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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(18): 680-684, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218745

ABSTRACT

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Janssen (Ad.26.COV2.S) COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen Biotech, Inc., a Janssen Pharmaceutical company, Johnson & Johnson) (1). The Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, the third COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in the United States, uses a replication-incompetent human adenoviral type 26 vector platform* (2) and is administered as a single intramuscular dose, whereas the first two authorized vaccines use an mRNA platform and require 2 doses. On February 28, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued interim recommendations for use of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine among persons aged ≥18 years (3). During April 13-23, CDC and FDA recommended a pause in use of Janssen vaccine after reports of six cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150,000/µL of blood) among Janssen vaccine recipients (4). Similar thrombotic events, primarily among women aged <60 years, have been described in Europe after receipt of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, which uses a replication-incompetent chimpanzee adenoviral vector (5-7). The U.S. CVST cases that prompted the pause in Janssen vaccination, as well as subsequently detected CVST cases, are described elsewhere (8). This report summarizes adverse events among Janssen vaccine recipients, including non-CVST cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), reported to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), a passive surveillance system, and through v-safe, an active monitoring system. As of April 21, 2021, 7.98 million doses of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine had been administered. Among 13,725 VAERS reports reviewed, 97% were classified as nonserious and 3% as serious,† including three reports among women of cases of thrombosis in large arteries or veins accompanied by thrombocytopenia during the second week after vaccination. These three cases and the previously detected CVST cases are consistent with 17 cases of TTS,§ a newly defined condition. Approximately 338,700 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine recipients completed at least one v-safe survey during the week after vaccination; 76% reported a systemic reaction, 61% reported a local reaction, and 34% reported a health impact.¶ Fatigue and pain were commonly reported symptoms in both VAERS and v-safe. The overall safety profile is consistent with preauthorization clinical trials data. Prompt review of U.S. vaccine safety data detected three additional cases of non-CVST TTS, in addition to the previously recognized CVST cases that initiated the pause in use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Ongoing monitoring of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination, including vaccination with the Janssen single-dose vaccine, is essential for evaluating the risks and benefits of each vaccine.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Approval , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Young Adult
2.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy. METHODS: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons. RESULTS: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2174-2179, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level was observed in most patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Data for COVID-19 patients with clinical outcome in a designated hospital in Wuhan, China, were retrospectively collected and analyzed from 30 January 2020 to 20 February 2020. The prognostic value of admission CRP was evaluated in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 298 patients enrolled, 84 died and 214 recovered. Most nonsurvivors were male, older, or with chronic diseases. Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors showed significantly elevated white blood cell and neutrophil counts, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), systemic immune inflammation index (defined by platelet count multiplied by NLR), CRP, procalcitonin, and D-dimer and showed decreased red blood cell, lymphocyte, and platelet counts. Age, neutrophil count, platelet count, and CRP were identified as independent predictors of adverse outcome. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of CRP (0.896) was significantly higher than that of age (0.833), neutrophil count (0.820), and platelet count (0.678) in outcome prediction (all P < .05). With a cutoff value of 41.4, CRP exhibited sensitivity of 90.5%, specificity of 77.6%, positive predictive value of 61.3%, and negative predictive value of 95.4%. CRP was also an independent discriminator of severe/critical illness on admission with an AUC (0.783) comparable to age (0.828) and neutrophil count (0.729) (both P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, admission CRP correlated with disease severity and tended to be a good predictor of adverse outcome.

4.
Scott Med J ; : 36933021994243, 2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117674

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To search for biochemical indicators that can identify symptomatic patients with COVID-19 whose nucleic acid could turn negative within 14 days, and assess the prognostic value of these biochemical indicators in patients with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected the clinical data of patients with COVID-19 admitted to our hospital, by using logistic regression analysis and AUC curves, explored the relationship between biochemical indicators and nucleic acid positive duration, the severity of COVID-19, and hospital stay respectively. RESULTS: A total of two hundred and thirty-three patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. We found patients whose nucleic acid turned negative within 14 days had lower LDH, CRP and higher ALB (P < 0.05). ROC curve results indicated that lower LDH, TP, CRP and higher ALB predicted the nucleic acid of patients turned negative within 14 days with statistical significance(P < 0.05), AST, LDH, CRP and PCT predicted the severe COVID-19 with statistical significance, and CRP predicted hospital stay >31days with statistical significance (P < 0.05). After verification, the probability of nucleic acid turning negative within 14 days in patients with low LDH (<256 U/L), CRP (<44.5 mg/L) and high ALB (>35.8 g/L) was about 4 times higher than that in patients with high LDH, CRP and low ALB (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: LDH, CRP and ALB are useful prognostic marker for predicting nucleic acid turn negative within 14 days in symptomatic patients with COVID-19.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(8): 283-288, 2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102702

ABSTRACT

Two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are currently authorized for use in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine on December 11, 2020, and for the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine on December 18, 2020; each is administered as a 2-dose series. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices issued interim recommendations for Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines on December 12, 2020 (1), and December 19, 2020 (2), respectively; initial doses were recommended for health care personnel and long-term care facility (LTCF) residents (3). Safety monitoring for these vaccines has been the most intense and comprehensive in U.S. history, using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous reporting system, and v-safe,* an active surveillance system, during the initial implementation phases of the COVID-19 national vaccination program (4). CDC conducted descriptive analyses of safety data from the first month of vaccination (December 14, 2020-January 13, 2021). During this period, 13,794,904 vaccine doses were administered, and VAERS received and processed† 6,994 reports of adverse events after vaccination, including 6,354 (90.8%) that were classified as nonserious and 640 (9.2%) as serious.§ The symptoms most frequently reported to VAERS were headache (22.4%), fatigue (16.5%), and dizziness (16.5%). A total of 113 deaths were reported to VAERS, including 78 (65%) among LTCF residents; available information from death certificates, autopsy reports, medical records, and clinical descriptions from VAERS reports and health care providers did not suggest any causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and death. Rare cases of anaphylaxis after receipt of both vaccines were reported (4.5 reported cases per million doses administered). Among persons who received Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, reactions reported to the v-safe system were more frequent after receipt of the second dose than after the first. The initial postauthorization safety profiles of the two COVID-19 vaccines in current use did not indicate evidence of unexpected serious adverse events. These data provide reassurance and helpful information regarding what health care providers and vaccine recipients might expect after vaccination.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States , Young Adult
6.
Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition ; 104(2):637-644, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-826338

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of Anemoside B4 (AB4), Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), Notoginsenoside R1 (SR1), Saikosaponin A (SSA) and Saikosaponin D (SSD) on piglets infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) A total of 132 completely healthy piglets were randomly divided into 22 groups consisting of six animals each Control piglets were intramuscularly injected with 2 ml of PRRSV (NJGC strain) solution containing 106 TCID50 virus/ml For low‐, middle‐ and high‐dose saponin treatment groups, the piglets were initially administrated with the same volume of PRRSV solution, followed by intraperitoneal injection with AB4, PNS, SR1, SSA or SSD at 1, 5 or 10 mg/kg b w on day 3 The piglets in drug control group were intraperitoneally injected with 10 mg/kg b w of each saponin without prior PRRS challenge, while those in blank control group were injected with the same amount of normal saline The results indicated that all the five saponin components could decrease the incidence and severity of PRRSV‐induced immunopathological damages, including the elevated body temperature, weight loss, anaemia and internal inflammation Moreover, the saponin components could enhance protein absorption and immune responses Taken together, this study reveals that the saponin components are effective against PRRSV infection and strengthen the immune system and thus may serve as potential antiviral therapeutic agents [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Animal Physiology & Animal Nutrition is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use This abstract may be abridged No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract (Copyright applies to all Abstracts )

7.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-932

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December, 2019, the outbreak of COVID-19, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported to be a fe

9.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-662

ABSTRACT

Background: Since Dec 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has caused about fifty thousand patients and over two thousand deaths in Wuhan, China We reported characteristics of SAR

10.
Front Mol Biosci ; 7: 157, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689155

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A recently emerging respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly spread across the world. This disease is initiated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and uncontrolled cytokine storm, but it remains unknown as to whether a robust antibody response is related to clinical deterioration and poor outcome in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by chemiluminescence analysis (CLIA) in COVID-19 patients at a single center in Wuhan. Median IgG and IgM levels in acute and convalescent-phase sera (within 35 days) for all included patients were calculated and compared between severe and non-severe patients. Immune response phenotyping based on the late IgG levels and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was characterized to stratified patients into different disease severities and outcomes. Results: A total of 222 patients were included in this study. IgG was first detected on day 4 of illness, and its peak levels occurred in the fourth week. Severe cases were more frequently found in patients with high IgG levels, compared to those with low IgG levels (51.8 vs. 32.3%; p = 0.008). Severity rates for patients with NLRhiIgGhi, NLRhiIgGlo, NLRloIgGhi, and NLRloIgGlo phenotype were 72.3, 48.5, 33.3, and 15.6%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, severe patients with NLRhiIgGhi, NLRhiIgGlo had higher inflammatory cytokines levels including IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10, and decreased CD4+ T cell count compared to those with NLRloIgGlo phenotype (p < 0.05). Recovery rates for severe patients with NLRhiIgGhi, NLRhiIgGlo, NLRloIgGhi, and NLRloIgGlo phenotype were 58.8% (20/34), 68.8% (11/16), 80.0% (4/5), and 100% (12/12), respectively (p = 0.0592). Dead cases only occurred in NLRhiIgGhi and NLRhiIgGlo phenotypes. Conclusions: COVID-19 severity is associated with increased IgG response, and an immune response phenotyping based on the late IgG response and NLR could act as a simple complementary tool to discriminate between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients, and further predict their clinical outcome.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235458, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638588

ABSTRACT

A recently developed pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 bursting in Wuhan, China, has quickly spread across the world. We report the clinical characteristics of 82 cases of death from COVID-19 in a single center. Clinical data on 82 death cases laboratory-confirmed as SARS-CoV-2 infection were obtained from a Wuhan local hospital's electronic medical records according to previously designed standardized data collection forms. All patients were local residents of Wuhan, and a large proportion of them were diagnosed with severe illness when admitted. Due to the overwhelming of our system, a total of 14 patients (17.1%) were treated in the ICU, 83% of deaths never received Critical Care Support, only 40% had mechanical ventilation support despite 100% needing oxygen and the leading cause of death being pulmonary. Most of the patients who died were male (65.9%). More than half of the patients who died were older than 60 years (80.5%), and the median age was 72.5 years. The bulk of the patients who died had comorbidities (76.8%), including hypertension (56.1%), heart disease (20.7%), diabetes (18.3%), cerebrovascular disease (12.2%), and cancer (7.3%). Respiratory failure remained the leading cause of death (69.5%), followed by sepsis/MOF (28.0%), cardiac failure (14.6%), hemorrhage (6.1%), and renal failure (3.7%). Furthermore, respiratory, cardiac, hemorrhagic, hepatic, and renal damage were found in 100%, 89%, 80.5%, 78.0%, and 31.7% of patients, respectively. On admission, lymphopenia (89.2%), neutrophilia (74.3%), and thrombocytopenia (24.3%) were usually observed. Most patients had a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio of >5 (94.5%), high systemic immune-inflammation index of >500 (89.2%), and increased C-reactive protein (100%), lactate dehydrogenase (93.2%), and D-dimer (97.1%) levels. A high level of IL-6 (>10 pg/ml) was observed in all detected patients. The median time from initial symptoms to death was 15 days (IQR 11-20), and a significant association between aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.002), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.037) and time from initial symptoms to death was remarkably observed. Older males with comorbidities are more likely to develop severe disease and even die from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Respiratory failure is the main cause of COVID-19, but the virus itself and cytokine release syndrome-mediated damage to other organs, including cardiac, renal, hepatic, and hemorrhagic damage, should be taken seriously as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Retrospective Studies
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