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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 974848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099265

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has been ongoing for more than 2 years, has become one of the largest public health issues. Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is one of the most important interventions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between vaccination status and time to seroconversion. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study during the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 outbreak in Jiangsu, China. Participants who infected with the B.1.617.2 variant were enrolled. Cognitive performance, quality of life, emotional state, chest computed tomography (CT) score and seroconversion time were evaluated for each participant. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA, univariate and multivariate regression analyses, Pearson correlation, and mediation analysis. Results: A total of 91 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 37.3, 25.3, and 37.3% were unvaccinated, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated, respectively. Quality of life was impaired in 30.7% of patients, especially for mental component summary (MCS) score. Vaccination status, subjective cognitive decline, and depression were risk factors for quality-of-life impairment. The chest CT score mediated the relationship of vaccination status with the MCS score, and the MCS score mediated the relationship of the chest CT score with time to seroconversion. Conclusion: Full immunization course with an inactivated vaccine effectively lowered the chest CT score and improved quality of life in hospitalized patients. Vaccination status could influence time to seroconversion by affecting CT score and MCS score indirectly. Our study emphasizes the importance of continuous efforts in encouraging a full vaccination course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Seroconversion , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Quality of Life , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vaccination
2.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 403, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In reports of adverse reactions following vaccination with the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) vaccines, there have been fewer reports of concern for menstrual disorders in female. OBJECTIVE: Our study employed Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to investigate and analyze the relationship between COVID-19 Vaccines and menstrual disorders in female. METHODS: We collected reports of menstrual disorders in VAERS from July 2, 1990 to November 12, 2021, and performed a stratified analysis. The potential relationship between COVID-19 vaccine and reports of menstrual disorders was evaluated using the Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) method. RESULTS: A total of 14,431 reports of menstrual disorders were included in the study, and 13,118 were associated with COVID-19 vaccine. The ROR was 7.83 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 7.39-8.28). The most commonly reported event was Menstruation irregular (4998 reports), and a higher percentage of female aged 30-49 years reported menstrual disorders (42.55%) after exposure to COVID-19 Vaccines. Both for all reports of menstrual disorders (ROR = 5.82; 95%CI: 4.93-6.95) and excluding reports of unknown age (ROR = 13.02; 95%CI: 10.89-15.56),suggest that female age may be associated with menstrual disorders after vaccination with the COVID-19 Vaccines. CONCLUSION: There is a potential safety signal when the COVID-19 vaccine is administered to young adult female (30-49 years old), resulting in menstrual disorders in. However, due to the well-known limitations of spontaneous reporting data, it is challenging to explicity classify menstrual disorders as an adverse event of the COVID-19 Vaccines, and reports of adverse reactions to COVID-19 Vaccines in this age group should continue to be tracked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Menstruation Disturbances , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(11): e24727, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many rapid nucleic acid testing systems have emerged to halt the development and spread of COVID-19. However, so far relatively few studies have compared the diagnostic performance between these testing systems and conventional detection systems. Here, we performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the clinical detection performance between SARS-CoV-2 rapid and conventional nucleic acid detection system. METHODS: Clinical detection results of 63,352 oropharyngeal swabs by both systems were finally enrolled in this analysis. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), and positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) of both systems were calculated to evaluate their diagnostic accuracy. Concordance between these two systems were assessed by overall, positive, negative percent agreement (OPA, PPA, NPA) and κ value. Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 rapid nucleic acid detection system (Daan Gene) was further analyzed with respect to the viral load of clinical specimens. RESULTS: Sensitivity of Daan Gene was slightly lower than that of conventional detection system (0.86 vs. 0.979), but their specificity was equivalent. Daan Gene had ≥98.0% PPV and NPV for SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, Daan Gene demonstrated an excellent test agreement with conventional detection system (κ = 0.893, p = 0.000). Daan Gene was 99.31% sensitivity for specimens with high viral load (Ct < 35) and 50% for low viral load (Ct ≥ 35). CONCLUSIONS: While showing an analytical sensitivity slightly below than that of conventional detection system, rapid nucleic acid detection system may be a diagnostic alternative to rapidly identify SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with high viral loads and a powerful complement to current detection methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Retrospective Studies
4.
Arab J Chem ; 15(11): 104302, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041577

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the key to unlock treasures of Chinese civilization. TCM and its compound play a beneficial role in medical activities to cure diseases, especially in major public health events such as novel coronavirus epidemics across the globe. The chemical composition in Chinese medicine formula is complex and diverse, but their effective substances resemble "mystery boxes". Revealing their active ingredients and their mechanisms of action has become focal point and difficulty of research for herbalists. Although the existing research methods are numerous and constantly updated iteratively, there is remain a lack of prospective reviews. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive account of existing new approaches and technologies based on previous studies with an in vitro to in vivo perspective. In addition, the bottlenecks of studies on Chinese medicine formula effective substances are also revealed. Especially, we look ahead to new perspectives, technologies and applications for its future development. This work reviews based on new perspectives to open horizons for the future research. Consequently, herbal compounding pharmaceutical substances study should carry on the essence of TCM while pursuing innovations in the field.

5.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964044

ABSTRACT

Currently, in terms of reducing the infection risk of the COVID-19 virus spreading all over the world, the development of touchless blood pressure (BP) measurement has potential benefits. The pulse transit time (PTT) has a high relation with BP, which can be measured by electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG). The ballistocardiogram (BCG) reflects the mechanical vibration (or displacement) caused by the heart contraction/relaxation (or heart beating), which can be measured from multiple degrees of the body. The goal of this study is to develop a cuffless and touchless BP-measurement method based on a commercial weight scale combined with a PPG sensor when measuring body weight. The proposed method was that the PTTBCG-PPGT was extracted from the BCG signal measured by a weight scale, and the PPG signal was measured from the PPG probe placed at the toe. Four PTT models were used to estimate BP. The reference method was the PTTECG-PPGF extracted from the ECG signal and PPG signal measured from the PPG probe placed at the finger. The standard BP was measured by an electronic blood pressure monitor. Twenty subjects were recruited in this study. By the proposed method, the root-mean-square error (ERMS) of estimated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are 6.7 ± 1.60 mmHg and 4.8 ± 1.47 mmHg, respectively. The correlation coefficients, r2, of the proposed model for the SBP and DBP are 0.606 ± 0.142 and 0.284 ± 0.166, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can serve for cuffless and touchless BP measurement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Photoplethysmography , BCG Vaccine , Blood Pressure/physiology , Body Weight , Humans , Photoplethysmography/methods , Pulse Wave Analysis
6.
Immunology ; 167(2): 221-232, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909392

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody is an important indicator of vaccine efficacy, of which IgG is the main component. IgG can be divided into four subclasses. Up to now, studies analysing the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination have mostly focused on measuring total IgG, and the contribution of specific IgG subclasses remains elusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies and IgG subclasses, and to explore their relationships in people vaccinated with inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 174 healthy adults aged 18-59 years old who were administrated 2 doses of CoronaVac 14 days apart and a booster dose 1 year after the primary immunization, and followed up for 15 months. Blood samples were collected at various time points after primary and booster immunization. We used live SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralizing assay to determine neutralizing ability against the wild-type strain and 4 variants (Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron) and ELISA to quantify SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG subclasses. The results showed that the 2-dose primary immunization only achieved low neutralizing ability, while a booster shot can significantly enhance neutralizing ability against the wild-type strain, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron variants. IgG1 and IgG3 were the most abundant serum antibodies, and IgG2 and IgG4 were hardly detected at any time. The ratio of IgG1/IgG3 was positively associated with the neutralization ability. The underlying mechanism requires further exploration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Kinetics , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Young Adult
7.
Nutrients ; 14(12):2552, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894097

ABSTRACT

Currently, in terms of reducing the infection risk of the COVID-19 virus spreading all over the world, the development of touchless blood pressure (BP) measurement has potential benefits. The pulse transit time (PTT) has a high relation with BP, which can be measured by electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG). The ballistocardiogram (BCG) reflects the mechanical vibration (or displacement) caused by the heart contraction/relaxation (or heart beating), which can be measured from multiple degrees of the body. The goal of this study is to develop a cuffless and touchless BP-measurement method based on a commercial weight scale combined with a PPG sensor when measuring body weight. The proposed method was that the PTTBCG-PPGT was extracted from the BCG signal measured by a weight scale, and the PPG signal was measured from the PPG probe placed at the toe. Four PTT models were used to estimate BP. The reference method was the PTTECG-PPGF extracted from the ECG signal and PPG signal measured from the PPG probe placed at the finger. The standard BP was measured by an electronic blood pressure monitor. Twenty subjects were recruited in this study. By the proposed method, the root-mean-square error (ERMS) of estimated systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are 6.7 ±1.60 mmHg and 4.8 ±1.47 mmHg, respectively. The correlation coefficients, r2, of the proposed model for the SBP and DBP are 0.606 ±0.142 and 0.284 ±0.166, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can serve for cuffless and touchless BP measurement.

8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 616: 14-18, 2022 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850694

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a major threat to human health. As a unique putative protein of SARS-CoV-2, the N-terminus of ORF10 can be recognized by ZYG11B, a substrate receptor of the Cullin 2-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL2). Here we elucidated recognition mechanism of ORF10 N-terminus by ZYG11B through presenting the crystal structure of ZYG11B bound to ORF10 N-terminal peptide. Our work expands the current understanding of ORF10 interaction with ZYG11B, and may also inspire the development of novel therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Cycle Proteins , Open Reading Frames , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Cycle Proteins/chemistry , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Cullin Proteins , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/chemistry , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336848

ABSTRACT

Tissues are highly complicated with spatial heterogeneity in gene expression. However, the cutting-edge single-cell RNA-seq technology eliminates the spatial information of individual cells, which contributes to the characterization of cell identities. Herein, we propose s ingle- c ell s patial p osition a ssociated c o- e mbeddings (scSpace), an integrative algorithm to distinguish spatially variable cell subclusters by reconstructing cells onto a pseudo-space with spatial transcriptome references (Visium, STARmap, Slide-seq, etc.). We demonstrated that scSpace can define biologically meaningful cell subpopulations neglected by single-cell RNA-seq or spatially resolved transcriptomics. The use of scSpace to uncover the spatial association within single-cell data, reproduced, the hierarchical distribution of cells in the brain cortex and liver lobules, and the regional variation of cells in heart ventricles and the intestinal villus. scSpace identified cell subclusters in intratelencephalic neurons, which were confirmed by their biomarkers. The application of scSpace in melanoma and Covid-19 exhibited a broad prospect in the discovery of spatial therapeutic markers.

10.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 90, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) leads to huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The high levels of mutations of IBV render vaccines partially protective. Therefore, it is urgent to explore an effective antiviral drug or agent. The present study aimed to investigate the in vivo anti-IBV activity of a mixture of plant essential oils (PEO) of cinnamaldehyde (CA) and glycerol monolaurate (GML), designated as Jin-Jing-Zi. RESULTS: The antiviral effects were evaluated by clinical signs, viral loads, immune organ indices, antibody levels, and cytokine levels. The infection rates in the PEO-M (middle dose) and PEO-H (high dose) groups were significantly lower than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L (low dose) groups. The cure rates in the PEO-M and PEO-H groups were significantly higher than those in the prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups, and the PEO-M group had the highest cure rate of 92.31%. The symptom scores and IBV mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced in the PEO-M group. PEO significantly improved the immune organ indices and IBV-specific antibody titers of infected chickens. The anti-inflammatory factor levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the PEO-M group maintained high concentrations for a long time. The IL-6 levels in the PEO-M group were lower than those in prevention, positive drug, and PEO-L groups. CONCLUSION: The PEO had remarkable inhibition against IBV and the PEO acts by inhibiting virus multiplication and promoting immune function, suggesting that the PEO has great potential as a novel anti-IBV agent for inhibiting IBV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Oils, Volatile , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use , Poultry Diseases/drug therapy , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333137

ABSTRACT

Background: In reports of adverse reactions following vaccination with the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) vaccines, there have been fewer reports of concern for menstrual disorders in female. Objective: Our study used Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System(VAERS)to investigate and analyze the relationship between COVID-19 Vaccines and menstrual disorders in female. Methods: We collected reports of menstrual disorders in VAERS from July 2, 1990 to November 12, 2021, and performed a stratified analysis. The potential relationship between COVID-19 vaccine and reports of menstrual disorders was evaluated using the Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) method. Results: A total of 14,431 reports of menstrual disorders were included in the study, and 13,118 were associated with COVID-19 vaccine. The ROR was 7.83 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]:7.39-8.28). The most commonly reported event was Menstruation irregular (4998 reports), and a higher percentage of female aged 30-49 years reported menstrual disorders (42.55%) after exposure to COVID-19 Vaccines. Both for all reports of menstrual disorders (ROR=5.82;95%CI:4.93-6.95) and excluding reports of unknown age (ROR=13.02;95%CI:10.89-15.56), suggest that female age may be associated with menstrual disorders after vaccination with the COVID-19 Vaccines. Conclusion: Our study suggests a potential safety signal among female who received the COVID-19 vaccine, which may cause menstrual disorders in young adult female (30-49 years old). However, due to the well-known limitations of spontaneous reporting data, it is challenging to directly define menstrual disorders as an adverse event of the COVID-19 Vaccines, and reports of adverse reactions to COVID-19 Vaccines in this age group should continue to be tracked.

12.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786461

ABSTRACT

Background: In reports of adverse reactions following vaccination with the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) vaccines, there have been fewer reports of concern for menstrual disorders in female. Objective: Our study used Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System(VAERS)to investigate and analyze the relationship between COVID-19 Vaccines and menstrual disorders in female. Methods: We collected reports of menstrual disorders in VAERS from July 2, 1990 to November 12, 2021, and performed a stratified analysis. The potential relationship between COVID-19 vaccine and reports of menstrual disorders was evaluated using the Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) method. Results: A total of 14,431 reports of menstrual disorders were included in the study, and 13,118 were associated with COVID-19 vaccine. The ROR was 7.83 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]:7.39-8.28). The most commonly reported event was Menstruation irregular (4998 reports), and a higher percentage of female aged 30-49 years reported menstrual disorders (42.55%) after exposure to COVID-19 Vaccines. Both for all reports of menstrual disorders (ROR=5.82;95%CI:4.93-6.95) and excluding reports of unknown age (ROR=13.02;95%CI:10.89-15.56), suggest that female age may be associated with menstrual disorders after vaccination with the COVID-19 Vaccines. Conclusion: Our study suggests a potential safety signal among female who received the COVID-19 vaccine, which may cause menstrual disorders in young adult female (30-49 years old). However, due to the well-known limitations of spontaneous reporting data, it is challenging to directly define menstrual disorders as an adverse event of the COVID-19 Vaccines, and reports of adverse reactions to COVID-19 Vaccines in this age group should continue to be tracked.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(16): e2117142119, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774040

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a key enzyme, which extensively digests CoV replicase polyproteins essential for viral replication and transcription, making it an attractive target for antiviral drug development. However, the molecular mechanism of how Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 digests replicase polyproteins, releasing the nonstructural proteins (nsps), and its substrate specificity remain largely unknown. Here, we determine the high-resolution structures of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in its resting state, precleavage state, and postcleavage state, constituting a full cycle of substrate cleavage. The structures show the delicate conformational changes that occur during polyprotein processing. Further, we solve the structures of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro mutant (H41A) in complex with six native cleavage substrates from replicase polyproteins, and demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 Mpro can recognize sequences as long as 10 residues but only have special selectivity for four subsites. These structural data provide a basis to develop potent new inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Polyproteins/chemistry , Protein Conformation , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Substrate Specificity/genetics
14.
Protein Cell ; 13(12): 920-939, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773029

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes complicated clinical manifestations with variable multi-organ injuries, however, the underlying mechanism, in particular immune responses in different organs, remains elusive. In this study, comprehensive transcriptomic alterations of 14 tissues from rhesus macaque infected with SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Compared to normal controls, SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes involving diverse functions in various examined tissues/organs, with drastic transcriptomic changes in cerebral cortex and right ventricle. Intriguingly, cerebral cortex exhibited a hyperinflammatory state evidenced by significant upregulation of inflammation response-related genes. Meanwhile, expressions of coagulation, angiogenesis and fibrosis factors were also up-regulated in cerebral cortex. Based on our findings, neuropilin 1 (NRP1), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, was significantly elevated in cerebral cortex post infection, accompanied by active immune response releasing inflammatory factors and signal transmission among tissues, which enhanced infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in a positive feedback way, leading to viral encephalitis. Overall, our study depicts a multi-tissue/organ transcriptomic landscapes of rhesus macaque with early infection of SARS-CoV-2, and provides important insights into the mechanistic basis for COVID-19-associated clinical complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome
15.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329131

ABSTRACT

Background: In reports of adverse reactions following vaccination with the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) vaccines, there have been fewer reports of concern for menstrual disorders in female. Objective: Our study used Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System(VAERS)to investigate and analyze the relationship between COVID-19 Vaccines and menstrual disorders in female. Methods: We collected reports of menstrual disorders in VAERS from July 2, 1990 to November 12, 2021, and performed a stratified analysis. The potential relationship between COVID-19 vaccine and reports of menstrual disorders was evaluated using the Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) method. Results: A total of 14,431 reports of menstrual disorders were included in the study, and 13,118 were associated with COVID-19 vaccine. The ROR was 7.83 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]:7.39-8.28). The most commonly reported event was Menstruation irregular (4998 reports), and a higher percentage of female aged 30-49 years reported menstrual disorders (42.55%) after exposure to COVID-19 Vaccines. Both for all reports of menstrual disorders (ROR=5.82;95%CI:4.93-6.95) and excluding reports of unknown age (ROR=13.02;95%CI:10.89-15.56), suggest that female age may be associated with menstrual disorders after vaccination with the COVID-19 Vaccines. Conclusion: Our study suggests a potential safety signal among female who received the COVID-19 vaccine, which may cause menstrual disorders in young adult female (30-49 years old). However, due to the well-known limitations of spontaneous reporting data, it is challenging to directly define menstrual disorders as an adverse event of the COVID-19 Vaccines, and reports of adverse reactions to COVID-19 Vaccines in this age group should continue to be tracked.

16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e1584-e1594, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708198

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic and continues to prevail with multiple rebound waves in many countries. The driving factors for the spread of COVID-19 and their quantitative contributions, especially to rebound waves, are not well studied. Multidimensional time-series data, including policy, travel, medical, socioeconomic, environmental, mutant and vaccine-related data, were collected from 39 countries up to 30 June 2021, and an interpretable machine learning framework (XGBoost model with Shapley Additive explanation interpretation) was used to systematically analyze the effect of multiple factors on the spread of COVID-19, using the daily effective reproduction number as an indicator. Based on a model of the pre-vaccine era, policy-related factors were shown to be the main drivers of the spread of COVID-19, with a contribution of 60.81%. In the post-vaccine era, the contribution of policy-related factors decreased to 28.34%, accompanied by an increase in the contribution of travel-related factors, such as domestic flights, and contributions emerged for mutant-related (16.49%) and vaccine-related (7.06%) factors. For single-peak countries, the dominant ones were policy-related factors during both the rising and fading stages, with overall contributions of 33.7% and 37.7%, respectively. For double-peak countries, factors from the rebound stage contributed 45.8% and policy-related factors showed the greatest contribution in both the rebound (32.6%) and fading (25.0%) stages. For multiple-peak countries, the Delta variant, domestic flights (current month) and the daily vaccination population are the three greatest contributors (8.12%, 7.59% and 7.26%, respectively). Forecasting models to predict the rebound risk were built based on these findings, with accuracies of 0.78 and 0.81 for the pre- and post-vaccine eras, respectively. These findings quantitatively demonstrate the systematic drivers of the spread of COVID-19, and the framework proposed in this study will facilitate the targeted prevention and control of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Machine Learning , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324533

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes complicated clinic manifestations with variable multi-organ injuries, however, the underlying mechanism, in particular immune responses in different organs, remains elusive. In this study, comprehensive transcriptomic alterations of 14 tissues from rhesus macaque infected with SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Compared to normal controls, SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes involving diverse functions in various tissues/organs examined, with drastic transcriptomic changes in cerebral cortex and right ventricle. Intriguingly, cerebral cortex exhibited a hyperinflammatory state evidenced by significant upregulation of inflammation response-related genes. Meanwhile, expressions of coagulation, angiogenesis and fibrosis factors were also up-regulated in cerebral cortex. Neuronal receptor NRP1 expression showed a significant induction by SARS-CoV-2 in cerebral cortex, which might be responsible for a higher infectivity and consequent inflammatory response. Overall, our study depicts a multi-tissue/organ transcriptomic landscapes of rhesus macaque with early infection of SARS-CoV-2, and provides important insights into the mechanistic basis for COVID-19-associated clinical complications.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324229

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Previous studies have showed that age,sex and comorbidities might be associated with severity of patients infected with COVID-19 ,which endangers public health worldwide rapidly.The characteristics and length of negative conversion of Non-severe COVID-19 patients with or without hypertension is limited.This study aims to assess whether non-severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension undergone more longer period of negative conversion . Methods: This single-center, retrospective study was performed in Xiantao first People’s Hospital Affiliated to Yangtze University(xiantao, hubei,China) by using medical records.Non-severe COVID-19 patients with a history of hypertension From January 23 to February15 were enrolled as group A. A Control group(group B) was matched (1:1) according to age,sex and the admission date.Data on clinical records, laboratory results, and radiological tests was collected. we conducted all analyses with SPSS software(22.0). Results: We enrolled 24 and 24 Non-severe COVID-19 patients with and without hypertension, respectively. The most common symptoms were fever and cough in both groups.The frequency of fatigue is more in patients with hypertension.The levels of AST,ALT and CRP were higher in group A.The mean periods of negative conversion for COVID-19 virus were 17 days(SD:5.5) and 15 days(SD:3.6)for patients with and without hypertension(P=0.021).The mean hospitalization periods were 16.8 days (SD:5.6) and 13.7 days (SD:3.8) , respectively (p=0.083) . Conclusion: Non-severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension undergone a longer negative conversion for COVID-19 virus and spent more time on clearing COVID-19 virus.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307599

ABSTRACT

Preliminary results from the RECOVERY trial indicated that dexamethasone usage markedly reduced death rate in COVID-19 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. However, the overall reduction for the entire patient cohort in that trial was much more modest, indicating highly variable effects of corticosteroid usage among COVID-19 patients. While steroid treatment is known to have both clinical efficacy and detrimental adverse-effects, defining a clinic parameter that could guide the beneficial corticosteroid usage for treating COVID-19 remains an elusive, urgent, and critical unmet need in COVID-19 therapy. Here, we undertook a multicentered retrospective study on a cohort of 12,862 confirmed COVID-19 cases from 21 hospitals in Hubei Province, China, including 3,254 received corticosteroid treatment and 9,608 received usual care without corticosteroid. We uncovered that the clinical benefits of corticosteroid use were closely associated with the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) measured at admission. Among participants with NLR > 6.12 at admission, corticosteroid treatment was significantly associated with a lower risk of 60-day all-cause mortality of COVID-19 based on both Cox model with time-varying exposure and Marginal Structural Model. However, in patients with NLR ≤ 6.12 at admission, corticosteroid treatment was no longer associated with reduced risk of all-cause death, but rather with increased risks of severe adverse effects, particularly in hyperglycemia and infection. In diabetic patients with COVID-19, corticosteroid treatment was associated with increased glycemia, but not with a higher risk of 60-day mortality. Therefore, our study has uncovered NLR as a clinical indicator to stratify COVID-19 patients in their response to corticosteroid therapy. This finding may assist clinical evaluation and future randomized controlled trials to establish proper guidelines for corticosteroid therapy in COVID-19 patients.

20.
Gut ; 71(2): 238-253, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mostly a family-based infectious disease. To facilitate its prevention and management, a national consensus meeting was held to review current evidence and propose strategies for population-wide and family-based H. pylori infection control and management to reduce the related disease burden. METHODS: Fifty-seven experts from 41 major universities and institutions in 20 provinces/regions of mainland China were invited to review evidence and modify statements using Delphi process and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system. The consensus level was defined as ≥80% for agreement on the proposed statements. RESULTS: Experts discussed and modified the original 23 statements on family-based H. pylori infection transmission, control and management, and reached consensus on 16 statements. The final report consists of three parts: (1) H. pylori infection and transmission among family members, (2) prevention and management of H. pylori infection in children and elderly people within households, and (3) strategies for prevention and management of H. pylori infection for family members. In addition to the 'test-and-treat' and 'screen-and-treat' strategies, this consensus also introduced a novel third 'family-based H. pylori infection control and management' strategy to prevent its intrafamilial transmission and development of related diseases. CONCLUSION: H. pylori is transmissible from person to person, and among family members. A family-based H. pylori prevention and eradication strategy would be a suitable approach to prevent its intra-familial transmission and related diseases. The notion and practice would be beneficial not only for Chinese residents but also valuable as a reference for other highly infected areas.


Subject(s)
Family Health , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Helicobacter pylori , Infection Control/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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