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1.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296620

ABSTRACT

Background: Rapid antigen testing is widely used as a way of scaling up population-level testing. To better inform antigen test deployment in Australia, we evaluated 22 commercially available antigen tests, including an assessment of culture infectivity. Methods Analytical sensitivity was evaluated against SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta), reported as TCID50/mL, cycle threshold (Ct) value and viral load (RNA copies/mL). Specificity was assessed against non-SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Clinical sensitivity and correlation with cell culture infectivity was assessed using the Abbott PanBio™ COVID-19 Ag test. Results Nineteen kits consistently detected SARS-CoV-2 antigen equivalent to 1.3x10

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) against concerned outcomes in real-world settings. METHODS: We included studies reported the COVID-19 VE from August 6, 2020, to October 6, 2021. We estimated the summary VE with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) against disease related to COVID-19. The results were presented in forest plots. Predefined subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis was also performed. RESULTS: 51 records were included in this meta-analysis. In the full vaccination, the VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 related hospitalization, admission to ICU, and death were 89.1% (95% CI, 85.6 to 92.6), 97.2% (95% CI, 96.1 to 98.3), 97.4% (95% CI, 96.0 to 98.8) and 99.0% (95% CI, 98.5 to 99.6), respectively. It showed that the VE against infection for general population aged 16 years or older, the elderly and health care workers (HCWs) were 86.1% (95% CI, 77.8 to 94.4), 83.8% (95% CI, 77.1 to 90.6) and 95.3% (95% CI, 92.0 to 98.6), respectively. For full vaccination against infection, 91.2% effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and the 98.1% effectiveness of Moderna vaccine were observed, while 65.7% effectiveness of the CoronaVac were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 vaccines are highly protective against SARS-CoV-2 related diseases in the real-world settings.

3.
Journal of Signal Processing ; 25(6):251-255, 2021.
Article in Japanese | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1486160
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009928, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484868

ABSTRACT

Non-specific protective effects of certain vaccines have been reported, and long-term boosting of innate immunity, termed trained immunity, has been proposed as one of the mechanisms mediating these effects. Several epidemiological studies suggested cross-protection between influenza vaccination and COVID-19. In a large academic Dutch hospital, we found that SARS-CoV-2 infection was less common among employees who had received a previous influenza vaccination: relative risk reductions of 37% and 49% were observed following influenza vaccination during the first and second COVID-19 waves, respectively. The quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine induced a trained immunity program that boosted innate immune responses against various viral stimuli and fine-tuned the anti-SARS-CoV-2 response, which may result in better protection against COVID-19. Influenza vaccination led to transcriptional reprogramming of monocytes and reduced systemic inflammation. These epidemiological and immunological data argue for potential benefits of influenza vaccination against COVID-19, and future randomized trials are warranted to test this possibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Protection/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Imidazoles/immunology , Incidence , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital , Poly I-C/immunology , Proteomics , Risk Factors , Sequence Analysis, RNA
7.
International Feminist Journal of Politics ; : 1-6, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1243433
8.
Pathology ; 52(7): 754-759, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044714

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented scale of testing required to effectively control the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated urgent implementation of rapid testing in clinical microbiology laboratories. To date, there are limited data available on the analytical performance of emerging commercially available assays for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and integration of these assays into laboratory workflows. Here, we performed a prospective validation study of a commercially available assay, the AusDiagnostics Coronavirus Typing (8-well) assay. Respiratory tract samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing were collected between 1 March and 25 March 2020. All positive samples and a random subset of negative samples were sent to a reference laboratory for confirmation. In total, 2673 samples were analysed using the Coronavirus Typing assay. The predominant sample type was a combined nasopharyngeal/throat swab (2640/2673; 98.8%). Fifty-four patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2.0%) using the Coronavirus Typing assay; 53/54 (98.1%) positive results and 621/621 (100%) negative results were concordant with the reference laboratory. Compared to the reference laboratory gold standard, sensitivity of the Coronavirus Typing assay for SARS-CoV-2 was 100% (95% CI 93.2-100%), specificity 99.8% (95% CI 99.1-100%), positive predictive value 98.1% (95% CI 90.2-99.7%) and negative predictive value 100% (95% CI 99.4-100%). In many countries, standard regulatory requirements for the introduction of new assays have been replaced by emergency authorisations and it is critical that laboratories share their post-market validation experiences, as the consequences of widespread introduction of a suboptimal assay for SARS-CoV-2 are profound. Here, we share our in-field experience, and encourage other laboratories to follow suit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Workflow
9.
Chin J Chem Eng ; 36: 1-9, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938835

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a great demand on the personal protection products such as reusable masks. As a key raw material for masks, meltblown fabrics play an important role in rejection of aerosols. However, the electrostatic dominated aerosol rejection mechanism of meltblown fabrics prevents the mask from maintaining the desired protective effect after the static charge degradation. Herein, novel reusable masks with high aerosols rejection efficiency were fabricated by the introduction of spider-web bionic nanofiber membrane (nano cobweb-biomimetic membrane). The reuse stability of meltblown and nanofiber membrane mask was separately evaluated by infiltrating water, 75% alcohol solution, and exposing under ultraviolet (UV) light. After the water immersion test, the filtration efficiency of meltblown mask was decreased to about 79%, while the nanofiber membrane was maintained at 99%. The same phenomenon could be observed after the 75% alcohol treatment, a high filtration efficiency of 99% was maintained in nanofiber membrane, but obvious negative effect was observed in meltblown mask, which decreased to about 50%. In addition, after long-term expose under UV light, no filtration efficiency decrease was observed in nanofiber membrane, which provide a suitable way to disinfect the potential carried virus. This work successfully achieved the daily disinfection and reuse of masks, which effectively alleviate the shortage of masks during this special period.

10.
Cell ; 182(6): 1419-1440.e23, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694631

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DRhiCD11chi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DRlo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myelopoiesis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD11 Antigens/genetics , CD11 Antigens/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/genetics , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/cytology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Proteome/genetics , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics , Single-Cell Analysis
11.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 34(11): 2505-2510, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621404

ABSTRACT

The cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 patients have been increasingly reported, but not summarized, and the potential mechanisms remain to be investigated. Herein, we performed a comprehensive review of literatures (from inception to 30 May 2020) using PubMed, CNKI, medRxiv and bioRxiv with the terms "((novel coronavirus) OR (2019 novel coronavirus) OR (2019-nCoV) OR (Coronavirus disease 2019) OR (COVID-19) OR (SARS-CoV-2)) AND ((Dermatology) OR (skin) OR (rash) OR (cutaneous))" and "((ACE2) OR (Angiotensin-converting enzyme)) AND ((skin) OR (epidermis) OR (dermis))." Totally, 44 articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of 507 patients with cutaneous manifestations were summarized, and 96.25% patients were from Europe. The average age of the patients was 49.03 (range: 5-91) with a female ratio of 60.44%. The skin lesions were polymorphic, and erythema, chilblain-like and urticarial lesions were most common, occurring on an average of 9.92 days (range: 1-30) after the onset of systemic symptoms. The receptor of SARS-CoV-2, ACE2, was found to be expressed on skin, mainly on keratinocytes. Our review systematically presented the clinical characteristics of 507 patients and showed that skin might be the potential target of the infection according to ACE2 expression. More work should be done to better understand the underlying pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/virology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/metabolism
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