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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(7): 1386-1396, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237258

ABSTRACT

Isolating and characterizing emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is key to understanding virus pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated samples of the SARS-CoV-2 R.1 lineage, categorized as a variant under monitoring by the World Health Organization, and evaluated their sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies and type I interferons. We used convalescent serum samples from persons in Canada infected either with ancestral virus (wave 1) or the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant of concern (wave 3) for testing neutralization sensitivity. The R.1 isolates were potently neutralized by both the wave 1 and wave 3 convalescent serum samples, unlike the B.1.351 (Beta) variant of concern. Of note, the R.1 variant was significantly more resistant to type I interferons (IFN-α/ß) than was the ancestral isolate. Our study demonstrates that the R.1 variant retained sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies but evolved resistance to type I interferons. This critical driving force will influence the trajectory of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Interferon Type I/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Canada/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 23(6): 381-396, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245248

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies are known to have a crucial role in protecting against SARS-CoV-2 infection and have been suggested to be a useful correlate of protection for vaccine clinical trials and for population-level surveys. In addition to neutralizing virus directly, antibodies can also engage immune effectors through their Fc domains, including Fc receptor-expressing immune cells and complement. The outcome of these interactions depends on a range of factors, including antibody isotype-Fc receptor combinations, Fc receptor-bearing cell types and antibody post-translational modifications. A growing body of evidence has shown roles for these Fc-dependent antibody effector functions in determining the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, measuring these functions is more complicated than assays that measure antibody binding and virus neutralization. Here, we examine recent data illuminating the roles of Fc-dependent antibody effector functions in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and we discuss the implications of these data for the development of next-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Receptors, Fc
3.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281673, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242601

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The dosing interval of a primary vaccination series can significantly impact on vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. The current study compared 3 dosing intervals for the primary vaccination series of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, on humoral immune response and durability against SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and Beta variants up to 9 months post immunization. METHODS: Three groups of age- and sex-matched healthcare workers (HCW) who received 2 primary doses of BNT162b2 separated by 35-days, 35-42 days or >42-days were enrolled. Vaccine induced antibody titers at 3 weeks, 3 and 6-9 months post-second dose were assessed. RESULTS: There were 309 age- and sex-matched HCW (mean age 43 [sd 13], 58% females) enrolled. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 binding (IgG, IgM, IgA) and neutralizing antibody titers showed significant waning in levels beyond 35 days post first dose. The second dose induced a significant rise in antibody titers, which peaked at 3 weeks and then declined at variable rates across groups. The magnitude, consistency and durability of response was greater for anti-Spike than anti-RBD antibodies; and for IgG than IgA or IgM. Compared to the shorter schedules, a longer interval of >42 days offered the highest binding and neutralizing antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 ancestral and Beta (B1.351) variants beyond 3 months post-vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive study to compare 3 dosing intervals for the primary vaccination of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine implemented in the real world. These findings suggest that delaying the second dose beyond 42 days can potentiate and prolong the humoral response against ancestral and Beta variants of SARS-CoV-2 up to 9 months post-vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adult , Male , BNT162 Vaccine , Immunity, Humoral , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Health Personnel , RNA, Messenger , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
4.
J Immunol ; 209(10): 1892-1905, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055635

ABSTRACT

Chronic infection with human CMV may contribute to poor vaccine efficacy in older adults. We assessed the effects of CMV serostatus on Ab quantity and quality, as well as cellular memory recall responses, after two and three SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine doses, in older adults in assisted living facilities. CMV serostatus did not affect anti-Spike and anti-receptor-binding domain IgG Ab levels, nor neutralization capacity against wild-type or ß variants of SARS-CoV-2 several months after vaccination. CMV seropositivity altered T cell expression of senescence-associated markers and increased effector memory re-expressing CD45RA T cell numbers, as has been previously reported; however, this did not impact Spike-specific CD4+ T cell memory recall responses. CMV-seropositive individuals did not have a higher incidence of COVID-19, although prior infection influenced humoral immunity. Therefore, CMV seropositivity may alter T cell composition but does not impede the durability of humoral protection or cellular memory responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Humans , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytomegalovirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies , Vaccination
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac205, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922312

ABSTRACT

Background: Nonpharmaceutical interventions such as physical distancing and mandatory masking were adopted in many jurisdictions during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic to decrease spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We determined the effects of these interventions on incidence of healthcare utilization for other infectious diseases. Methods: Using a healthcare administrative dataset, we employed an interrupted time series analysis to measure changes in healthcare visits for various infectious diseases across the province of Ontario, Canada, from January 2017 to December 2020. We used a hierarchical clustering algorithm to group diagnoses that demonstrated similar patterns of change through the pandemic months. Results: We found that visits for infectious diseases commonly caused by communicable respiratory pathogens (eg, acute bronchitis, acute sinusitis) formed distinct clusters from diagnoses that often originate from pathogens derived from the patient's own flora (eg, urinary tract infection, cellulitis). Moreover, infectious diagnoses commonly arising from communicable respiratory pathogens (hierarchical cluster 1: highly impacted diagnoses) were significantly decreased, with a rate ratio (RR) of 0.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], .30-.40; P < .001) after the introduction of public health interventions in April-December 2020, whereas infections typically arising from the patient's own flora (hierarchical cluster 3: minimally impacted diagnoses) did not demonstrate a sustained change in incidence (RR, 0.95 [95% CI, .90-1.01]; P = .085). Conclusions: Public health measures to curtail the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 were widely effective against other communicable respiratory infectious diseases with similar modes of transmission but had little effect on infectious diseases not strongly dependent on person-to-person transmission.

6.
J Inorg Biochem ; 234: 111899, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882225

ABSTRACT

Polyoxidometalates (POMs) exhibit a range of biological properties that can be exploited for a variety of therapeutic applications. However, their potential utility as antivirals has been largely overlooked in the ongoing efforts to identify safe, effective and robust therapeutic agents to combat COVID-19. We focus on decavanadate (V10), a paradigmatic member of the POM family, to highlight the utility of electrostatic forces as a means of disrupting molecular processes underlying the SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cell. While the departure from the traditional lock-and-key approach to the rational drug design relies on less-specific and longer-range interactions, it may enhance the robustness of therapeutic agents by making them less sensitive to the viral mutations. Native mass spectrometry (MS) not only demonstrates the ability of V10 to associate with the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, but also provides evidence that this association disrupts the protein binding to its host cell-surface receptor. Furthermore, V10 is also shown to be capable of binding to the polybasic furin cleavage site within the spike protein, which is likely to decrease the effectiveness of the proteolytic processing of the latter (a pre-requisite for the viral fusion with the host cell membrane). Although in vitro studies carried out with SARS-CoV-2 infected cells identify V10 cytotoxicity as a major factor limiting its utility as an antiviral agent, the collected data provide a compelling stimulus for continuing the search for effective, robust and safe therapeutics targeting the novel coronavirus among members of the POM family.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Static Electricity , Vanadates/pharmacology , Virus Internalization
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(5): e1010471, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833668

ABSTRACT

The ability to treat severe viral infections is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms behind virus-induced immunopathology. While the role of type I interferons (IFNs) in early control of viral replication is clear, less is known about how IFNs can regulate the development of immunopathology and affect disease outcomes. Here, we report that absence of type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) is associated with extensive immunopathology following mucosal viral infection. This pathology occurred independent of viral load or type II immunity but required the presence of macrophages and IL-6. The depletion of macrophages and inhibition of IL-6 signaling significantly abrogated immunopathology. Tissue destruction was mediated by macrophage-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as MMP inhibition by doxycycline and Ro 28-2653 reduced the severity of tissue pathology. Analysis of post-mortem COVID-19 patient lungs also displayed significant upregulation of the expression of MMPs and accumulation of macrophages. Overall, we demonstrate that IFNs inhibit macrophage-mediated MMP production to prevent virus-induced immunopathology and uncover MMPs as a therapeutic target towards viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Proteolysis
9.
Cell ; 185(5): 896-915.e19, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670278

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) threaten the effectiveness of current COVID-19 vaccines administered intramuscularly and designed to only target the spike protein. There is a pressing need to develop next-generation vaccine strategies for broader and long-lasting protection. Using adenoviral vectors (Ad) of human and chimpanzee origin, we evaluated Ad-vectored trivalent COVID-19 vaccines expressing spike-1, nucleocapsid, and RdRp antigens in murine models. We show that single-dose intranasal immunization, particularly with chimpanzee Ad-vectored vaccine, is superior to intramuscular immunization in induction of the tripartite protective immunity consisting of local and systemic antibody responses, mucosal tissue-resident memory T cells and mucosal trained innate immunity. We further show that intranasal immunization provides protection against both the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and two VOC, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Our findings indicate that respiratory mucosal delivery of Ad-vectored multivalent vaccine represents an effective next-generation COVID-19 vaccine strategy to induce all-around mucosal immunity against current and future VOC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Mucosal , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Pan troglodytes , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
10.
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society ; 2021, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1546602

ABSTRACT

In this study, we formulate a noninteger-order mathematical model via the Caputo operator for the transmission dynamics of the bacterial disease tuberculosis (TB) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The number of confirmed cases from 2002 to 2017 is considered as incidence data for the estimation of parameters or to parameterize the model and analysis. The positivity and boundedness of the model solution are derived. For the dynamics of the tuberculosis model, we find the equilibrium points and the basic reproduction number. The proposed model is locally and globally stable at disease-free equilibrium, if the reproduction number ℛ0<1. Furthermore, to examine the behavior of the various parameters and different values of fractional-order derivative graphically, the most common iterative scheme based on fundamental theorem and Lagrange interpolation polynomial is implemented. From the numerical result, it is observed that the contact rate and treatment rate have a great impact on curtailing the tuberculosis disease. Furthermore, proper treatment is a key factor in reducing the TB transmission and prevalence. Also, the results are more precise for lower fractional order. The results from various numerical plots show that the fractional model gives more insights into the disease dynamics and on how to curtail the disease spread.

12.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194709

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While detection of SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) is currently used to diagnose acute COVID-19 infection, serological assays are needed to study the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (Ig)G/A/M antibodies against spike (S) protein and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) were characterized in recovered subjects who were RT-PCR-positive (n = 153) and RT-PCR-negative (n = 55) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These antibodies were also further assessed for their ability to neutralize live SARS-CoV-2 virus. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 90.9% of resolved subjects up to 180 days post-symptom onset. Anti-S protein and anti-RBD IgG titers correlated (r = 0.5157 and r = 0.6010, respectively) with viral neutralization. Of the RT-PCR-positive subjects, 22 (14.3%) did not have anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; and of those, 17 had RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values > 27. These high Ct values raise the possibility that these indeterminate results are from individuals who were not infected or had mild infection that failed to elicit an antibody response. This study highlights the importance of serological surveys to determine population-level immunity based on infection numbers as determined by RT-PCR.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
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