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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2222241, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1940612

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 and seasonal influenza vaccines are essential in preventing respiratory infections and their potentially severe complications. Simultaneous administration of vaccines is efficient and may improve coverage with each vaccine. However, the safety of simultaneous administration of COVID-19 and influenza vaccines has not been well described. Objective: To evaluate adverse events and health impacts associated with simultaneously administered COVID-19 mRNA booster and seasonal influenza vaccines in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, self-reported vaccine data were collected on days 0 to 7 after vaccination from September 22, 2021, through May 1, 2022, through v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based monitoring system established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Participants were persons who voluntarily registered in v-safe following COVID-19 vaccination. Exposure: Receipt of simultaneously administered COVID-19 mRNA booster and seasonal influenza vaccines or COVID-19 mRNA booster alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: Local injection site and systemic reactions (eg, fatigue, headache, and myalgia) and health impacts reported by v-safe respondents in the week following COVID-19 mRNA booster vaccination. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated for simultaneous administration compared with booster dose alone, controlling for sex, age, and week of vaccination. Results: Of a total of 981 099 persons aged 12 years or older registered with v-safe, simultaneous administration of COVID-19 mRNA booster and seasonal influenza vaccines was reported by 92 023 (9.4%) v-safe respondents; of these respondents, 54 926 (59.7%) were female, 36 234 (39.4%) were male, and sex was unknown for 863 (0.9%). In the week following vaccination, any systemic reactions were reported by 36 144 (58.9%) of 61 390 respondents who simultaneously received Pfizer-BioNTech booster and influenza vaccines and 21 027 (68.6%) of 30633 respondents who simultaneously received Moderna booster and influenza vaccines. Respondents who simultaneously received influenza and Pfizer-BioNTech booster vaccines (aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.10) or influenza and Moderna booster vaccines (aOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.14) were slightly more likely to report any systemic reaction in the week following simultaneous vaccination than respondents who received only a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine booster. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, compared with administration of COVID-19 mRNA booster vaccines alone, simultaneous administration of COVID-19 mRNA booster and seasonal influenza vaccines was associated with significant increases in reports of systemic reactions during days 0 to 7 following vaccination. These results may help better characterize the outcomes associated with simultaneously administered COVID-19 booster and influenza vaccines in the US population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , RNA, Messenger , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
2.
Pediatrics ; 150(2)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited postauthorization safety data for the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination among children ages 5 to 11 years are available, particularly for the adverse event myocarditis, which has been detected in adolescents and young adults. We describe adverse events observed during the first 4 months of the United States coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination program in this age group. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3 United States safety monitoring systems: v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based system that monitors reactions and health effects; the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), the national spontaneous reporting system comanaged by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Food and Drug Administration; and the Vaccine Safety Datalink, an active surveillance system that monitors electronic health records for prespecified events, including myocarditis. RESULTS: Among 48 795 children ages 5 to 11 years enrolled in v-safe, most reported reactions were mild-to-moderate, most frequently reported the day after vaccination, and were more common after dose 2. VAERS received 7578 adverse event reports; 97% were nonserious. On review of 194 serious VAERS reports, 15 myocarditis cases were verified; 8 occurred in boys after dose 2 (reporting rate 2.2 per million doses). In the Vaccine Safety Datalink, no safety signals were detected in weekly sequential monitoring after administration of 726 820 doses. CONCLUSIONS: Safety findings for Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine from 3 United States monitoring systems in children ages 5 to 11 years show that most reported adverse events were mild and no safety signals were observed in active surveillance. VAERS reporting rates of myocarditis after dose 2 in this age group were substantially lower than those observed among adolescents ages 12 to 15 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Vaccine ; 40(24): 3389-3394, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant persons are at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19 infection, including intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and death compared with non-pregnant persons of reproductive age. Limited data are available on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines administered during and around the time of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and summarize reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a national spontaneous reporting system, in pregnant persons who received a COVID-19 vaccine to assess for potential vaccine safety problems. METHODS: We searched VAERS for US reports of adverse events (AEs) in pregnant persons who received a COVID-19 vaccine from 12/14/2020-10/31/2021. Clinicians reviewed reports and available medical records. Crude reporting rates for selected AEs were calculated, and disproportional reporting was assessed using data mining methods. RESULTS: VAERS received 3,462 reports of AEs in pregnant persons who received a COVID-19 vaccine; 1,831 (52.9%) after BNT162b2, 1,350 (38.9%) after mRNA-1273, and 275 (7.9%) after Ad26.COV2.S. Eight maternal deaths and 12 neonatal deaths were reported. Six-hundred twenty-one (17.9%) reports were serious. Pregnancy-specific outcomes included: 878 spontaneous abortions (<20 weeks), 101 episodes of vaginal bleeding, 76 preterm deliveries (<37 weeks), 62 stillbirths (≥20 weeks), and 33 outcomes with birth defects. Crude reporting rates for preterm deliveries and stillbirths, as well as maternal and neonatal mortality rates were below background rates from published sources. No disproportional reporting for any AE was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Review of reports to VAERS following COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant persons did not identify any concerning patterns of maternal or infant-fetal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Stillbirth/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(6): 802-812, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730170

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December, 2020, two mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines were authorised for use in the USA. We aimed to describe US surveillance data collected through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a passive system, and v-safe, a new active system, during the first 6 months of the US COVID-19 vaccination programme. METHODS: In this observational study, we analysed data reported to VAERS and v-safe during Dec 14, 2020, to June 14, 2021. VAERS reports were categorised as non-serious, serious, or death. Reporting rates were calculated using numbers of COVID-19 doses administered as the denominator. We analysed v-safe survey reports from days 0-7 after vaccination for reactogenicity, severity (mild, moderate, or severe), and health impacts (ie, unable to perform normal daily activities, unable to work, or received care from a medical professional). FINDINGS: During the study period, 298 792 852 doses of mRNA vaccines were administered in the USA. VAERS processed 340 522 reports: 313 499 (92·1%) were non-serious, 22 527 (6·6%) were serious (non-death), and 4496 (1·3%) were deaths. Over half of 7 914 583 v-safe participants self-reported local and systemic reactogenicity, more frequently after dose two (4 068 447 [71·7%] of 5 674 420 participants for local reactogenicity and 4 018 920 [70·8%] for systemic) than after dose one (4 644 989 [68·6%] of 6 775 515 participants for local reactogenicity and 3 573 429 [52·7%] for systemic). Injection-site pain (4 488 402 [66·2%] of 6 775 515 participants after dose one and 3 890 848 [68·6%] of 5 674 420 participants after dose two), fatigue (2 295 205 [33·9%] participants after dose one and 3 158 299 participants [55·7%] after dose two), and headache (1 831 471 [27·0%] participants after dose one and 2 623 721 [46·2%] participants after dose two) were commonly reported during days 0-7 following vaccination. Reactogenicity was reported most frequently the day after vaccination; most reactions were mild. More reports of being unable to work, do normal activities, or of seeking medical care occurred after dose two (1 821 421 [32·1%]) than after dose one (808 963 [11·9%]); less than 1% of participants reported seeking medical care after vaccination (56 647 [0·8%] after dose one and 53 077 [0·9%] after dose two). INTERPRETATION: Safety data from more than 298 million doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine administered in the first 6 months of the US vaccination programme show that most reported adverse events were mild and short in duration. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , RNA, Messenger , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323745

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 cases with suspected returned-positive SRAS-CoV-2 tests following consecutive negative tests have been reported, but evidence-based explanations for this phenomenon is still lacking. We aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of returned-positive COVID-19 patients during treatment in comparison with other patients. Methods: : From January 20 to April 10, 2020, all COVID-19 inpatient with at least three RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 tests in Renmin Hospital in Wuhan, China were enrolled. Patients with 2 consecutively negative RT-PCR results followed by a positive result were classified as returned-positive patients, and their characteristics and repeatedly measured laboratory results were compared with the rest of the patients. Linear mixed effects models were performed. Results: A total of 789 COVID-19 patients were included and 22.8% patients returned positive in RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 test. No significant differences were found for general characteristics between the returned-positive and the control groups. The trends of inflammatory and immune factors including the third component of complement (C3), C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT), IL-4, IL-6, the counts of lymphocyte, CD3+, CD8+, white blood cell and immunoglobulin levels during hospitalization were significantly different between the two groups. During the returned-positive period, C3, PCT, serum IgM, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG were significantly higher in the returned-positive patients at certain time points. Conclusions: : Returned-positive COVID-19 patients appeared to be more sever at admission, and had periodically higher levels in C3, PCT, serum IgM and two specific antibodies during hospitalization. This suggests that positive return of SARS-COV-2 could not be completely explained by false-negative testing and longer observation of these patients is warranted.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1755-1760, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593989

ABSTRACT

On October 29, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amended the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine to expand its use to children aged 5-11 years, administered as 2 doses (10 µg, 0.2mL each) 3 weeks apart (1). As of December 19, 2021, only the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for administration to children aged 5-17 years (2,3). In preauthorization clinical trials, Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine was administered to 3,109 children aged 5-11 years; most adverse events were mild to moderate, and no serious adverse events related to vaccination were reported (4). To further characterize safety of the vaccine in children aged 5-11 years, CDC reviewed adverse events after receipt of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a passive vaccine safety surveillance system co-managed by CDC and FDA, and adverse events and health impact assessments reported to v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based safety surveillance system for adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination,* during November 3-December 19, 2021. Approximately 8.7 million doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine were administered to children aged 5-11 years† during this period; VAERS received 4,249 reports of adverse events after vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in this age group, 4,149 (97.6%) of which were not serious. Approximately 42,504 children aged 5-11 years were enrolled in v-safe after vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine; after dose 2, a total of 17,180 (57.5%) local and 12,223 systemic (40.9%) reactions (including injection-site pain, fatigue, or headache) were reported. The preliminary safety findings are similar to those from preauthorization clinical trials (4,5). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 5-11 years for the prevention of COVID-19 (6). Parents and guardians of children aged 5-11 years vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine should be advised that local and systemic reactions are expected after vaccination. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent COVID-19. CDC and FDA will continue to monitor vaccine safety and will provide updates as needed to guide COVID-19 vaccination recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , United States
7.
Vaccine ; 39(48): 7066-7073, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-authorization monitoring of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines is needed to better characterize their reactogenicity. We assessed reactions reported during the 2 weeks after receipt of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines. METHODS: We monitored persons who enrolled in v-safe after vaccination health checkerSM, a U.S. smartphone-based vaccine monitoring system, after receiving BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273. V-safe participants received text message prompts to complete web-based surveys. We analyzed responses from persons who received BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 from December 14, 2020 through March 14, 2021 and completed at least one survey by March 28, 2021. We measured the proportion of participants reporting local and systemic reactions solicited in surveys completed days 0 through 7 post-vaccination. For day 14 surveys, participants described new or worsening symptoms in a free-text response. We assessed the proportion of participants reporting new or worsening local and systemic reactions. RESULTS: One-third of participants were aged <45 years, two-thirds were female, and approximately half received BNT162b2 vaccine. A total of 4,717,908 participants reported during the 7 days after dose 1 and 2,906,377 reported during the 7 days after dose 2. Most reported at least one injection-site reaction (68.5% after dose 1; 72.9% after dose 2) or at least one systemic reaction (50.6% after dose 1; 69.5% after dose 2). Reactogenicity was greater after dose 2 and among mRNA-1273 recipients, persons aged <45 years, and females. New or worsening local and systemic reactions were uncommon during week 2 after either dose; the most frequent were local reactions for dose 1 mRNA-1273 recipients (2.6%). These reactions were reported more often among females after dose 1 mRNA-1273 (3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: During post-authorization monitoring among >4 million vaccinees, local and systemic reactions were commonly reported following mRNA-based vaccines. Reactions were most common during the first week following dose 2 and among persons aged <45 years, females, and mRNA-1273 recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Female , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 738044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497031

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has outbroken in China and subsequently spread worldwide since the end of 2019. Chest computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the diagnosis of lung diseases, but its value in the diagnosis of cardiac injury remains unknown. Methods: We enrolled 241 consecutive hospitalized patients (aged 61 ± 16 years, 115 males) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 11 to March 2, 2020. They were divided into two groups according to whether major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) occurred during the follow-up. The anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium (LAD), the length of the left ventricle (LV), and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) were measured. The values of myocardial CT were also recorded. Results: Of 241 patients, 115 patients (47.7%) had adverse cardiovascular events. Compared with no MACEs, patients with MACEs were more likely to have bilateral lesions (95.7% vs. 86.5%, p = 0.01). In multivariable analysis, bronchial wall thickening would increase the odds of MACEs by 13.42 (p = 0.01). LAD + LV and CTR was the best predictor for MACEs (area under the curve = 0.88, p < 0.001) with a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 80.2%. Plasma high-sensitivity troponin I levels in patients with cardiac injury showed a moderate negative correlation with minimum CT value (R 2 = -0.636, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Non-contrast chest CT can be a useful modality for detection cardiac injury and provide additional value to predict MACEs in COVID-19 patients.

9.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 131-140, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359799

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become a global threat to public health, and it is difficult to predict severe patients and their prognosis. Here, we intended developing effective models for the late identification of patients at disease progression and outcome. METHODS: A total of 197 patients were included with a 20-day median follow-up time. We first developed a nomogram for disease severity discrimination, then created a prognostic nomogram for severe patients. RESULTS: In total, 40.6% of patients were severe and 59.4% were non-severe. The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that IgG, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, albumin, and blood urea nitrogen were significant factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. Using immune response phenotyping based on NLR and IgG level, the logistic model showed patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype are most likely to have severe disease, especially compared to those with the NLRlo IgGlo phenotype. The C-indices of the two discriminative nomograms were 0.86 and 0.87, respectively, which indicated sufficient discriminative power. As for predicting clinical outcomes for severe patients, IgG, NLR, age, lactate dehydrogenase, platelet, monocytes, and procalcitonin were significant predictors. The prognosis of severe patients with the NLRhi IgGhi phenotype was significantly worse than the NLRlo IgGhi group. The two prognostic nomograms also showed good performance in estimating the risk of progression. CONCLUSIONS: The present nomogram models are useful to identify COVID-19 patients with disease progression based on individual characteristics and immune response-related indicators. Patients at high risk for severe illness and poor outcomes from COVID-19 should be managed with intensive supportive care and appropriate therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Nomograms , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 8094-8102, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There have been few reports on cancer patients with COVID-19 since its outbreak. Our study aimed to understand the clinical features of cancer patients with COVID-19 and determine the impact of surgery and chemotherapy on the patients' conditions. METHODS: Seventy COVID-19 patients from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including 18 cancer patients, were enrolled in this study. Patients were classified into moderate or severe cases of COVID-19 and as well as non-cancer or cancer patients. Cancer patients were further grouped into Group A (prevalent cases with cancer history) and Group B (incident cases who underwent cancer treatment recently). Laboratory results were analyzed to determine whether cancer-related surgery and chemotherapy worsened the condition of cancer patients. The patients presented with clinical symptoms of COVID-19, including fever, dry cough, and polypnea; blood tests also revealed decreased lymphocyte counts and cellular immune function, and examination of CT scans revealed patchy ground-glass opacity of lungs. RESULTS: The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05) in levels of CD3 CD4 T lymphocytes and D-dimer between non-cancer and cancer patients with moderate COVID-19; there was also a significant difference (P<0.05) in levels of D-dimer between non-cancer and cancer patients with severe COVID-19. Except for liver function, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between cancer patients in Group A and B with moderate COVID-19. A significant difference (P<0.05) in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and CD4 T lymphocytes was observed between cancer patients with moderate COVID-19 and those with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that chemotherapy and surgery might not worsen the conditions of COVID-19 patients. NLR and CD4 T lymphocyte might be used as effective indicators for the conditions of cancer patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2825-2829, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317169

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Miliary intrapulmonary carcinomatosis (MIPC) is very rare in the existing literature. We reported a lung adenocarcinoma patient presented with over 200 uniform size pulmonary nodules in all lung lobes at the initial examination. The application of artificial intelligence (AI) in lung cancer has been gradually reported, but not yet reported in MIPC. The application of AI in this rare disease is worth exploring. PATIENT INFORMATION: A 57-year-old woman received chest computed tomography (CT) scan because of dry cough, intermittent chest wall and back pain for 3 weeks. CT imaging found over 200 uniform size pulmonary nodules in an evenly dispersed pattern at bilateral lungs with a 38×45mm new creature at the dorsal segment of the lower lobe of the left lung. However, as a very reliable diagnostic assistant system in CT imaging of lung cancer, AI can only identify 18 nodules in such classic metastatic lung cancer case. CONCLUSION: This case provides classical imaging figures as textbook-like, even though there is no such classic imaging of lung metastases in the existing textbooks. This medical imaging material will impress medical students and help them learn about the disease deeply. This medical imaging material can warn patients to recognize the horror of lung cancer metastasis and has good popularization of science. This medical imaging material presents a new challenge for AI.

12.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(4): 1358-1369, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as an international pandemic. COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury might need special attention. However, an understanding on this aspect remains unclear. This study aimed to illustrate clinical characteristics and the prognostic value of myocardial injury to COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study finally included 304 hospitalized COVID-19 cases confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from January 11 to March 25, 2020. Myocardial injury was determined by serum high-sensitivity troponin I (Hs-TnI). The primary endpoint was COVID-19-associated mortality. RESULTS: Of 304 COVID-19 patients (median age, 65 years; 52.6% males), 88 patients (27.3%) died (61 patients with myocardial injury, 27 patients without myocardial injury on admission). COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury had more comorbidities (hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease); lower lymphocyte counts, higher C-reactive protein (CRP; median, 84.9 vs. 28.5 mg/L; p < .001), procalcitonin levels (median, 0.29 vs. 0.06 ng/ml; p < .001), inflammatory and immune response markers; more frequent need for noninvasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation; and was associated with higher mortality incidence (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.45-11.08; p < .001) than those without myocardial injury. Myocardial injury (HR = 4.55; 95% CI, 2.49-8.31; p < .001), senior age, CRP levels, and novel coronavirus pneumonia types on admission were independent predictors to mortality in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury on admission is associated with more severe clinical presentation and biomarkers. Myocardial injury and higher Hs-TnI are both strongest independent predictors to COVID-19-related mortality after adjusting confounding factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 680-684, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218745

ABSTRACT

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Janssen (Ad.26.COV2.S) COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen Biotech, Inc., a Janssen Pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson) (1). The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, the third COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in the United States, uses a replication-incompetent human adenoviral type 26 vector platform* (2) and is administered as a single intramuscular dose, whereas the first two authorized vaccines use an mRNA platform and require 2 doses. On February 28, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued interim recommendations for use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine among persons aged ≥18 years (3). During April 13-23, CDC and FDA recommended a pause in use of Janssen vaccine after reports of six cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/µL of blood) among Janssen vaccine recipients (4). Similar thrombotic events, primarily among women aged <60 years, have been described in Europe after receipt of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, which uses a replication-incompetent chimpanzee adenoviral vector (5-7). The U.S. CVST cases that prompted the pause in Janssen vaccination, as well as subsequently detected CVST cases, are described elsewhere (8). This report summarizes adverse events among Janssen vaccine recipients, including non-CVST cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), a passive surveillance system, and through v-safe, an active monitoring system. As of April 21, 2021, 7.98 million doses of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine had been administered. Among 13,725 VAERS reports reviewed, 97% were classified as nonserious and 3% as serious,† including three reports among women of cases of thrombosis in large arteries or veins accompanied by thrombocytopenia during the second week after vaccination. These three cases and the previously detected CVST cases are consistent with 17 cases of TTS,§ a newly defined condition. Approximately 338,700 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients completed at least one v-safe survey during the week after vaccination; 76% reported a systemic reaction, 61% reported a local reaction, and 34% reported a health impact.¶ Fatigue and pain were commonly reported symptoms in both VAERS and v-safe. The overall safety profile is consistent with preauthorization clinical trials data. Prompt review of U.S. vaccine safety data detected three additional cases of non-CVST TTS, in addition to the previously recognized CVST cases that initiated the pause in use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Ongoing monitoring of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, including vaccination with the Janssen single-dose vaccine, is essential for evaluating the risks and benefits of each vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Approval , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Young Adult
14.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2273-2282, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy. METHODS: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons. RESULTS: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Middle Aged , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Registries , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2174-2179, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level was observed in most patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Data for COVID-19 patients with clinical outcome in a designated hospital in Wuhan, China, were retrospectively collected and analyzed from 30 January 2020 to 20 February 2020. The prognostic value of admission CRP was evaluated in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 298 patients enrolled, 84 died and 214 recovered. Most nonsurvivors were male, older, or with chronic diseases. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors showed significantly elevated white blood cell and neutrophil counts, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), systemic immune inflammation index (defined by platelet count multiplied by NLR), CRP, procalcitonin, and D-dimer and showed decreased red blood cell, lymphocyte, and platelet counts. Age, neutrophil count, platelet count, and CRP were identified as independent predictors of adverse outcome. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of CRP (0.896) was significantly higher than that of age (0.833), neutrophil count (0.820), and platelet count (0.678) in outcome prediction (all P < .05). With a cutoff value of 41.4, CRP exhibited sensitivity of 90.5%, specificity of 77.6%, positive predictive value of 61.3%, and negative predictive value of 95.4%. CRP was also an independent discriminator of severe/critical illness on admission with an AUC (0.783) comparable to age (0.828) and neutrophil count (0.729) (both P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, admission CRP correlated with disease severity and tended to be a good predictor of adverse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prognosis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Scott Med J ; 66(3): 108-114, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117674

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To search for biochemical indicators that can identify symptomatic patients with COVID-19 whose nucleic acid could turn negative within 14 days, and assess the prognostic value of these biochemical indicators in patients with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected the clinical data of patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital, by using logistic regression analysis and AUC curves, explored the relationship between biochemical indicators and nucleic acid positive duration, the severity of COVID-19, and hospital stay respectively. RESULTS: A total of two hundred and thirty-three patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. We found patients whose nucleic acid turned negative within 14 days had lower LDH, CRP and higher ALB (P < 0.05). ROC curve results indicated that lower LDH, TP, CRP and higher ALB predicted the nucleic acid of patients turned negative within 14 days with statistical significance(P < 0.05), AST, LDH, CRP and PCT predicted the severe COVID-19 with statistical significance, and CRP predicted hospital stay >31days with statistical significance (P < 0.05). After verification, the probability of nucleic acid turning negative within 14 days in patients with low LDH (<256 U/L), CRP (<44.5 mg/L) and high ALB (>35.8 g/L) was about 4 times higher than that in patients with high LDH, CRP and low ALB (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: LDH, CRP and ALB are useful prognostic marker for predicting nucleic acid turn negative within 14 days in symptomatic patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , DNA, Viral/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serum Albumin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(8): 283-288, 2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102702

ABSTRACT

Two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are currently authorized for use in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine on December 11, 2020, and for the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine on December 18, 2020; each is administered as a 2-dose series. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices issued interim recommendations for Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines on December 12, 2020 (1), and December 19, 2020 (2), respectively; initial doses were recommended for health care personnel and long-term care facility (LTCF) residents (3). Safety monitoring for these vaccines has been the most intense and comprehensive in U.S. history, using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous reporting system, and v-safe,* an active surveillance system, during the initial implementation phases of the COVID-19 national vaccination program (4). CDC conducted descriptive analyses of safety data from the first month of vaccination (December 14, 2020-January 13, 2021). During this period, 13,794,904 vaccine doses were administered, and VAERS received and processed† 6,994 reports of adverse events after vaccination, including 6,354 (90.8%) that were classified as nonserious and 640 (9.2%) as serious.§ The symptoms most frequently reported to VAERS were headache (22.4%), fatigue (16.5%), and dizziness (16.5%). A total of 113 deaths were reported to VAERS, including 78 (65%) among LTCF residents; available information from death certificates, autopsy reports, medical records, and clinical descriptions from VAERS reports and health care providers did not suggest any causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and death. Rare cases of anaphylaxis after receipt of both vaccines were reported (4.5 reported cases per million doses administered). Among persons who received Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, reactions reported to the v-safe system were more frequent after receipt of the second dose than after the first. The initial postauthorization safety profiles of the two COVID-19 vaccines in current use did not indicate evidence of unexpected serious adverse events. These data provide reassurance and helpful information regarding what health care providers and vaccine recipients might expect after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States , Young Adult
18.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(2): 637-644, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826338

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of Anemoside B4 (AB4), Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), Notoginsenoside R1 (SR1), Saikosaponin A (SSA) and Saikosaponin D (SSD) on piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 132 completely healthy piglets were randomly divided into 22 groups consisting of six animals each. Control piglets were intramuscularly injected with 2 ml of PRRSV (NJGC strain) solution containing 106  TCID50  virus/ml. For low-, middle- and high-dose saponin treatment groups, the piglets were initially administrated with the same volume of PRRSV solution, followed by intraperitoneal injection with AB4, PNS, SR1, SSA or SSD at 1, 5 or 10 mg/kg b.w. on day 3. The piglets in drug control group were intraperitoneally injected with 10 mg/kg b.w. of each saponin without prior PRRS challenge, while those in blank control group were injected with the same amount of normal saline. The results indicated that all the five saponin components could decrease the incidence and severity of PRRSV-induced immunopathological damages, including the elevated body temperature, weight loss, anaemia and internal inflammation. Moreover, the saponin components could enhance protein absorption and immune responses. Taken together, this study reveals that the saponin components are effective against PRRSV infection and strengthen the immune system and thus may serve as potential antiviral therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Saponins/therapeutic use , Animals , Blood Platelets , Drug Tapering , Erythrocyte Count , Hemoglobins , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Leukocyte Count , Magnoliopsida/chemistry , Male , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Saponins/administration & dosage , Saponins/chemistry , Swine
19.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-932

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December, 2019, the outbreak of COVID-19, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported to be a fe

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