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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 56, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in the patients' feces, which could lead to fecal-oral transmission. Therefore, fecal sample testing with real-time RT-PCR is highly recommended as a routine test for SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, varying rates of detection in fecal sample have been reported. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the detection rates of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients' fecal sample by using four real-time RT-PCR kits and two pretreatment methods (inactive and non-inactive). RESULTS: The detection rate of Trizol pretreatment group was slightly higher than that of Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) groups, showing that pretreatment and inactivation by Trizol had no influence to SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test (NAT) results. 39.29% detection rate in fecal sample by DAAN was obtained, while Bio-germ was 40.48%, Sansure 34.52%, and GeneoDx 33.33%. The former three kits had no significant difference. The DAAN kit detection rates of ORF1ab and N gene were nearly equal and Ct value distribution was more scattered, while the Bio-germ kit distribution was more clustered. The positive rate of SARS-COV-2 in fecal samples correlated with the severity of the disease, specifically, severe cases were less likely to be identified than asymptomatic infection in the DAAN group (adjusted OR 0.05, 95%CI = 0.00 ~ 0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Trizol should be of choice as a valid and safe method for pretreatment of fecal samples of SARS-CoV-2. All real-time RT-PCR kits assessed in this study can be used for routine detection of SARS-CoV-2 in fecal samples. While DAAN, with high NAT positive rate, could be the best out of the 4 kits used in this study. SARS-CoV-2 positive rate in fecal sample was related to the severity of illness.

2.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002270

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly impacted the US healthcare system. Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 is common and manifested by troponin and natriuretic peptide elevation and tends to have a worse prognosis. We analyzed patients who presented to the MedStar Health system (11 hospitals in Washington, DC, and Maryland) with either an ST-elevation myocardial infarction or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction early in the pandemic (March 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020) using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Patients' clinical course and outcomes, including in-hospital mortality, were compared on the basis of the results of COVID-19 status (positive or negative). The cohort included 1533 patients admitted with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), of whom 86 had confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, during the study period. COVID-19-positive patients were older and non-White and had more co-morbidities. Furthermore, inflammatory markers and N-terminal-proB-type-natriuretic peptide were higher in COVID-19-positive AMI patients. Only 20.0% (17) of COVID-19-positive patients underwent coronary angiography. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in AMI patients with concomitant COVID-19-positive status (27.9%) than in patients without COVID-19 during the same period (3.7%; p < 0.001). Patients with AMI and COVID-19 tended to be older, with more co-morbidities, when compared to those with an AMI and without COVID-19. In conclusion, myocardial infarction with concomitant COVID-19 was associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Efforts should be focused on the early recognition, evaluation, and treatment of these patients.

3.
Journal of Marketing ; : 0022242920962510, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-917851

ABSTRACT

The sharing economy has radically reshaped marketing thought and practice, and research has yet to examine whether and how platform-level buyer protection insurance (PPI) affects buyers and sellers in this economy The authors exploit a natural experiment involving an unexpected system glitch during a PPI launch and estimate difference-in-differences models using over 5 4 million data points from a food sharing platform Results suggest that PPI significantly increases buyer spending and seller revenue, affirming the benefits of this platform-level insurance in the sharing economy The authors also uncover multifaceted buyer-side and seller-side responses that enable such benefits PPI increases buyer spending by boosting product orders and variety-seeking behavior Furthermore, it enhances seller revenue by increasing customer retention and acquisition This work contributes to the literature by (1) putting a spotlight on the topic of PPI, a platform governance policy that reduces consumer risks and improves the efficacy of sharing platforms;(2) accounting for how PPI alters buyer and seller behaviors on a platform;(3) addressing what types of buyers and sellers benefit more or less from PPI;and (4) offering guidance for managers to improve platform reputation, marketplace efficiency, and consumer welfare in the context of the sharing economy

4.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1961

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread worldwide

5.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-581

ABSTRACT

Since the initial outbreak of the new coronavirus (COVID-2019) in Hubei, other provinces in mainland China initiated level-1 responses to the public health emer

6.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-578

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the initial outbreak of the new coronavirus (COVID-2019) in Hubei, other provinces in mainland China initiated level-1 responses to the public

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 647, 2020 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The family cluster is one of most important modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission throughout China, and more details are needed about how family clusters cause the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). CASE PRESENTATION: We retrospectively reviewed 7 confirmed cases from one family cluster. Both clinical features and laboratory examination results were described. Patient 1 had been in close contact with someone who was later confirmed to have COVID-19 in Wuhan City before he returned back to his hometown. He had dinner with 6 other members in his family. All the persons developed COVID-19 successively except for one older woman who neither had dinner with them nor shared a sleeping room with her husband. Six patients had mild or moderate COVID-19 but one older man with underlying diseases progressed into the severe type. After general and symptomatic treatments, all the patients recovered. CONCLUSIONS: In a family cluster, having dinner together may be an important mode for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. In this setting, most cases are mild with a favorable prognosis, while elderly patients with underlying diseases may progress into the severe type. For someone who has close contact with a confirmed case, 14-day isolation is necessary to contain virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family Health , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies
8.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1840, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727383

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, has become a public health emergency of global concern. Like the SARS and influenza pandemics, there have been a large number of cases coinfected with other viruses, fungi, and bacteria, some of which originate from the oral cavity. Capnocytophaga, Veillonella, and other oral opportunistic pathogens were found in the BALF of the COVID-19 patients by mNGS. Risk factors such as poor oral hygiene, cough, increased inhalation under normal or abnormal conditions, and mechanical ventilation provide a pathway for oral microorganisms to enter the lower respiratory tract and thus cause respiratory disease. Lung hypoxia, typical symptoms of COVID-19, would favor the growth of anaerobes and facultative anaerobes originating from the oral microbiota. SARS-CoV-2 may aggravate lung disease by interacting with the lung or oral microbiota via mechanisms involving changes in cytokines, T cell responses, and the effects of host conditions such as aging and the oral microbiome changes due to systemic diseases. Because the oral microbiome is closely associated with SARS-CoV-2 co-infections in the lungs, effective oral health care measures are necessary to reduce these infections, especially in severe COVID-19 patients. We hope this review will draw attention from both the scientific and clinical communities on the role of the oral microbiome in the current global pandemic.

9.
J. Oper. Res. Soc. China ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-692857

ABSTRACT

This study develops a holistic view of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) spread worldwide through a spatial–temporal model with network dynamics. By using a unique human mobility dataset containing 547 166 flights with a total capacity of 101 455 913 passengers from January 22 to April 24, 2020, we analyze the epidemic correlations across 22 countries in six continents and particularly the changes in such correlations before and after implementing the international travel restriction policies targeting different countries. Results show that policymakers should move away from the previous practices that focus only on restricting hotspot areas with high infection rates. Instead, they should develop a new holistic view of global human mobility to impose the international movement restriction. The study further highlights potential correlations between international human mobility and focal countries’ epidemic situations in the global network of COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Res Sq ; 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671941

ABSTRACT

Human steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5α2) as a critical integral membrane enzyme in steroid metabolism catalyzes testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Mutations on its gene have been linked to 5α-reductase deficiency and prostate cancer. Finasteride and dutasteride as SRD5α2 inhibitors are widely used anti-androgen drugs for benign prostate hyperplasia, which have recently been indicated in the treatment of COVID-19. The molecular mechanisms underlying enzyme catalysis and inhibition remained elusive for SRD5α2 and other eukaryotic integral membrane steroid reductases due to a lack of structural information. Here, we report a crystal structure of human SRD5α2 at 2.8 Å revealing a unique 7-TM structural topology and an intermediate adduct of finasteride and NADPH as NADP-dihydrofinasteride in a largely enclosed binding cavity inside the membrane. Structural analysis together with computational and mutagenesis studies reveals molecular mechanisms for the 5α-reduction of testosterone and the finasteride inhibition involving residues E57 and Y91. Molecular dynamics simulation results indicate high conformational dynamics of the cytosolic region regulating the NADPH/NADP + exchange. Mapping disease-causing mutations of SRD5α2 to our structure suggests molecular mechanisms for their pathological effects. Our results offer critical structural insights into the function of integral membrane steroid reductases and will facilitate drug development.

12.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-250195

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic starting in Wuhan in December, 2019 has spread rapidly throughout the nation The control measures to contain the epidemic also produced influences on the transport and treatment process of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and adjustments in the management of the patients need to be made at this particular time AMI is characterized by an acute onset with potentially fatal consequence, a short optimal treatment window, and frequent complications including respiratory infections and respiratory and circulatory failure, for which active on-site treatment is essential To standardize the management and facilitate the diagnosis and treatment, we formulated the guidelines for the procedures and strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of AMI, which highlight 5 Key Principles, namely Nearby treatment, Safety protection, Priority of thrombolysis, Transport to designated hospitals, and Remote consultation For AMI patients, different treatment strategies are selected based on the screening results of SARS-CoV-2, the time window of STEMI onset, and the vital signs of the patients During this special period, the cardiologists, including the interventional physicians, should be fully aware of the indications and contraindications of thrombolysis In the transport and treatment of AMI patients, the physicians should strictly observe the indications for patient transport with appropriate protective measurements of the medical staff

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