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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268767, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862275

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, widespread infections have allowed SARS-CoV-2 to evolve in human, leading to the emergence of multiple circulating variants. Some of these variants show increased resistance to vaccine-elicited immunity, convalescent plasma, or monoclonal antibodies. In particular, mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike have drawn attention. To facilitate the isolation of neutralizing antibodies and the monitoring of vaccine effectiveness against these variants, we designed and produced biotin-labeled molecular probes of variant SARS-CoV-2 spikes and their subdomains, using a structure-based construct design that incorporated an N-terminal purification tag, a specific amino acid sequence for protease cleavage, the variant spike-based region of interest, and a C-terminal sequence targeted by biotin ligase. These probes could be produced by a single step using in-process biotinylation and purification. We characterized the physical properties and antigenicity of these probes, comprising the N-terminal domain (NTD), the receptor-binding domain (RBD), the RBD and subdomain 1 (RBD-SD1), and the prefusion-stabilized spike ectodomain (S2P) with sequences from SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern or of interest, including variants Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Iota, Kappa, Delta, Lambda, Mu, and Omicron. We functionally validated probes by using yeast expressing a panel of nine SARS-CoV-2 spike-binding antibodies and confirmed sorting capabilities of variant probes using yeast displaying libraries of plasma antibodies from COVID-19 convalescent donors. We deposited these constructs to Addgene to enable their dissemination. Overall, this study describes a matrix of SARS-CoV-2 variant molecular probes that allow for assessment of immune responses, identification of serum antibody specificity, and isolation and characterization of neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biotin , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Molecular Probes , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2469-2474, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855195

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the response and safety of an inactivated vaccine (Sinovac Life Sciences Co., Ltd., Beijing, China) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in liver transplant (LTx) recipients from China. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five recipients post LTx from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine who received inactivated vaccine from June to October 2021 were screened. Information regarding vaccine side effects and clinical data were collected. Results: Thirty-five LTx recipients were enrolled, with a mean age of 46 years, and most patients were male (30, 85.71%). All the participants had a negative history of COVID-19 infection. Predictors for negative response in the recipients were interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) induction during LTx, shorter time post LTx and application of a derivative from mycophenolate acid (MPA). No serious adverse events were observed during the progress of vaccination or after the vaccination. Conclusion: LTx recipients have a substantially partial immunological response to the inactivated vaccine for COVID-19. IL-2R induction during LTx, a shorter time post LTx and the application of a derivative from MPA seem to be predictors for a negative serological immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response in recipients. The findings require booster vaccination in these LTx recipients.

3.
Science ; 376(6591): eabn8897, 2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759268

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant and its resistance to neutralization by vaccinee and convalescent sera are driving a search for monoclonal antibodies with potent neutralization. To provide insight into effective neutralization, we determined cryo-electron microscopy structures and evaluated receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies for their ability to bind and neutralize B.1.1.529. Mutations altered 16% of the B.1.1.529 RBD surface, clustered on an RBD ridge overlapping the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-binding surface and reduced binding of most antibodies. Substantial inhibitory activity was retained by select monoclonal antibodies-including A23-58.1, B1-182.1, COV2-2196, S2E12, A19-46.1, S309, and LY-CoV1404-that accommodated these changes and neutralized B.1.1.529. We identified combinations of antibodies with synergistic neutralization. The analysis revealed structural mechanisms for maintenance of potent neutralization against emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Science ; 373(6556)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559379

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that are resistant to therapeutic antibodies highlights the need for continuing discovery of broadly reactive antibodies. We identified four receptor binding domain-targeting antibodies from three early-outbreak convalescent donors with potent neutralizing activity against 23 variants, including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429, B.1.526, and B.1.617 VOCs. Two antibodies are ultrapotent, with subnanomolar neutralization titers [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.3 to 11.1 nanograms per milliliter; IC80 1.5 to 34.5 nanograms per milliliter). We define the structural and functional determinants of binding for all four VOC-targeting antibodies and show that combinations of two antibodies decrease the in vitro generation of escape mutants, suggesting their potential in mitigating resistance development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-292815

ABSTRACT

Biotin-labeled molecular probes, comprising specific regions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike, would be helpful in the isolation and characterization of antibodies targeting this recently emerged pathogen. To develop such probes, we designed constructs incorporating an N-terminal purification tag, a site-specific protease-cleavage site, the probe region of interest, and a C-terminal sequence targeted by biotin ligase. Probe regions included full-length spike ectodomain as well as various subregions, and we also designed mutants to eliminate recognition of the ACE2 receptor. Yields of biotin-labeled probes from transient transfection ranged from ~0.5 mg/L for the complete ectodomain to >5 mg/L for several subregions. Probes were characterized for antigenicity and ACE2 recognition, and the structure of the spike ectodomain probe was determined by cryo-electron microscopy. We also characterized antibody-binding specificities and cell-sorting capabilities of the biotinylated probes. Altogether, structure-based design coupled to efficient purification and biotinylation processes can thus enable streamlined development of SARS-CoV-2 spike-ectodomain probes. Funding: Support for this work was provided by the Intramural Research Program of the Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Support for this work was also provided by COVID-19 Fast Grants, the Jack Ma Foundation, the Self Graduate Fellowship Program, and NIH grants DP5OD023118, R21AI143407, and R21AI144408. Some of this work was performed at the Columbia University Cryo-EM Center at the Zuckerman Institute, and some at the Simons Electron Microscopy Center (SEMC) and National Center for Cryo-EM Access and Training (NCCAT) located at the New York Structural Biology Center, supported by grants from the Simons Foundation (SF349247), NYSTAR, and the NIH National Institute of General Medical Sciences (GM103310). Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Ethical Approval: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for B cell sorting were obtained from a convalescent SARS-CoV-2 patient (collected 75 days post symptom onset under an IRB approved clinical trial protocol, VRC 200 - ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00067054) and a healthy control donor from the NIH blood bank pre-SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

6.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750489

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as a global pathogen, sparking urgent vaccine development efforts with the trimeric spike. However, the inability of antibodies like CR3022, which binds a cryptic spike epitope with nanomolar affinity, to neutralize virus, suggests a spike-based means of neutralization escape. Here, we show the SARS-CoV-2 spike to have 10% the unfolding enthalpy of a globular protein at physiological pH, where it is recognized by antibodies like CR3022, and up to 10-times more unfolding enthalpy at endosomal pH, where it sheds such antibodies, suggesting that the spike evades potentially neutralizing antibody through a pH-dependent mechanism of conformational masking. To understand the compatibility of this mechanism with ACE2-receptor interactions, we carried out binding measurements and determined cryo-EM structures of the spike recognizing up to three ACE2 molecules at both physiological and endosomal pH. In the absence of ACE2, cryo-EM analyses indicated lower pH to reduce conformational heterogeneity. Single-receptor binding domain (RBD)-up conformations dominated at pH 5.5, resolving into a locked all-down conformation at lower pH through lowering of RBD and refolding of a pH-dependent switch. Notably, the emerging Asp614Gly strain partially destabilizes the switch that locks RBD down, thereby enhancing functional interactions with ACE2 while reducing evasion by conformational masking.

7.
AIChE J ; 67(12): e17440, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427045

ABSTRACT

Antiviral monoclonal antibody (mAb) discovery enables the development of antibody-based antiviral therapeutics. Traditional antiviral mAb discovery relies on affinity between antibody and a viral antigen to discover potent neutralizing antibodies, but these approaches are inefficient because many high affinity mAbs have no neutralizing activity. We sought to determine whether screening for anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs at reduced pH could provide more efficient neutralizing antibody discovery. We mined the antibody response of a convalescent COVID-19 patient at both physiological pH (7.4) and reduced pH (4.5), revealing that SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were preferentially enriched in pH 4.5 yeast display sorts. Structural analysis revealed that a potent new antibody called LP5 targets the SARS-CoV-2 N-terminal domain supersite via a unique binding recognition mode. Our data combine with evidence from prior studies to support antibody screening at pH 4.5 to accelerate antiviral neutralizing antibody discovery.

8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(6): 867-879.e5, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385264

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike employs mobile receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to engage the human ACE2 receptor and to facilitate virus entry, which can occur through low-pH-endosomal pathways. To understand how ACE2 binding and low pH affect spike conformation, we determined cryo-electron microscopy structures-at serological and endosomal pH-delineating spike recognition of up to three ACE2 molecules. RBDs freely adopted "up" conformations required for ACE2 interaction, primarily through RBD movement combined with smaller alterations in neighboring domains. In the absence of ACE2, single-RBD-up conformations dominated at pH 5.5, resolving into a solitary all-down conformation at lower pH. Notably, a pH-dependent refolding region (residues 824-858) at the spike-interdomain interface displayed dramatic structural rearrangements and mediated RBD positioning through coordinated movements of the entire trimer apex. These structures provide a foundation for understanding prefusion-spike mechanics governing endosomal entry; we suggest that the low pH all-down conformation potentially facilitates immune evasion from RBD-up binding antibody.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Endosomes/ultrastructure , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18149, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387454

ABSTRACT

Antigens displayed on self-assembling nanoparticles can stimulate strong immune responses and have been playing an increasingly prominent role in structure-based vaccines. However, the development of such immunogens is often complicated by inefficiencies in their production. To alleviate this issue, we developed a plug-and-play platform using the spontaneous isopeptide-bond formation of the SpyTag:SpyCatcher system to display trimeric antigens on self-assembling nanoparticles, including the 60-subunit Aquifex aeolicus lumazine synthase (LuS) and the 24-subunit Helicobacter pylori ferritin. LuS and ferritin coupled to SpyTag expressed well in a mammalian expression system when an N-linked glycan was added to the nanoparticle surface. The respiratory syncytial virus fusion (F) glycoprotein trimer-stabilized in the prefusion conformation and fused with SpyCatcher-could be efficiently conjugated to LuS-SpyTag or ferritin-SpyTag, enabling multivalent display of F trimers with prefusion antigenicity. Similarly, F-glycoprotein trimers from human parainfluenza virus-type 3 and spike-glycoprotein trimers from SARS-CoV-2 could be displayed on LuS nanoparticles with decent yield and antigenicity. Notably, murine vaccination with 0.08 µg of SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticle elicited similar neutralizing responses as 2.0 µg of spike, which was ~ 25-fold higher on a weight-per-weight basis. The versatile platform described here thus allows for multivalent plug-and-play presentation on self-assembling nanoparticles of trimeric viral antigens, with SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticles inducing particularly potent neutralizing responses.


Subject(s)
Antigens/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigens/genetics , Antigens/metabolism , Aquifex , Bacteria/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Ferritins/genetics , Helicobacter pylori/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Multienzyme Complexes/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Protein Multimerization , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Properties
10.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101127, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373108

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike is the primary target of virus-neutralizing antibodies and critical to the development of effective vaccines against COVID-19. Here, we demonstrate that the prefusion-stabilized two-proline "S2P" spike-widely employed for laboratory work and clinical studies-unfolds when stored at 4 °C, physiological pH, as observed by electron microscopy (EM) and differential scanning calorimetry, but that its trimeric, native-like conformation can be reacquired by low pH treatment. When stored for approximately 1 week, this unfolding does not significantly alter antigenic characteristics; however, longer storage diminishes antibody binding, and month-old spike elicits virtually no neutralization in mice despite inducing high ELISA-binding titers. Cryo-EM structures reveal the folded fraction of spike to decrease with aging; however, its structure remains largely similar, although with varying mobility of the receptor-binding domain. Thus, the SARS-CoV-2 spike is susceptible to unfolding, which affects immunogenicity, highlighting the need to monitor its integrity.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Unfolding , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors
11.
Science ; 373(6556)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295159

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that are resistant to therapeutic antibodies highlights the need for continuing discovery of broadly reactive antibodies. We identified four receptor binding domain-targeting antibodies from three early-outbreak convalescent donors with potent neutralizing activity against 23 variants, including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429, B.1.526, and B.1.617 VOCs. Two antibodies are ultrapotent, with subnanomolar neutralization titers [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.3 to 11.1 nanograms per milliliter; IC80 1.5 to 34.5 nanograms per milliliter). We define the structural and functional determinants of binding for all four VOC-targeting antibodies and show that combinations of two antibodies decrease the in vitro generation of escape mutants, suggesting their potential in mitigating resistance development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
Cell Rep ; 35(1): 108950, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141662

ABSTRACT

Antibodies with heavy chains that derive from the VH1-2 gene constitute some of the most potent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-neutralizing antibodies yet identified. To provide insight into whether these genetic similarities inform common modes of recognition, we determine the structures of the SARS-CoV-2 spike in complex with three VH1-2-derived antibodies: 2-15, 2-43, and H4. All three use VH1-2-encoded motifs to recognize the receptor-binding domain (RBD), with heavy-chain N53I-enhancing binding and light-chain tyrosines recognizing F486RBD. Despite these similarities, class members bind both RBD-up and -down conformations of the spike, with a subset of antibodies using elongated CDRH3s to recognize glycan N343 on a neighboring RBD-a quaternary interaction accommodated by an increase in RBD separation of up to 12 Å. The VH1-2 antibody class, thus, uses modular recognition encoded by modular genetic elements to effect potent neutralization, with the VH-gene component specifying recognition of RBD and the CDRH3 component specifying quaternary interactions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin Variable Region , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology
13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(5): 819-833.e7, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128936

ABSTRACT

Numerous antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 have been identified, and these generally target either the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the viral spike. While RBD-directed antibodies have been extensively studied, far less is known about NTD-directed antibodies. Here, we report cryo-EM and crystal structures for seven potent NTD-directed neutralizing antibodies in complex with spike or isolated NTD. These structures defined several antibody classes, with at least one observed in multiple convalescent donors. The structures revealed that all seven antibodies target a common surface, bordered by glycans N17, N74, N122, and N149. This site-formed primarily by a mobile ß-hairpin and several flexible loops-was highly electropositive, located at the periphery of the spike, and the largest glycan-free surface of NTD facing away from the viral membrane. Thus, in contrast to neutralizing RBD-directed antibodies that recognize multiple non-overlapping epitopes, potent NTD-directed neutralizing antibodies appear to target a single supersite.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Humans , Mutation , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
14.
Nature ; 593(7857): 130-135, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120052

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had widespread effects across the globe, and its causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread. Effective interventions need to be developed to end this pandemic. Single and combination therapies with monoclonal antibodies have received emergency use authorization1-3, and more treatments are under development4-7. Furthermore, multiple vaccine constructs have shown promise8, including two that have an approximately 95% protective efficacy against COVID-199,10. However, these interventions were directed against the initial SARS-CoV-2 virus that emerged in 2019. The recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 in the UK11 and B.1.351 in South Africa12 is of concern because of their purported ease of transmission and extensive mutations in the spike protein. Here we show that B.1.1.7 is refractory to neutralization by most monoclonal antibodies against the N-terminal domain of the spike protein and is relatively resistant to a few monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding domain. It is not more resistant to plasma from individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 or sera from individuals who have been vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. The B.1.351 variant is not only refractory to neutralization by most monoclonal antibodies against the N-terminal domain but also by multiple individual monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding motif of the receptor-binding domain, which is mostly due to a mutation causing an E484K substitution. Moreover, compared to wild-type SARS-CoV-2, B.1.351 is markedly more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma (9.4-fold) and sera from individuals who have been vaccinated (10.3-12.4-fold). B.1.351 and emergent variants13,14 with similar mutations in the spike protein present new challenges for monoclonal antibody therapies and threaten the protective efficacy of current vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immune Evasion/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Resistance, Viral/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vero Cells
15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045354

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights an urgent need for vaccines that confer protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. One approach to an effective COVID-19 vaccine may be through the display of SARS-CoV-2 spikes on the surface of virus-like particles, in a manner structurally mimicking spikes on a native virus. Here we report the development of Newcastle disease virus-like particles (NDVLPs) displaying the prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike ectodomain (S2P). Immunoassays with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies revealed the antigenicity of S2P-NDVLP to be generally similar to that of soluble S2P, and negative-stain electron microscopy showed S2P on the NDVLP surface to be displayed with a morphology corresponding to its prefusion conformation. Mice immunized with S2P-NDVLP showed substantial neutralization titers (geometric mean ID50 = 386) two weeks after prime immunization, significantly higher than those elicited by a molar equivalent amount of soluble S2P (geometric mean ID50 = 17). Neutralizing titers at Week 5, two weeks after a boost immunization with S2P-NDVLP doses ranging from 2.0 to 250 µg, extended from 2125 to 4552, and these generally showed a higher ratio of neutralization versus ELISA than observed with soluble S2P. Overall, S2P-NDVLP appears to be a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate capable of eliciting substantial neutralizing activity.

16.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(6): 880-891.e8, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921850

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) mediates viral entry into cells and is critical for vaccine development against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Structural studies have revealed distinct conformations of S, but real-time information that connects these structures is lacking. Here we apply single-molecule fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (smFRET) imaging to observe conformational dynamics of S on virus particles. Virus-associated S dynamically samples at least four distinct conformational states. In response to human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), S opens sequentially into the hACE2-bound S conformation through at least one on-path intermediate. Conformational preferences observed upon exposure to convalescent plasma or antibodies suggest mechanisms of neutralization involving either competition with hACE2 for binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or allosteric interference with conformational changes required for entry. Our findings inform on mechanisms of S recognition and conformations for immunogen design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/ultrastructure , Protein Binding/immunology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Receptors, Virus/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virion/genetics , Virion/ultrastructure , Virus Internalization
17.
Cell Rep ; 33(4): 108322, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888426

ABSTRACT

Biotin-labeled molecular probes, comprising specific regions of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike, would be helpful in the isolation and characterization of antibodies targeting this recently emerged pathogen. Here, we design constructs incorporating an N-terminal purification tag, a site-specific protease-cleavage site, the probe region of interest, and a C-terminal sequence targeted by biotin ligase. Probe regions include full-length spike ectodomain as well as various subregions, and we also design mutants that eliminate recognition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Yields of biotin-labeled probes from transient transfection range from ∼0.5 mg/L for the complete ectodomain to >5 mg/L for several subregions. Probes are characterized for antigenicity and ACE2 recognition, and the structure of the spike ectodomain probe is determined by cryoelectron microscopy. We also characterize antibody-binding specificities and cell-sorting capabilities of the biotinylated probes. Altogether, structure-based design coupled to efficient purification and biotinylation processes can thus enable streamlined development of SARS-CoV-2 spike ectodomain probes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Molecular Probes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology , Biotinylation , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
18.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-666088

ABSTRACT

Antigens displayed on self-assembling nanoparticles can stimulate strong immune responses and have been playing an increasingly prominent role in structure-based vaccines. However, the development of such immunogens is often complicated by inefficiencies in their production. To alleviate this issue, we developed a plug-and-play platform using the spontaneous isopeptide-bond formation of the SpyTag:SpyCatcher system to display trimeric antigens on self-assembling nanoparticles, including the 60-subunit Aquifex aeolicus lumazine synthase (LuS) and the 24-subunit Helicobacter pylori ferritin. LuS and ferritin coupled to SpyTag expressed well in a mammalian expression system when an N-linked glycan was added to the nanoparticle surface. The respiratory syncytial virus fusion (F) glycoprotein trimer - stabilized in the prefusion conformation and fused with SpyCatcher - could be efficiently conjugated to LuS-SpyTag or ferritin-SpyTag, enabling multivalent display of F trimers with prefusion antigenicity. Similarly, F-glycoprotein trimers from human parainfluenza virus-type 3 and spike-glycoprotein trimers from SARS-CoV-2 could be displayed on LuS nanoparticles with decent yield and antigenicity. Notably, murine vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticles elicited ~25-fold higher neutralizing responses, weight-per-weight relative to spike alone. The versatile platform described here thus allows for multivalent plug-and-play presentation on self-assembling nanoparticles of trimeric viral antigens, with SARS-CoV-2 spike-LuS nanoparticles inducing particularly potent neutralizing responses.

19.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637504

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike employs mobile receptor-binding domains (RBDs) to engage the ACE2 receptor and to facilitate virus entry. Antibodies can engage RBD but some, such as CR3022, fail to inhibit entry despite nanomolar spike affinity. Here we show the SARS-CoV-2 spike to have low unfolding enthalpy at serological pH and up to 10-times more unfolding enthalpy at endosomal pH, where we observe significantly reduced CR3022 affinity. Cryo-EM structures -at serological and endosomal pH- delineated spike recognition of up to three ACE2 molecules, revealing RBD to freely adopt the 'up' conformation. In the absence of ACE2, single-RBD-up conformations dominated at pH 5.5, resolving into a locked all-down conformation at lower pH. Notably, a pH-dependent refolding region (residues 824-858) at the spike-interdomain interface displayed dramatic structural rearrangements and mediated RBD positioning and spike shedding of antibodies like CR3022. An endosomal mechanism involving spike-conformational change can thus facilitate immune evasion from RBD-'up'-recognizing antibody.

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