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1.
Water ; 14(23):3893, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2143818

ABSTRACT

Sodium hypochlorite was widely used as a supplementary disinfectant in reclaimed water (RW) production during the COVID-19 epidemic. It is well known that the chlorination of RW results in a relatively high bacterial regrowth potential in pipeline systems. However, the algal growth and algal-bacterial interactions would be another concern in RW-replenished surface water with light irradiation. In this study, microcosmic experiments were used to explore the impact of hypochlorite on the algae-bacteria community, including the influence of hypochlorite on algal-bacterial regrowth, microbial community structure, and the specific bacteria that can survive chlorination. Results demonstrated that algal growth potential could be promoted after chlorination of the RW, and bacteria abundance increased along with an increase in algal density, which is probably related to DOM decomposition by chlorine oxidation. Additionally, the characteristics of the bacterial community were altered. It is more likely that phytospheric bacteria will survive chlorination. It was discovered that the secondary risks of chlorine disinfection include the growth of algae in addition to bacterial regeneration, which is an extension of the common perception. As a consequence, when chlorinated reclaimed water is used as a supplement for urban landscape ponds, particular attention should be paid to controlling bio-available organic matter induced by reactive chlorine, as well as the algal bloom, to decrease the risk of pathogen transmission.

2.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; 38(1):33-40, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2115925

ABSTRACT

The study describing the process of discovery and source tracing of a native case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on Jan 2021, in Guangxi, China, to provide methodology for source investigation better in the future. Following the Epidemiological Investigation Plan for COVID-19 (version 7), information of the native COVID-19 case and related close contacts were collected. Real time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the nucleic acids of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in samples collected from the infection case, related close contacts, and the environment, combined with serum specific antibody detection. The positive nucleic acid samples were undergone whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and analyses of variation of amino acids. The whole genome sequence from the native case and the imported asymptomatic infected case from Indonesia containing 25 nucleotide mutation sites belong to L-Lineage European Branch II. 3. The imported asymptomatic case was the source of infection of this native case. The possible route of infection was that native case was exposed to contaminated environment by imported case, due to improper personal protective equipment. A focus on local outbreaks of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2-infected people from outside China is needed.

3.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 144, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119473

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has been constantly evolving and five variants have been classified as Variant of Concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). These VOCs were found to enhance transmission and/or decrease neutralization capabilities of monoclonal antibodies and vaccine-induced antibodies. Here, we successfully designed and produced a recombinant COVID-19 vaccine in CHO cells at a high yield. The vaccine antigen contains four hot spot substitutions, K417N, E484K, N501Y and D614G, based on a prefusion-stabilized spike trimer of SARS-CoV-2 (S-6P) and formulated with an Alum/CpG 7909 dual adjuvant system. Results of immunogenicity studies showed that the variant vaccine elicited robust cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 prototype (Wuhan) strain and all 5 VOCs. It further, stimulated a TH1 (T Helper type 1) cytokine profile and substantial CD4+ T cell responses in BALB/c mice and rhesus macaques were recorded. Protective efficacy of the vaccine candidate was evaluated in hamster and rhesus macaque models of SARS-CoV-2. In Golden Syrian hamsters challenged with Beta or Delta strains, the vaccine candidate reduced the viral loads in nasal turbinates and lung tissues, accompanied by significant weight gain and relieved inflammation in the lungs. In rhesus macaque challenged with prototype SARS-CoV-2, the vaccine candidate decreased viral shedding in throat, anal, blood swabs over time, reduced viral loads of bronchus and lung tissue, and effectively relieved the lung pathological inflammatory response. Together, our data demonstrated the broadly neutralizing activity and efficacy of the variant vaccine against both prototype and current VOCs of SARS-CoV-2, justifying further clinical development.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of COVID-19, online public opinion related to the epidemic was rapidly generated and developed rapidly. If some online public opinions cannot be effectively responded to and guided, it will bring risks to social order. The government should understand how to use information on social media to grasp public demands, provide useful information in a timely manner and take countermeasures. Studying the formation mechanism of online public opinion during the outbreak can help the government make scientific decisions and improve risk management capabilities. METHODS: The research selects the public opinion information of online platforms represented by WeChat, online communities, Sina Weibo and search engines, involving 75 relevant texts (1 January to 31 March 2022). According to the grounded theory method, using the QSR NVivo12 qualitative research software, the collected network texts were successively researched using open coding, axial coding and theoretical coding. RESULTS: The structure of online public opinion during the COVID-19 epidemic was obtained. The operation mechanism of the online public opinion system about COVID-19 was mainly affected by the interaction of online public opinion objects, online public opinion subjects, online public opinion intermediaries and government forces. It was based on social facts and citizens' appeals as the starting point, subject behaviors and prevention and control measures as the focus, government's governance as macro-control and citizens' evaluation as the guide. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific analysis of online public opinion is an important tool to identify and manage risks and improve the quality of government activities. Online public opinion has the function of assisting government decision-making, and the government can identify the important information reflected in it, especially the mainstream public opinion, as a reference for decision-making. By taking effective measures and properly responding to citizens' reasonable demands, the government can prevent social risks and avoid new negative public opinions. Contributions: According to the characteristics of the basic model of online public opinion, this study provides risk mitigation suggestions for Chinese public sectors to use online public opinion, optimize epidemic prevention policies and formulate strategic measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Opinion , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Grounded Theory , China/epidemiology , Risk Management
5.
Medicine ; 2(4):289-292, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2092397

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection is usually self-limited, with a short duration for viral shedding within several weeks. However, prolonged viral shedding has been observed in severe or immune-compromised coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Here, we reported that three young adult cases of COVID-19 patients, who were either immunosuppressed nor severe, showed prolonged viral RNA shedding from the upper respiratory tract for 58, 81, and 137 days since initial diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the longest duration of viral shedding reported to date in young adult patients. Further studies on factors relevant to prolonged viral positivity, as well as the correlation between viral positivity and transmission risk are needed for the optimal management of COVID-19 patients with prolonged nucleic acid positive.

6.
Remote Sensing of Environment ; 280:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2028439

ABSTRACT

Agricultural irrigation, as an important practice to protect crops from drought and promote grain yield, has a long history in China. A timely and precise dataset about the extent and dynamics of irrigated areas is necessary for water allocation and agricultural management but is scarce in China. Here we developed annual irrigated cropland maps across China (IrriMap_CN) at 500-m resolution from 2000 to 2019, using MODIS data, machine-learning method, and Google Earth Engine platform. First, we generated annual nationwide training samples by strictly screening the existing irrigation maps downscaled from the statistical data. Second, we implemented locally adaptive random forest classifiers in 511 nominal 1° × 1° grid cells across China with MODIS vegetation indices, climatic factors, and topography variables. Third, we conducted nationwide pixel-wise validation of the IrriMap_CN using independent samples. The validation results based on more than 3000 ground truth points revealed that IrriMap_CN had high accuracies ranging from 77.2% to 85.9%. The time series of IrriMap_CN detected substantial expansion of irrigated areas in Xinjiang and Heilongjiang (more than 50% in total) and pronounced decreases in Sichuan, Jiangsu, and Hebei. The analyses of irrigation frequency, start time, and end time implied that North China Plain was the most intensive irrigated area;but the irrigation area showed a decreasing trend since 2000, consistent with the reduced agricultural water consumption. The annual irrigation datasets allow us to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of irrigated croplands in China and are expected to contribute to the improvement of earth system models and facilitate sustainable agricultural water management. • Annual irrigation maps (IrriMap_CN) were generated for China in 2000–2019. • Nationwide training samples were extracted from existing irrigation maps. • IrriMap_CN highlights the declining irrigation area in North China Plain. • Cropland reclamation/occupation and water supply are key to irrigation area changes. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Remote Sensing of Environment is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023655

ABSTRACT

Based on the terror management theory (TMT), this study integrated self-esteem and close relationships to explore the effects of group identification on death anxiety. Five hundred and four participants completed the Death Anxiety, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, Social Identity, and Inclusion of Other in the Self scales via online platforms. There were significant correlations among group identification, close relationship, self-esteem, and death anxiety. Group identification had a significant negative predictive effect on death anxiety. Specifically, group identification affects death anxiety through two pathways: the separate mediating role of self-esteem and the serial mediation pathway of close relationships → self-esteem. Our study provides direct evidence that group identification relieves death anxiety. The results showed that the alleviating function of group identification was mediated by self-esteem and close relationships. This study provides a new perspective concerning TMT as a defense mechanism against death anxiety.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Social Identification , Humans , Self Concept
8.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 2697841, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020487

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications after lumbar fusion. Early prediction and timely intervention can reduce the harm to patients. The aims of this study were to construct and validate a machine learning model for predicting surgical site infection after posterior lumbar interbody fusion, to screen out the most important risk factors for surgical site infection, and to explore whether synthetic minority oversampling technique could improve the model performance. Method: This study reviewed 584 patients who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar disease at our center from January 2019 to August 2021. Clinical information and laboratory test data were collected from the electronic medical records. The original dataset was divided into training set and validation set in a 1 : 1 ratio. Seven machine learning algorithms were used to develop predictive models; the training set of each model was resampled using synthetic minority oversampling technique. Finally, the model performance was assessed in the validation set. Results: Of the 584 patients, 33 (5.65%) occurred surgical site infection. Stepwise logistic regression showed that preoperative albumin level (OR 0.659, 95% CI 0.563-0.756), diabetes (OR 9.129, 95% CI 3.816-23.126), intraoperative dural tear (OR 8.436, 95% CI 2.729-25.334), and rheumatic disease (OR 8.471, 95% CI 1.743-39.567) were significant predictors associated with surgical site infection. The performance of the AdaBoost Classification Trees model was the best among the seven machine learning models, and synthetic minority oversampling technique improved the performance of all models. Conclusion: The prediction model we constructed based on machine learning and synthetic minority oversampling technique can accurately predict surgical site infection, which is conducive to clinical decision-making and optimization of perioperative management.


Subject(s)
Spinal Fusion , Algorithms , Humans , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Machine Learning , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Fusion/adverse effects , Spinal Fusion/methods , Surgical Wound Infection/diagnosis , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1588, 2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, physical distancing and hand washing have been used as effective means to reduce virus transmission in the Netherlands. However, these measures pose a societal challenge as they require people to change their customary behaviours in various contexts. The science of habit formation is potentially useful for informing policy-making in public health, but the current literature largely overlooked the role of habit in predicting and explaining these preventive behaviours. Our research aimed to describe habit formation processes of physical distancing and hand washing and to estimate the influences of habit strength and intention on behavioural adherence. METHODS: A longitudinal survey was conducted between July and November 2020 on a representative Dutch sample (n = 800). Respondents reported their intentions, habit strengths, and adherence regarding six context-specific preventive behaviours on a weekly basis. Temporal developments of the measured variables were visualized, quantified, and mapped onto five distinct phases of the pandemic. Regression models were used to test the effects of intention, habit strength, and their interaction on behavioural adherence. RESULTS: Dutch respondents generally had strong intentions to adhere to all preventive measures and their adherence rates were between 70% and 90%. They also self-reported to experience their behaviours as more automatic over time, and this increasing trend in habit strength was more evident for physical-distancing than for hand washing behaviours. For all six behaviours, both intention and habit strength predicted subsequent adherence (all ps < 2e-16). In addition, the predictive power of intention decreased over time and was weaker for respondents with strong habits for physical distancing when visiting supermarkets (B = -0.63, p <.0001) and having guests at home (B = -0.54, p <.0001) in the later phases of the study, but not for hand washing. CONCLUSIONS: People's adaptations to physical-distancing and hand washing measures involve both intentional and habitual processes. For public health management, our findings highlight the importance of using contextual cues to promote habit formation, especially for maintaining physical-distancing practices. For habit theories, our study provides a unique dataset that covers multiple health behaviours in a critical real-world setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Habits , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Intention , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1990200

ABSTRACT

Background Social distancing has been implemented by many countries to curb the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding public support for this policy calls for effective and efficient methods of monitoring public opinion on social distancing. Twitter analysis has been suggested as a cheaper and faster-responding alternative to traditional survey methods. The current empirical evidence is mixed in terms of the correspondence between the two methods. Objective We aim to compare the two methods in the context of monitoring the Dutch public's opinion on social distancing. For this comparison, we quantified the temporal and spatial variations in public opinion and their sensitivities to critical events using data from both Dutch Twitter users and respondents from a longitudinal survey. Methods A longitudinal survey on a representative Dutch sample (n = 1,200) was conducted between July and November 2020 to measure opinions on social distancing weekly. From the same period, near 100,000 Dutch tweets were categorized as supporting or rejecting social distancing based on a model trained with annotated data. Average stances for the 12 Dutch provinces and over the 20 weeks were computed from the two data sources and were compared through visualizations and statistical analyses. Results Both data sources suggested strong support for social distancing, but public opinion was much more varied among tweets than survey responses. Both data sources showed an increase in public support for social distancing over time, and a strong temporal correspondence between them was found for most of the provinces. In addition, the survey but not Twitter data revealed structured differences among the 12 provinces, while the two data sources did not correspond much spatially. Finally, stances estimated from tweets were more sensitive to critical events happened during the study period. Conclusions Our findings indicate consistencies between Twitter data analysis and survey methods in describing the overall stance on social distancing and temporal trends. The lack of spatial correspondence may imply limitations in the data collections and calls for surveys with larger regional samples. For public health management, Twitter analysis can be used to complement survey methods, especially for capturing public's reactivities to critical events amid the current pandemic.

11.
Front Psychol ; 13: 898405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952681

ABSTRACT

Meta-analytical research has demonstrated the benefits brought by telecommuting to wellbeing. However, we argue that such a setup in the course of the coronavirus disease pandemic exerts negative effects. On the basis of conservation of resources theory, this study determined how telecommuting depletes wellbeing (defined by job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion) through obstructing psychological detachment from work. Moreover, we incorporated family interfering with work and family-work enrichment as moderators that can buffer the negative effect of telecommuting on psychological detachment from work. Time-lagged field research was conducted with 350 Chinese employees, and findings largely supported our theoretical hypotheses. The elevated level of telecommuting results in minimal psychological detachment from work, which then leads to low wellbeing. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the extent of telecommuting on psychological detachment from work is reduced by family interfering with work. These findings extend the literature on telecommuting and psychological detachment from work through revealing why teleworkers present negative feelings during the pandemic.

12.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940344

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contains more than 30 mutations on the spike protein, 15 of which are located within the receptor binding domain (RBD). Consequently, Omicron is able to extensively escape existing neutralizing antibodies and may therefore compromise the efficacy of current vaccines based on the original strain, highlighting the importance and urgency of developing effective vaccines against Omicron. Here we report the rapid generation and evaluation of an mRNA vaccine candidate specific to Omicron, and explore the feasibility of heterologous immunization with WT and Omicron RBD vaccines. This mRNA vaccine encodes the RBD of Omicron (designated as RBD-O) and is formulated with lipid nanoparticle. Two doses of the RBD-O mRNA vaccine efficiently induce neutralizing antibodies in mice;however, the antisera are effective only on the Omicron variant but not on the wildtype and Delta strains, indicating a narrow neutralization spectrum. It is noted that the neutralization profile of the RBD-O mRNA vaccine is opposite to that observed for the mRNA vaccine expressing the wildtype RBD (RBD-WT). Importantly, booster with RBD-O mRNA vaccine after two doses of RBD-WT mRNA vaccine can significantly increase neutralization titers against Omicron. Additionally, an obvious increase in IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α-expressing RBD-specific CD4+ T cell responses was observed after immunization with the RBD-WT and/or RBD-O mRNA vaccine. Together, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potency of an RBD-based mRNA vaccine specific to Omicron, providing important information for further development of heterologous immunization program or bivalent/multivalent SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with broad-spectrum efficacy.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(26): e2122897119, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890411

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolves rapidly under the pressure of host immunity, as evidenced by waves of emerging variants despite effective vaccinations, highlighting the need for complementing antivirals. We report that targeting a pyrimidine synthesis enzyme restores inflammatory response and depletes the nucleotide pool to impede SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 deploys Nsp9 to activate carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase (CAD) that catalyzes the rate-limiting steps of the de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Activated CAD not only fuels de novo nucleotide synthesis but also deamidates RelA. While RelA deamidation shuts down NF-κB activation and subsequent inflammatory response, it up-regulates key glycolytic enzymes to promote aerobic glycolysis that provides metabolites for de novo nucleotide synthesis. A newly synthesized small-molecule inhibitor of CAD restores antiviral inflammatory response and depletes the pyrimidine pool, thus effectively impeding SARS-CoV-2 replication. Targeting an essential cellular metabolic enzyme thus offers an antiviral strategy that would be more refractory to SARS-CoV-2 genetic changes.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase , COVID-19 , Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing) , Dihydroorotase , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing)/antagonists & inhibitors , Dihydroorotase/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice , Pyrimidines/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/biosynthesis , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
International Review of Financial Analysis ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877447

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly negatively impacted the global economy and stock markets. This paper investigates the stock-market tail risks caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and how the pandemic affects the risk correlations among the stock markets worldwide. The conditional autoregressive value at risk (CAViaR) model is used to measure the tail risks of 28 selected stock markets. Furthermore, risk correlation networks are constructed to describe the risk correlations among stock markets during different periods. Through dynamic analysis of the risk correlations, the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on stock markets worldwide is examined quantitatively. The results show the following: (i) The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant tail risks in stock markets in most countries, while the stock markets of a few countries have been unaffected by the pandemic. (ii) The topology of risk correlation networks has become denser during the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic makes it easier for risk to transfer among stock markets. (iii) The increase in the closeness of the risk relationship between countries with lower economic correlation has become much higher than that between counties with higher economic correlation during the COVID-19 pandemic. For researchers and policy-makers, these findings reveal practical implications of the risk correlations among stock markets.

16.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 136864, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821170

ABSTRACT

Synthetic biology enabling technologies have been harnessed to create new diagnostic technologies. However, most strategies involve error-prone amplification steps and limitations of accuracy in RNA detection. Here, a cell-free synthetic biology-powered biosensing strategy, termed as SHARK (Synthetic Enzyme Shift RNA Signal Amplifier Related Cas13a Knockdown Reaction), could efficiently and accurately amplify RNA signal by leveraging the collateral cleavage of activated Cas13a to regulate cell-free enzyme synthesis. Based on cascade amplification and tailored enzyme output, SHARK behaves broad compatibility in different scenarios. The portable device based on SHARK was successfully used as SARS-CoV-2 biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity, and the results were highly consistent with Ct values of qRT-PCR. In addition, when combined with machine learning, SHARK performs bio-computations and thus for cancer diagnosis and staging based on 64 clinical samples. SHARK shows characteristics of precise recognition, cascade amplification and tailored signal outputting comparisons with established assays, presenting significant potential in developing next-generation RNA detection technology.

17.
J Thorac Oncol ; 17(5): 588-591, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799802
18.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 14(1): e2022003, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780147

ABSTRACT

Many studies have shown that patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different degrees of liver injury. However, the mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invasion into the liver are still not fully understood. This review mainly summarizes the recently published works on the abnormal liver biochemical indicators and the mechanism of viral invasion with liver injury in COVID-19 patients. Generally, SARS-CoV-2 infection of the liver was caused by blood circulation or retrograde infection of the digestive tract, which led to the liver injury through direct cytopathic effect induced by virus or immunopathological effect caused by excessive inflammation. Besides these, hypoxia, endothelial injury and drug-induced jury were also the main reasons of liver injury in COVID-19 patients. In the liver function indicators, elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels with reduced albumin levels were observed in COVID-19 patients.

19.
Land ; 11(3):380, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765769

ABSTRACT

Tibet constitutes a major part of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) and is a typical ethnic minority (e.g., Tibetan) and ecologically fragile area in the world. Land resources are one of the most important foundations of food production, and Tibet’s increasingly multi-type food demands are putting new pressure on land resources. However, there is still debate on how many people can be supported with the food production in Tibet. Investigating the land carrying capacity (LCC) in Tibet is very important for maintaining food security and formulating sustainable land management and utilization. Based on an analysis of the unique characteristics of the local farming, pastoral production, and dietary consumption, the spatio-temporal patterns of theLCC in Tibet in 2000–2019 were quantitatively assessed against the grain demands and calorie requirements at three different standards of living (i.e., basic prosperity, comprehensive moderate prosperity, and affluence). The dietary consumption was characterized by the high consumption of grains and meat products, and the low consumption of fruits and vegetables. The LCC in Tibet has continued to increase. The LCC in approximately 60% of the counties increased, with the high-LCC counties concentrated mainly in the Yarlung Zangbo River—Nyangqu River—Lhasa River area, and municipal districts and pastoral counties generally experiencing a low LCC. The load on land resources (LoL) in Tibet exhibited the characteristic of overall balance with local overloads and increasing tensions. More than 50% of the counties experienced population overload, mainly in municipal districts and pastoral counties. Food surplus was mainly found in farming counties, while the food production in pastoral counties was generally unable to meet the calorie demand. Considering the important role of land use in maintaining regional food security and ecological security, the conversion of grassland to cultivated land, the occupation of cultivated land, and the phenomenon of cultivated land was used to non grain should be avoided. Trans-regional transport of food should be strengthened to meet the calorie needs in population overload areas in the future. Our study provides a perspective for evaluating the pressure of land resources. The result can provide a reference for realizing the balance of grain and calorie supply–demand and lay a foundation for formulating sustainable land use policies in the QPT.

20.
Foods ; 11(7):908, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762754

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), political and academic circles have focused significant attention on stopping the chain of COVID-19 transmission. In particular outbreaks related to cold chain food (CCF) have been reported, and there remains a possibility that CCF can be a carrier. Based on CCF consumption and trade matrix data, here, the 'source';of COVID-19 transmission through CCF was analyzed using a complex network analysis method, informing the construction of a risk assessment model reflecting internal and external transmission dynamics. The model included the COVID-19 risk index, CCF consumption level, urbanization level, CCF trade quantity, and others. The risk level of COVID-19 transmission by CCF and the dominant risk types were analyzed at national and global scales as well as at the community level. The results were as follows. (1) The global CCF trade network is typically dominated by six core countries in six main communities, such as Indonesia, Argentina, Ukraine, Netherlands, and the USA. These locations are one of the highest sources of risk for COVID-19 transmission. (2) The risk of COVID-19 transmission by CCF in specific trade communities is higher than the global average, with the Netherlands–Germany community being at the highest level. There are eight European countries (i.e., Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, France, Spain, Britain, Italy, and Poland) and three American countries (namely the USA, Mexico, and Brazil) facing a very high level of COVID-19 transmission risk by CCF. (3) Of the countries, 62% are dominated by internal diffusion and 23% by external input risk. The countries with high comprehensive transmission risk mainly experience risks from external inputs. This study provides methods for tracing the source of virus transmission and provides a policy reference for preventing the chain of COVID-19 transmission by CCF and maintaining the security of the global food supply chain.

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