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1.
Clin Chim Acta ; 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe disease of COVID-19 and mortality occur more frequently in male patients than that in female patients may be related to testosterone level. However, the diagnostic value of changes in the level of testosterone in predicting severe disease of male COVID-19 patients has not been determined yet. METHODS: Sixty-one male COVID-19 patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were enrolled. Serum samples at different stages of the patients after admission were collected and testosterone levels were detected to analyze the correlation between testosterone level and disease severity. Transcriptome analysis of PBMC was performed in 34 patients. RESULTS: Testosterone levels at admission in male non-ICU COVID-19 patients (3.7 nmol/L, IQR: 1.5 âˆ¼ 4.7) were significantly lower than those in male ICU COVID-19 patients (6.7 nmol/L, IQR: 4.2 âˆ¼ 8.7). Testosterone levels in the non-ICU group increased gradually during the progression of the disease, while those in the ICU group remained low. In addition, testosterone level of enrolled patients in the second week after onset was significantly correlated with the severity of pneumonia, and ROC curve showed that testosterone level in the second week after onset was highly effective in predicting the severity of COVID-19. Transcriptome studies have found that testosterone levels of COVID-19 patients were associated with immune response, including T cell activation and regulation of lymphocyte activation. In addition, CD28 and Inositol Polyphosphate-4-Phosphatase Type II B (INPP4B) were found positively correlated with testosterone. CONCLUSIONS: Serum testosterone is an independent risk factor for predicting the severity of COVID-19 in male patients, and the level of serum testosterone in the second week after onset is valuable for evaluating the severity of COVID-19. Testosterone level is associated with T cell immune activation. The monitoring of serum testosterone should be highlighted in clinical treatment and the related mechanism should be further studied.

2.
China CDC Weekly ; 3:1-6, 2021.
Article in English | China CDC Weekly | ID: covidwho-1552172

ABSTRACT

< -type=""> <sec> Introduction Similar to antibody detection, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T-cell response evaluation is also pivotal among the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescents and the vaccinated populations. Nucleocapsid (N) protein is one of the main structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and can trigger T-cell responses in humans.</sec><sec> Methods An overlapping peptide pool covering the full length of the N protein was designed, peptides with positive T-cell activating potency in COVID-19 convalescents were screened, and CD8+ T cell epitopes were further identified. The epitope was used to detect the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses in COVID-19 convalescents based in intracellular cytokine staining and tetramer staining in flow cytometry.</sec><sec> Results An human leukocyte antigen A (HLA-A)*1101-restricted CD8+ T cell epitope, which could stimulate the production of IFN-γ via peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the convalescents was defined, and the tetramer generated with this epitope could detect SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in the PBMCs of the convalescents. The structural investigation eliminated that the epitope was a typical HLA-A*1101-restricted T-cell epitope which was conserved among all the sarbecoviruses.</sec><sec> Discussion The newly identified SARS-CoV-2-derived T-cell epitope was helpful to detect the cellular immunity against different sarbecoviruses including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. This study provided an evaluation method and also a peptide candidate for the research and development of T-cell based vaccine for the virus.</sec>

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 657804, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399184

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our objective is to explore the effect of applying cloud video conferencing methods to the informed consent process in an early-phase clinical trial during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: All participants who intended to participate in the trial were informed via a cloud video conference before signing the informed consent forms (ICF). Then, the attitudes of the participants with the cloud video conference and their understanding of the trial were evaluated using a questionnaire when they visited to sign the ICF onsite. Results: A total of 165 subjects participated in the cloud video conference process, and 142 visited the site to sign and date the ICFs at the center during the appointment time. The survey showed that nearly 100% of the subjects evaluated the video-based informed consent process as very good or good and gave correct answers to questions about the trial. Furthermore, 136 (95.8%) subjects believed that the knowledge about the trial derived via the video-based informed consent process was consistent with the onsite reality, and 139 (97.9%) subjects expressed their willingness to participate in an informed consent procedure undertaken through an online video conference. Conclusions: The video-based informed consent process achieved the same effects as an onsite informed consent process. The former saves time and cost of transportation for the subject and exhibits good public acceptance; especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, this process is conducive for reducing the risk of subject infection due to travel and would also help avoid crowding on site.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Videoconferencing
4.
Clin Chim Acta ; 511: 177-180, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385202

ABSTRACT

To clarify the effect of different respiratory sample types on SARS-CoV-2 detection, we collected throat swabs, nasal swabs and hock-a-loogie saliva or sputum, and compared their detection rates and viral loads. The detection rates of sputum (95.65%, 22/23) and hock-a-loogie saliva (88.09%, 37/42) were significantly higher than those in throat swabs (41.54%, 27/65) and nasal swabs (72.31%, 47/65) (P < 0.001). The Ct Values of sputum, hock-a-loogie saliva and nasal swabs were significantly higher than that in throat swabs, whereas no significant difference was observed between sputum and saliva samples. Hock-a-loogie saliva are reliable sample types that can be used to detect SARS-CoV-2, and worthy of clinical promotion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/standards , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Sputum/virology , Viral Load/methods , Viral Load/standards
5.
J Psychosom Res ; 149: 110586, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in pregnant women before and during COVID-19 pandemic and analyzes their risk factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analyses included pregnant women with depression, anxiety, and stress levels evaluated both in the Novel Coronavirus-Pregnancy Cohort study (NCP) and the Healthy Baby Cohort study (HBC). NCP was conducted during COVID-19 pandemic, while HBC was performed before the pandemic. Multiple logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the associations between COVID-19 pandemic and other co-variables and maternal mental health. RESULTS: NCP and HBC studies respectively included 531 and 2352 participants. Depression rates differed significantly between the two studies (p < 0.05). The mild and moderate-to-severe depression rates in NCP study were 25.8% and 10.36%, respectively, and 19.94% and 0.55% in HBC study. The stress rate of participants was higher in HBC study (69.39%) than in NCP study (60.45%) (p < 0.05). COVID-19 pandemic was correlated with higher depression but lower stress risks (p < 0.05) in pregnant women, with OR and 95% CI as 1.68 (1.16, 2.44) and 0.42 (0.29, 0.61), respectively. Pregnant women with pre-pregnancy obesity and high educational levels might have lower risks for depression, anxiety, and stress than those with normal weight and low educational levels. CONCLUSIONS: Depression among pregnant women was impacted by the pandemic. Apart from COVID-19 pandemic impact, pre-pregnant weight status and educational level might also influence depression, anxiety and stress statuses in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Risk Factors
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 685640, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282378

ABSTRACT

Background: Viral nucleic acid detection is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, unsuitable sample types and laboratory detection kits/methods lead to misdiagnosis, which delays the prevention and control of the pandemic. Methods: We compared four nucleic acid detection methods [two kinds of reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR A: ORF1ab and N testing; RT-PCRB: only ORF1ab testing), reverse transcription recombinase aided amplification (RT-RAA) and droplet digital RT-PCR (dd-RT-PCR)] using 404 samples of 72 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, including oropharyngeal swab (OPS), nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and saliva after deep cough, to evaluate the best sample type and method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Results: Among the four methods, dd-RT-PCR exhibited the highest positivity rate (93.0%), followed by RT-PCR B (91.2%) and RT-RAA (91.2%), while the positivity rate of RT-PCR A was only 71.9%. The viral load in OPS [24.90 copies/test (IQR 15.58-129.85)] was significantly lower than that in saliva [292.30 copies/test (IQR 20.20-8628.55)] and NPS [274.40 copies/test (IQR 33.10-2836.45)]. In addition, if OPS samples were tested alone by RT-PCR A, only 21.4% of the COVID-19 patients would be considered positive. The accuracy of all methods reached nearly 100% when saliva and NPS samples from the same patient were tested simultaneously. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection methods should be fully evaluated before use. High-positivity rate methods such as RT-RAA and dd-RT-PCR should be considered when possible. Furthermore, saliva after deep cough and NPS can greatly improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, and testing OPS alone is not recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Specimen Handling
8.
Virol J ; 18(1): 89, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerging has put global public health institutes on high alert. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human coronaviruses infections in relation to infections with other respiratory viruses. METHODS: From February 2017 to December 2019, 3660 respiratory samples submitted to Zhejiang Children Hospital with acute respiratory symptoms were tested for four human coronaviruses RNA by a novel two-tube multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. Samples were also screened for the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Coronavirus RNAs were detected in 144 (3.93%) specimens: HCoV-HKU1 in 38 specimens, HCoV-NL63 in 62 specimens, HCoV-OC43 in 38 specimens and HCoV-229E in 8 specimens. Genomes for SARS-CoV-2 were absent in all specimens by RT-PCR analysis during the study period. The majority of HCoV infections occurred during fall months. No significant differences in gender, sample type, year were seen across species. 37.5 to 52.6% of coronaviruses detected were in specimens testing positive for other respiratory viruses. Phylogenic analysis identified that Zhejiang coronaviruses belong to multiple lineages of the coronaviruses circulating in other countries and areas. CONCLUSION: Common HCoVs may have annual peaks of circulation in fall months in the Zhejiang province, China. Genetic relatedness to the coronaviruses in other regions suggests further surveillance on human coronaviruses in clinical samples are clearly needed to understand their patterns of activity and role in the emergence of novel coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(4): 330-340, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175476

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with hypertension infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are at increased risk of acute lung injury. However, it is still not clear whether this increased risk is related to the usage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers. We collected medical records of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou, China), and evaluated the potential impact of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. A total of 30 hypertensive COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of which 17 were classified as non-ARB group and the remaining 13 as ARB group based on the antihypertensive therapies they received. Compared with the non-ARB group, patients in the ARB group had a lower proportion of severe cases and intensive care unit (ICU) admission as well as shortened length of hospital stay, and manifested favorable results in most of the laboratory testing. Viral loads in the ARB group were lower than those in the non-ARB group throughout the disease course. No significant difference in the time of seroconversion or antibody levels was observed between the two groups. The median levels of soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (sACE2) in serum and urine samples were similar in both groups, and there were no significant correlations between serum sACE2 and biomarkers of disease severity. Transcriptional analysis showed 125 differentially expressed genes which mainly were enriched in oxygen transport, bicarbonate transport, and blood coagulation. Our results suggest that ARB usage is not associated with aggravation of COVID-19. These findings support the maintenance of ARB treatment in hypertensive patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Viral Load , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/blood , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , China , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transcriptome
10.
J Nurs Manag ; 29(6): 1356-1365, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158093

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore the current status of Chinese nurses' willingness to work during the COVID-19 pandemic and the factors that influence them. BACKGROUND: The demand for front-line nurses continues to grow during the COVID-19 pandemic, but their willingness varies significantly. Therefore, it is crucial to explore nurses' willingness to report for front-line work. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1,310 nurses from six tertiary hospitals was conducted. The participants completed self-administered online questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 90.5% of nurses reported that they would like to voluntarily participate in front-line work. Those with previous training, higher self-efficacy scores, and lower perceived risk and self-worth scores were more likely to participate in front-line work, while nurses, who had 11-15 years of work experience and were worried about their family and the lack of family support, were less likely to be involved in front-line work. CONCLUSION: This study found that the vast majority of nurses were willing to participate in front-line work and affirmed the positive effects of previous infection prevention training, self-efficacy and self-worth. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: This research emphasizes the necessity of infection prevention training and provides evidence for further emergency workforce deployment and incentives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130771

ABSTRACT

The objective is to investigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated neurological and psychiatric effects and explore possible pathogenic mechanisms. This study included 77 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Neurological manifestations were evaluated by well-trained neurologists, psychologists, psychiatric presentations and biochemical changes were evaluated using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and electronic medical records. Eighteen (23.4%) patients presented with neurological symptoms. Patients with neurological presentations had higher urea nitrogen, cystatin C, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and lower basophil counts. Among them, patients with muscle involvement had higher urea nitrogen and cystatin C levels but lower basophil counts. In addition, patients with psychiatric presentations were older and had higher interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 levels and higher alkaline phosphatase, R-glutamate transferase, and urea nitrogen levels. Moreover, patients with anxiety had higher IL-6 and IL-10 levels than those without, and patients with moderate depression had higher CD8 + T cell counts and lower CD4 + /CD8 + ratios than other patients. This study indicates that the central nervous system may be influenced in patients with COVID-19, and the pathological mechanisms may be related to direct virus invasion of the central nervous system, infection-mediated overreaction of the immune system, and aberrant serum pro-inflammatory factors. In addition, basophils and cystatin C may also play important roles during these pathological processes. Our findings suggest that neurological and psychiatric presentations should be evaluated and managed in patients with COVID-19. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 634949, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120248

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of delivery mode on the infection rates of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the newborn remains unknown. We aimed to summarize the existing literature on COVID-19 infection during pregnancy to evaluate which mode of delivery is better for preventing possible vertical transmission from a pregnant mother confirmed with COVID-19 to a neonate. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) from 31 December 2019 to 18 June 2020. We applied no language restrictions. We screened abstracts for relevance, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in duplicate. We rated the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. The primary outcome was severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test positivity in neonates born to mothers with confirmed COVID-19 following different delivery modes. Secondary outcomes were neonatal deaths and maternal deaths. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020194049. Results: Sixty-eight observational studies meeting inclusion criteria were included in the current study, with no randomized controlled trials. In total, information on the mode of delivery, detailed neonatal outcomes, and SARS-CoV-2 status were available for 1,019 pregnant women and 1,035 neonates. Six hundred and eighteen (59.71%) neonates were born through cesarean section and 417(40.29%) through vaginal delivery. Probable congenital SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported in 34/1,035 (3.29%) neonates. Of babies born vaginally, 9/417 (2.16%) were tested positive compared with 25/618 (4.05%) born by cesarean. Of babies born vaginally, 0/417 (0.00%) neonatal deaths were reported compared with 6/618 (0.97%) born by cesarean. Of women who delivered vaginally, 1/416 (0.24%) maternal deaths were reported compared with 11/603 (1.82%) delivered by cesarean. Two women died before delivery. Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses showed similar findings. Conclusions: The rate of neonatal COVID-19 infection, neonatal deaths, and maternal deaths are no greater when the mother gave birth through vaginal delivery. Based on the evidence available, there is no sufficient evidence supporting that the cesarean section is better than vaginal delivery in preventing possible vertical transmission from a pregnant mother confirmed with COVID-19 to a neonate. The mode of birth should be individualized and based on disease severity and obstetric indications. Additional good-quality studies with comprehensive serial tests from multiple specimens are urgently needed. Study registration: PROSPERO CRD42020194049.

13.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 13-22, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095316

ABSTRACT

Excessive monocyte/macrophage activation with the development of a cytokine storm and subsequent acute lung injury, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a feared consequence of infection with COVID-19. The ability to recognize and potentially intervene early in those patients at greatest risk of developing this complication could be of great clinical utility. In this study, we performed flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood samples from 34 COVID-19 patients in early 2020 in an attempt to identify factors that could help predict the severity of disease and patient outcome. Although we did not detect significant differences in the number of monocytes between patients with COVID-19 and normal healthy individuals, we did identify significant morphologic and functional differences, which are more pronounced in patients requiring prolonged hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Patients with COVID-19 have larger than normal monocytes, easily identified on forward scatter (FSC), side scatter analysis by routine flow cytometry, with the presence of a distinct population of monocytes with high FSC (FSC-high). On more detailed analysis, these CD14+ CD16+ , FSC-high monocytes show features of mixed M1/M2 macrophage polarization with higher expression of CD80+ and CD206+ compared with the residual FSC-low monocytes and secretion of higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, when compared with the normal controls. In conclusion, the detection and serial monitoring of this subset of inflammatory monocytes using flow cytometry could be of great help in guiding the prognostication and treatment of patients with COVID-19 and merits further evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macrophages , Monocytes , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Antigens, CD/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/pathology , Young Adult
14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(3): 489-502.e8, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064930

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, the causative agent of COVID-19, is undergoing constant mutation. Here, we utilized an integrative approach combining epidemiology, virus genome sequencing, clinical phenotyping, and experimental validation to locate mutations of clinical importance. We identified 35 recurrent variants, some of which are associated with clinical phenotypes related to severity. One variant, containing a deletion in the Nsp1-coding region (Δ500-532), was found in more than 20% of our sequenced samples and associates with higher RT-PCR cycle thresholds and lower serum IFN-ß levels of infected patients. Deletion variants in this locus were found in 37 countries worldwide, and viruses isolated from clinical samples or engineered by reverse genetics with related deletions in Nsp1 also induce lower IFN-ß responses in infected Calu-3 cells. Taken together, our virologic surveillance characterizes recurrent genetic diversity and identified mutations in Nsp1 of biological and clinical importance, which collectively may aid molecular diagnostics and drug design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , A549 Cells , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Base Sequence , COVID-19/blood , Cell Line , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Gene Deletion , Genomics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Infant , Interferon Type I/blood , Interferon-beta/blood , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Epidemiology , Reverse Genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Young Adult
15.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-5890

ABSTRACT

Background: Our study is to test the association between front-line clinical workers' fatigue and depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic. brbr

16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(19): 11603-11606, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884888

ABSTRACT

A novel pneumonia-associated respiratory syndrome named coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which was caused by SARS-CoV-2,broke out in Wuhan, China, in the end of 2019. Unfortunately, there is no specific antiviral agent or vaccine available to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections. The information regarding the immunological characteristics in COVID-19 patients remains limited. Here, we collected the blood samples from 18 healthy donors (HD) and 38 COVID-19 patients to analyze changes on γδ T cell population. In comparison with HD, the γδ T cell percentage decreased, while the activation marker CD25 expression increased in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, the CD4 expression was upregulated in γδ T cells reflecting the occurrence of a specific effector cell population, which may serve as a biomarker for the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Biomarkers , CD4 Antigens/metabolism , COVID-19 , China , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
17.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1604

ABSTRACT

Background: Our study is to test the association between front-line clinical workers' fatigue and depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic. brbr

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