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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 1782-1793, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973736

ABSTRACT

Since 2010, several duck Tembusu viruses (DTMUVs) have been isolated from infected ducks in China, and these virus strains have undergone extensive variation over the years. Although the infection rate is high, the mortality rate is usually relatively low-~5%-30%; however, since fall 2019, an infectious disease similar to DTMUV infection but with a high mortality rate of ~50% in goslings has been prevalent in Anhui Province, China. The present study identified a new Tembusu virus, designated DTMUV/Goose/China/2019/AQ-19 (AQ-19), that is believed to be responsible for the noticeably high mortality in goslings. To investigate the genetic variation of this strain, its entire genome was sequenced and analysed for specific variations, and goslings and mice were challenged with the isolated virus to investigate its pathogenicity. The AQ-19 genome shared only 94.3%-96.9% and 90.9% nucleotide identity with other Chinese and Malaysian DTMUVs, respectively; however, AQ-19 has high homology with Thailand DTMUVs (97.2%-98.1% nucleotide identity). Phylogenetic analysis of the E gene revealed that AQ-19 and most of Thailand DTMUVs form a branch separate from any of the previously reported DTMUV strains in China. After the challenge, some goslings and mice showed typical clinical signs of DTMUV, particularly severe neurological dysfunction. AQ-19 has high virulence in goslings and mice, resulting in 60% and 70% mortality through intramuscular and intracerebral routes, respectively. Pathological examination revealed severe histological lesions in the brain and liver of the infected goslings and mice. Taken together, these results demonstrated the emergence of a novel Tembusu virus with high virulence circulating in goslings in China for the first time, and our findings highlight the high genetic diversity of DTMUVs in China. Further study of the pathogenicity and host range of this novel Tembusu virus is particularly important.


Subject(s)
Flavivirus Infections , Flavivirus , Poultry Diseases , Rodent Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Ducks , Flavivirus/genetics , Flavivirus Infections/epidemiology , Flavivirus Infections/veterinary , Geese , Mice , Nucleotides , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1919031

ABSTRACT

During crises and uncertain situations such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, social media plays a key function because it allows people to seek and share news, as well as personal views and ideas with each other in real time globally. Past research has highlighted the implications of social media during disease outbreaks;nevertheless, this study refers to the possible negative effects of social media usage by individuals in the developing country during the COVID-19 epidemic lockdown. Specifically, this study investigates the COVID-19 fear using the survey data collected from a developing country. In total, 880 entries were used to analyze the COVID-19 fear using the AMOS software. Findings indicated that information-seeking and sharing behavior of individuals on social media has a significant impact on perceived COVID-19 information overload. Perceived COVID-19 information overload has a positive impact on COVID-19 fear. In addition, fake news related to COVID-19 strengthens the relationship between perceived COVID-19 information overload and COVID-19 fear. The implication and limitations of the study are also discussed in the final section of the study.

3.
Environ Int ; 165: 107299, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851026

ABSTRACT

Melamine (MEL) and its derivatives are increasingly applied as nitrogenous flame retardants in consumer products. Nevertheless, limited information is available on their environmental occurrence and subsequent human exposure via multiple exposure pathways. In this study, we analysed MEL and its derivatives in dust (indication of the dust ingestion route) and hand wipe samples (indication of the hand-to-mouth route) collected in various microenvironments. The levels of ∑MELs in both dust (median: 24,100 ng/g) and participant hand samples (803 ng/m2) collected in e-waste dismantling workshops were significantly higher than those in samples collected in homes (15,600 ng/g and 196 ng/m2, respectively), dormitories (13,100 ng/g and 227 ng/m2, respectively) and hotel rooms (11,800 ng/g and 154 ng/m2, respectively). Generally, MEL dominated in dust samples collected in e-waste dismantling workshops, whereas cyanuric acid dominated in hand wipe samples. This may occur partly because the latter is an ingredient in disinfection products, which are more frequently employed in daily lives during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exposure assessment suggests that dust ingestion is an important exposure pathway among dismantling workers and the general population, whereas hand-to-mouth contact could not be overlooked in certain populations, such as children and dismantling workers not wear gloves at work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Waste , Child , Dust/analysis , Eating , Electronic Waste/analysis , Humans , Mouth , Pandemics , Triazines
4.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 136751, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819445

ABSTRACT

Facile and sensitive analysis methods for pharmaceutical contaminants in aqueous environment are of vital importance for water safety, especially when large amounts of anti-viral drugs are being used, discharged and accumulated. In this work, we used functional metal-organic framework (MOF) as high-performance adsorbent for selective enrichment of such pharmaceutical contaminants in aqueous samples. The MOF was synthesized via a new synthesis method previously developed by our group and immobilized on paper membrane to be used in solid-phase extraction (SPE) device. Different metal ions were anchored by MOF to screen out the adsorbent with the best affinity. The targets were a potential anti-COVID-19 drug favipiravir, and its structural and functional analogues (ingredients or intermediates, other anti-viral drugs). To deeply understand the adsorption mechanisms, quantum calculation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation were both applied. The experimental and in-silico results together demonstrated that the as-prepared MOF adsorbent possessed high affinity and fast dynamics. The established SPE-based liquid chromatography (LC) method worked well in the range of 10-1000 ng/mL, with only 3 mg of adsorbent per device and 5 mL sample needed, and no mass spectrometer (MS) included, which was very efficient compared to commercial adsorbents. The results met the current detection needs in the application scenario, and inspirable for later design of well-behaved adsorbents.

5.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(1):17-21, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1789478

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the infection status of major respiratory pathogens in pneumonia patients in the early phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic (January-March, 2020) in Tongzhou district of Beijing.

6.
Protein Cell ; 13(8): 602-614, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777862

ABSTRACT

The nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to have a high ability of liquid-liquid phase separation, which enables its incorporation into stress granules (SGs) of host cells. However, whether SG invasion by N protein occurs in the scenario of SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknow, neither do we know its consequence. Here, we used SARS-CoV-2 to infect mammalian cells and observed the incorporation of N protein into SGs, which resulted in markedly impaired self-disassembly but stimulated cell cellular clearance of SGs. NMR experiments further showed that N protein binds to the SG-related amyloid proteins via non-specific transient interactions, which not only expedites the phase transition of these proteins to aberrant amyloid aggregation in vitro, but also promotes the aggregation of FUS with ALS-associated P525L mutation in cells. In addition, we found that ACE2 is not necessary for the infection of SARS-CoV-2 to mammalian cells. Our work indicates that SARS-CoV-2 infection can impair the disassembly of host SGs and promote the aggregation of SG-related amyloid proteins, which may lead to an increased risk of neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , COVID-19 , Amyloidogenic Proteins/metabolism , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Animals , Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism , Mammals , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Granules
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324260

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) became the outbreak of infectious diseases emergency worldwide. It remains unknown whether the RT-PCR test results was associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 patients or not. In this study, a total number of 495 patients with typical chest CT feature and symptom consistent with COVID-19 were retrospectively included from Jan 23, 2020 to Feb 26, 2020. 186 (37.58%), 32 (6.46%) and 277 (55.96%) COVID-19 patients had initial positive, suspected and negative RT-PCR results, respectively. The mean age was 58.55 years and 254(51.3%) were older than 60 years. 60.00% (297/495), 22.02% (109/495) and 17.98% (89/495) of COVID-19 patients were common, severe and critically type, respectively. There were no significant differences of age, gender, time from onset to hospitalization and severity classification in the patients with initial positive and negative RT-PCR result. The mortality rate of patients with positive and negative were 7.14% and 7.94%. Patients with initial negative or initial positive RT-PCR results had no significant difference of mortality rate (c2=4.079, p=0.130). The number of patients with lymphocyte ratios under the normal level was significantly larger in patients with initial negative RT-PCR results (59/92) compared with the patients with initial positive result (86/167), p=0.033. COVID-19 patients with positive or negative RT-PCR results had no significant difference in severity and mortality. Chest CT may be a more effective tool to screen COVID-19 in preference to RT-PCR.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291207

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, it has caused thousands of deaths. As the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 around the world, the number of deaths will definitely continue to increase. We aimed to further describe the clinical characteristics of dead cases with COVID-19 through a large sample and multi-centered study and to find some clinical predictors for the deterioration of COVID-19 during the process. Methods One hundred and seven patients (16 patients from Lei Shen-Shan Hospital, 54 patients from Seventh Hospital of Wuhan and 37 patients from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University) with COVID-19 were enrolled in our research from Jan 22 to Feb 29, 2020. The demographic, clinical, radiological, laboratory and treatment data of all cases were analysed. Results Of the 107 dead patients with COVID-19, 71 (66.4%) were male and 36 (33.6%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 71.2 ± 12.1 years. 82 (76.6%) of patients had chronic diseases. The mean duration from admission to death was 9 (IQR,5-14) days. Respiratory functional damage was the most common one followed by heart and kidney. Hematuria was found in 36(33.6%) patients. 89(83.2%) patients’ albumin levels were decreased. 68(63.6%) patients had anemia. concerning laboratory results, 55 (69.6%) and 56 (70.1%) patients have the elevated white blood cells and elevated Neutrophils during the process;only 43 (54.4%) have the decreased Lymphocytes;The values of platelets and haemoglobin decreased in 64(81.0%) and 58 (73.4%) patients. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase elevated in near half of patients, while almost 80% of patients have the decreased albumin. The elevated blood urea nitrogen and cystatin C were manifested in about 70% of patients. Procalcitonin was elevated in 38 (71.7%) patients. Conclusions In conclusion, the older men with chronic diseases are more likely to die from COVID-19. Apart from that, more attention should be pay on timely treatment, coinfections, malnutrition, and dysfunction of kidney and coagulation. The rising values (white blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin C, PCT and PT) and the decreased values (PLT, Hb and albumin) maybe meaningful for predict the poor prognosis.

9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2786-2794, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381376

ABSTRACT

We aimed to generate an unbiased estimate of the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in 4 urban counties in Utah, USA. We used a multistage sampling design to randomly select community-representative participants >12 years of age. During May 4-June 30, 2020, we collected serum samples and survey responses from 8,108 persons belonging to 5,125 households. We used a qualitative chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgG in serum samples. We estimated the overall seroprevalence to be 0.8%. The estimated seroprevalence-to-case count ratio was 2.5, corresponding to a detection fraction of 40%. Only 0.2% of participants from whom we collected nasopharyngeal swab samples had SARS-CoV-2-positive reverse transcription PCR results. SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence during the study was low, and prevalence of PCR-positive cases was even lower. The comparatively high SARS-CoV-2 detection rate (40%) demonstrates the effectiveness of Utah's testing strategy and public health response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Probability , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Utah/epidemiology
10.
Cell Res ; 31(2): 126-140, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015005

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents a global public health challenge. The viral pathogen responsible, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), binds to the host receptor ACE2 through its spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. Although the role of ACE2 as a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is clear, studies have shown that ACE2 expression is extremely low in various human tissues, especially in the respiratory tract. Thus, other host receptors and/or co-receptors that promote the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells of the respiratory system may exist. In this study, we found that the tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL) specifically interacts with the N-terminal domain of SARS-CoV-2 S. Using both a SARS-CoV-2 virus pseudotype and authentic SARS-CoV-2, we found that overexpression of AXL in HEK293T cells promotes SARS-CoV-2 entry as efficiently as overexpression of ACE2, while knocking out AXL significantly reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection in H1299 pulmonary cells and in human primary lung epithelial cells. Soluble human recombinant AXL blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells expressing high levels of AXL. The AXL expression level is well correlated with SARS-CoV-2 S level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells from COVID-19 patients. Taken together, our findings suggest that AXL is a novel candidate receptor for SARS-CoV-2 which may play an important role in promoting viral infection of the human respiratory system and indicate that it is a potential target for future clinical intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/metabolism , Cell Line , Humans , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/analysis , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/analysis , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Virus Internalization
11.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(20): 4908-4916, 2020 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia poses a particular challenge to the emergency surgical treatment of elderly patients with high-risk acute abdominal diseases. Elderly patients are a high-risk group for surgical treatment. If the incarceration of gallstones cannot be relieved, emergency surgery is unavoidable. CASE SUMMARY: We report an 89-year-old male patient with acute gangrenous cholecystitis and septic shock induced by incarcerated cholecystolithiasis. He had several coexisting, high-risk underlying diseases, had a history of radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, and was taking aspirin before the operation. Nevertheless, he underwent emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with maintenance of postoperative heart and lung function, successfully recovered, and was discharged on day 8 after the operation. CONCLUSION: Emergency surgery for elderly patients with acute abdominal disease is safe and feasible during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the key is to abide strictly by the hospital's epidemic prevention regulations, fully implement the epidemic prevention procedure for emergency surgery, fully prepare before the operation, accurately perform the operation, and carefully manage the patient postoperatively.

12.
Aging Med (Milton) ; 3(2): 82-94, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648186

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has widely spread all over the world and the numbers of patients and deaths are increasing. According to the epidemiology, virology, and clinical practice, there are varying degrees of changes in patients, involving the human body structure and function and the activity and participation. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and its biopsychosocial model of functioning, we use the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FICs) framework to form an expert consensus on the COVID-19 rehabilitation program, focusing on the diagnosis and evaluation of disease and functioning, and service delivery of rehabilitation, and to establish a standard rehabilitation framework, terminology system, and evaluation and intervention systems based the WHO-FICs.

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