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 29: 100569, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977617

ABSTRACT

Background: China implemented strict non-pharmaceutical interventions to contain COVID-19 at the early stage. We aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on HIV care continuum in China. Methods: Aggregated data on HIV care continuum between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2020 were collected from centers for disease control and prevention at different levels and major infectious disease hospitals in various regions in China. We used interrupted time series analysis to characterize temporal trend in weekly numbers of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) prescriptions, HIV tests, HIV diagnoses, median time intervals between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation (time intervals, days), ART initiations, mean CD4+ T cell counts at ART initiation (CD4 counts, cells/µL), ART collections, and missed visits for ART collection, before and after the implementation of massive NPIs (23 January to 7 April 2020). We used Poisson segmented regression models to estimate the immediate and long-term impact of NPIs on these outcomes. Findings: A total of 16,780 PEP prescriptions, 1,101,686 HIV tests, 69,659 HIV diagnoses, 63,409 time intervals and ART initiations, 61,518 CD4 counts, 1,528,802 ART collections, and 6656 missed visits were recorded during the study period. The majority of outcomes occurred in males (55·3-87·4%), 21-50 year olds (51·7-90·5%), Southwestern China (38·2-82·0%) and heterosexual transmission (47·9-66·1%). NPIs was associated with 71·5% decrease in PEP prescriptions (IRR 0·285; 95% CI 0·192-0·423), 36·1% decrease in HIV tests (0·639, 0·497-0·822), 32·0% decrease in HIV diagnoses (0·680, 0·511-0·904), 59·3% increase in time intervals (1·593, 1·270-1·997) and 17·4% decrease in CD4 counts (0·826, 0·746-0·915) in the first week during NPIs. There was no marked change in the number of ART initiations, ART collections and missed visits during the NPIs. By the end of 2020, the number of HIV tests, HIV diagnoses, time intervals, ART initiations, and CD4 counts reached expected levels, but the number of PEP prescriptions (0·523, 0·394-0·696), ART collections (0·720, 0·595-0·872), and missed visits (0·137, 0·086-0·220) were still below expected levels. With the ease of restrictions, PEP prescriptions (slope change 1·024/week, 1·012-1·037), HIV tests (1·016/week, 1·008-1·026), and CD4 counts (1·005/week, 1·001-1·009) showed a significant increasing trend. Interpretation: HIV care continuum in China was affected by the COVID-19 NPIs at various levels. Preparedness and efforts to maintain the HIV care continuum during public health emergencies should leverage collaborations between stakeholders. Funding: Natural Science Foundation of China.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(10): e2104384, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772640

ABSTRACT

Microbes have developed their own specific strategies to cope with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Catalase, a heme-containing tetramer expressed in a broad range of aerobic fungi, shows remarkable efficiency in degrading hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) for fungal survival and host invasion. Here, it is demonstrated that catalase inactivation by blue light renders fungal cells highly susceptible to ROS attack. To confirm catalase as a major molecular target of blue light, wild type Candida albicans are systematically compared with a catalase-deficient mutant strain regarding their susceptibility to ROS through 410 nm treatment. Upon testing a wide range of fungal species, it is found that intracellular catalase can be effectively and universally inactivated by 410 nm blue light. It is also found that photoinactivation of catalase in combination with ROS-generating agents is highly effective in total eradication of various fungal species, including multiple Candida auris strains, the causative agent of the global fungal epidemic. In addition, photoinactivation of catalase is shown to facilitate macrophage killing of intracellular Candida albicans. The antifungal efficacy of catalase photoinactivation is further validated using a C. albicans-induced mouse model of skin abrasion. Taken together, the findings offer a novel catalase-photoinactivation approach to address multidrug-resistant Candida infections.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Candida , Animals , Catalase/pharmacology , Mice , Reactive Oxygen Species
4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4971-4981, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM), a population bearing the greatest HIV burden in many countries, may also be vulnerable to COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccines are essential to containing the pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy may compromise vaccine coverage. We aimed to understand the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine and factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HIV-infected MSM in mainland China. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey among HIV-infected MSM was conducted between 13 and 21 February 2021 in mainland China. Variables including demographics, mental health status, HIV characteristics, and knowledge of and attitudes toward COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 vaccine were collected. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: A total of 1295 participants were included. The median age was 29.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 25.2-34.0 years). The uptake of COVID-19 vaccine was 8.7%. Two main reasons for receiving vaccines were "regarded vaccination as self-health protection" (67.3%) and "trust in domestic medical technology" (67.3%). Among participants who did not initiate vaccination, concern about side effects (46.4%) and disclosure of HIV infection (38.6%) were top two reasons, and 47.2% had higher vaccine hesitancy. Men who had with high antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.80), often (0.26, 0.17-0.40) or sometimes (0.46, 0.31-0.67) paid attention to information about the COVID-19 vaccine, preferred domestic vaccines (0.37, 0.24-0.59), thought the pandemic had moderate (0.58, 0.38-0.90) and moderately severe or severe impact (0.54, 0.38-0.78) on immunity, who were waiting for vaccination programs organized at workplace (0.60, 0.44-0.81) and who were unaware of where to get COVID-19 vaccine (0.61, 0.45-0.82) had lower degree of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Men who were concerned about the efficacy (1.72, 1.16-2.54) and side effects (2.44, 1.78-3.35) had higher degree of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine uptake among HIV-infected MSM is still suboptimal. Understanding influencing factors of vaccine hesitancy among this group and making tailored measures to alleviate hesitancy would help improve the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(9): e25781, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected antiretroviral therapy (ART) continuity among people living with HIV (PLHIV) worldwide. We conducted a qualitative study to explore barriers to ART maintenance and solutions to ART interruption when stringent COVID-19 control measures were implemented in China, from the perspective of PLHIV and relevant key stakeholders. METHODS: Between 11 February and 15 February 2020, we interviewed PLHIV, community-based organization (CBO) workers, staff from centres for disease control and prevention (CDC) at various levels whose work is relevant to HIV care (CDC staff), HIV doctors and nurses and drug vendors from various regions in China. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a messaging and social media app. Challenges and responses relevant to ART continuity during the COVID-19 pandemic were discussed. Themes were identified by transcript coding and mindmaps. RESULTS: Sixty-four stakeholders were recruited, including 16 PLHIV, 17 CBO workers, 15 CDC staff, 14 HIV doctors and nurses and two drug vendors. Many CDC staff, HIV doctors and nurses responsible for ART delivery and HIV care were shifted to COVID-19 response efforts. Barriers to ART maintenance were (a) travel restrictions, (b) inadequate communication and bureaucratic obstacles, (c) shortage in personnel, (d) privacy concerns, and (e) insufficient ART reserve. CBO helped PLHIV maintain access to ART through five solutions identified from thematic analysis: (a) coordination to refill ART from local CDC clinics or hospitals, (b) delivery of ART by mail, (c) privacy protection measures, (d) mental health counselling, and (e) providing connections to alternative sources of ART. Drug vendors contributed to ART maintenance by selling out-of-pocket ART. CONCLUSIONS: Social and institutional disruption from COVID-19 contributed to increased risk of ART interruption among PLHIV in China. Collaboration among key stakeholders was needed to maintain access to ART, with CBO playing an important role. Other countries facing ART interruption during current or future public health emergencies may learn from the solutions employed in China.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , COVID-19 , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Services Accessibility , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Stakeholder Participation
6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(11): e25637, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897817

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Social disruption associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) threatens to impede access to regular healthcare, including for people living with HIV (PLHIV), potentially resulting in antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI). We aimed to explore the characteristics and factors associated with ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. METHODS: We conducted an online survey among PLHIV by convenience sampling through social media between 5 and 17 February 2020. Respondents were asked to report whether they were at risk of ATI (i.e. experienced ATI, risk of imminent ATI, threatened but resolved risk of ATI [obtaining ART prior to interruption]) or were not at risk of ATI associated with the COVID-19 outbreak. PLHIV were also asked to report perceived risk factors for ATI and sources of additional ART. The factors associated with the risk of ATI were assessed using logistic regression. We also evaluated the factors associated with experienced ATI. RESULTS: A total of 5084 PLHIV from 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in mainland China completed the survey, with valid response rate of 99.4%. The median age was 31 years (IQR 27 to 37), 96.5% of participants were men, and 71.3% were men who had sex with men. Over one-third (35.1%, 1782/5084) reported any risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak, including 2.7% (135/5084) who experienced ATI, 18.0% (917/5084) at risk of imminent ATI and 14.4% (730/5084) at threatened but resolved risk. PLHIV with ATI were more likely to have previous interruptions in ART (aOR 8.3, 95% CI 5.6 to 12.3), travelled away from where they typically receive HIV care (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.5), stayed in an area that implemented citywide lockdowns or travel restrictions to control COVID-19 (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.6), and be in permanent residence in a rural area (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3 to 5.8). CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of PLHIV in China are at risk of ATI during the COVID-19 outbreak and some have already experienced ATI. Correlates of ATI and self-reported barriers to ART suggest that social disruptions from COVID-19 have contributed to ATI. Our findings demonstrate an urgent need for policies and interventions to maintain access to HIV care during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 321, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633920

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and quickly spread throughout China and the rest of the world. Many mathematical models have been developed to understand and predict the infectiousness of COVID-19. We aim to summarize these models to inform efforts to manage the current outbreak. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of science, EMBASE, bioRxiv, medRxiv, arXiv, Preprints, and National Knowledge Infrastructure (Chinese database) for relevant studies published between 1 December 2019 and 21 February 2020. References were screened for additional publications. Crucial indicators were extracted and analysed. We also built a mathematical model for the evolution of the epidemic in Wuhan that synthesised extracted indicators. Results: Fifty-two articles involving 75 mathematical or statistical models were included in our systematic review. The overall median basic reproduction number (R0) was 3.77 [interquartile range (IQR) 2.78-5.13], which dropped to a controlled reproduction number (Rc) of 1.88 (IQR 1.41-2.24) after city lockdown. The median incubation and infectious periods were 5.90 (IQR 4.78-6.25) and 9.94 (IQR 3.93-13.50) days, respectively. The median case-fatality rate (CFR) was 2.9% (IQR 2.3-5.4%). Our mathematical model showed that, in Wuhan, the peak time of infection is likely to be March 2020 with a median size of 98,333 infected cases (range 55,225-188,284). The earliest elimination of ongoing transmission is likely to be achieved around 7 May 2020. Conclusions: Our analysis found a sustained Rc and prolonged incubation/ infectious periods, suggesting COVID-19 is highly infectious. Although interventions in China have been effective in controlling secondary transmission, sustained global efforts are needed to contain an emerging pandemic. Alternative interventions can be explored using modelling studies to better inform policymaking as the outbreak continues.

8.
J Infect ; 80(6): 656-665, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To better inform efforts to treat and control the current outbreak with a comprehensive characterization of COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CNKI (Chinese Database) for studies published as of March 2, 2020, and we searched references of identified articles. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test. RESULTS: 43 studies involving 3600 patients were included. Among COVID-19 patients, fever (83.3% [95% CI 78.4-87.7]), cough (60.3% [54.2-66.3]), and fatigue (38.0% [29.8-46.5]) were the most common clinical symptoms. The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated C-reactive protein (68.6% [58.2-78.2]), decreased lymphocyte count (57.4% [44.8-69.5]) and increased lactate dehydrogenase (51.6% [31.4-71.6]). Ground-glass opacities (80.0% [67.3-90.4]) and bilateral pneumonia (73.2% [63.4-82.1]) were the most frequently reported findings on computed tomography. The overall estimated proportion of severe cases and case-fatality rate (CFR) was 25.6% (17.4-34.9) and 3.6% (1.1-7.2), respectively. CFR and laboratory abnormalities were higher in severe cases, patients from Wuhan, and older patients, but CFR did not differ by gender. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are symptomatic with a moderate CFR. Patients living in Wuhan, older patients, and those with medical comorbidities tend to have more severe clinical symptoms and higher CFR.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors
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