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1.
Vaccines ; 10(4):622, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792369

ABSTRACT

A vaccine booster to maintain high antibody levels and provide effective protection against COVID-19 has been recommended. However, little is known about the safety of a booster for different vaccines. We conducted a parallel controlled prospective study to compare the safety of a booster usingfour common vaccines in China. In total, 320 eligible participants who had received two doses of an inactivated vaccine were equally allocated to receive a booster of the same vaccine (Group A), a different inactivated vaccine (Group B), an adenovirus type-5 vectored vaccine (Group C), or a protein subunit vaccine (Group D). A higher risk of adverse reactions, observed up to 28 days after injection, was found in Groups C and D, compared to Group A, with odds ratios (OR) of 11.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.22–32.05) and 4.38 (1.53–12.56), respectively. Recipients in Group C were more likely to report ≥two reactions (OR = 29.18, 95% CI: 3.70–229.82), and had a higher risk of injection site pain, dizziness, and fatigue. A gender and age disparity in the risk of adverse reactions was identified. Despite the majority of reactions being mild, heterologous booster strategies do increase the risk of adverse reactions, relative to homologous boosters, in subjects who have had two doses of inactive vaccine.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331690

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic has created a worldwide public health emergency, and there is an urgent need to develop an effective antiviral drug to control this severe infectious disease. Here, we found that the E, or M membrane proteins of coronavirus could be targeted by a 28-residue antibody mimetic by fusing two antibody Fab complementarity-determining regions (VHCDR1 and VLCDR3) through a cognate framework region (VHFR2) of the antibodies which recognize the coronavirus E or M proteins. We constructed a fusion protein, pheromonicin-covid-19 (PMC-covid-19), by linking colicin Ia, a bactericidal molecule produced by E.coli which kills target cells by forming a voltage-dependent channel in target lipid bilayers, to that antibody mimetic. The E, or M protein/antibody mimetic interaction initiated the formation of irreversible PMC-covid-19 channel in the covid-19 envelope and infected host cell membrane resulting in leakage of cellular contents. PMC-covid-19 demonstrates broad-spectrum protective efficacy against tested variants of coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (p<0.01-0.0001). PMC-covid-19 significantly altered outcomes of in vivo fatal covid-19 challenge infection without evident toxicity, making it an appropriate candidate for further clinical evaluation.

3.
Water Res ; 215: 118241, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713026

ABSTRACT

Information regarding water clarity at large spatiotemporal scales is critical for understanding comprehensive changes in the water quality and status of ecosystems. Previous studies have suggested that satellite observation is an effective means of obtaining such information. However, a reliable model for accurately mapping the water clarity of global lakes (reservoirs) is still lacking due to the high optical complexity of lake waters. In this study, by using gated recurrent units (GRU) layers instead of full-connected layers from Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to capture the efficient sequence information of in-situ datasets, we propose a novel and transferrable hybrid deep-learning-based recurrent model (DGRN) to map the water clarity of global lakes with Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images. We trained and further validated the model using 1260 pairs of in-situ measured water clarity and surface reflectance of Landsat 8 OLI images with Google Earth Engine. The model was subsequently utilized to construct the global pattern of temporal and spatial changes in water clarity (lake area>10 km2) from 2014 to 2020. The results show that the model can estimate water clarity with good performance (R2 = 0.84, MAE = 0.55, RMSE = 0.83, MAPE = 45.13%). The multi-year average of water clarity for global lakes (16,475 lakes) ranged from 0.0004 to 9.51 m, with an average value of 1.88 ± 1.24 m. Compared to the lake area, elevation, discharge, residence time, and the ratio of area to depth, water depth was the most important factor that determined the global spatial distribution pattern of water clarity. Water clarity of 15,840 global lakes between 2014 and 2020 remained stable (P ≥ 0.05); while there was a significant increase in 243 lakes (P < 0.05) and a decrease in 392 lakes (P < 0.05). However, water clarity in 2020 (COVID-19 period) showed a significant increase in most global lakes, especially in China and Canada, suggesting that the worldwide lockdown strategy due to COVID-19 might have improved water quality, espically water clarity, dueto the apparent reduction of anthropogenic activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Communicable Disease Control , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Lakes , Water Quality
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308309

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a viral respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with this disease may be more prone to venous or arterial thrombosis because of the activation of many factors involved in it, including inflammation, platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP1α) are cytokines related to thrombosis. Therefore, this study focused on these three indicators in COVID-19, with the hope to find biomarkers that are associated with patients’ outcome. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center study involving 74 severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients recruited from the ICU department of the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. The patients were divided into two groups: severe patients and critically ill patients. The serum IP-10, MCP-1 and MIP1α level in both groups was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and the outcome of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The serum IP-10 and MCP-1 level in critically ill patients was significantly higher than that in severe patients ( P <0.001). However, no statistical difference in MIP1α between the two groups was found. The analysis of dynamic changes showed that these indicators remarkably increased in patients with poor prognosis. Since the selected patients were severe or critically ill, no significant difference was observed between survival and death. Conclusions: IP-10 and MCP-1 are biomarkers associated with the severity of COVID-19 disease and can be related to the risk of death in COVID-19 patients.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308295

ABSTRACT

Background: An epidemic of COVID-19 outbroke in Wuhan, China, since December 2019. The ordinary medical services were hindered. However, the emergency cases, including aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), still required timely intervention. Thus, it provoked challenges to the routine management protocol. In this study, we summarized our experience in the emergency management of aSAH (Beijing Tiantan Protocol, BTP) in Beijing, China. Methods: : Demographic, clinical, and imaging data of consecutive emergency aSAH patients who underwent craniotomy clipping during the COVID-19 epidemic season were reviewed and compared with the retrospective period last year. Subgroup analysis was further performed to assess the outcomes of different screening results and several detailed protocols. Neurological outcomes were evaluated by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: : A total of 127 aSAH referred to our emergency department, and 42 (33.1%) underwent craniotomy clipping between January 20, 2020, and March 25, 2020. The incidence of preoperative hospitalized adverse events, and the perioperative outcomes were similar (-0.1, 95% CI -1.0 to 0.8, P =0.779) to the retrospective period last year (2019.01-2019.03). After the propensity score matching (PSM), there were still no statistical differences in prognostic parameters between the two groups. 8 (19.0%) of the 42 individuals were initially screened as preliminary undetermined COVID-19 cases, in which 2 of them underwent craniotomy clipping in the negative pressure operating room (OR). The prognosis of patients with varied COVID-19 screening results was similar (F(2, 39)=0.393, P =0.678). Since February 28, 12 cases (28.6%) received COVID-19 nucleic acid testing (NAT) upon admission, and all showed negative. The false-negative rate was 0.0%. The preoperative hospitalized adverse events and postoperative prognosis were still similar between patients with and without COVID-19 NAT (-0.3, 95% CI -1.4 to 0.9, P =0.653). Conclusions: : Our emergency surgery management protocol (BTP) is reliable for scheduling emergency aneurysm craniotomy clipping in non-major epidemic areas.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315693

ABSTRACT

Although close exposure to respiratory droplets from an infected patient is the main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2, touching contaminated surfaces and objects might also contribute to transmission of this virus. There are increasing reports that cold-chain food and food packages have been tested with SARS-CoV-2, raising concerns that importation of contaminated food could be a source for transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The survival of SARS-CoV-2 on cold-chain food was investigated. We found SARS-CoV-2 remained viable for more than three weeks on both beef and mutton at 4°C. Furthermore, at freezing temperature, SARS-CoV-2 can easily survive for more than eight weeks. Our study showed the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to survive for a long time on cold-chain food at low temperatures.

7.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(16): 3919-3926, 2021 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the traditional surgical treatment for patellar fractures, and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), especially Oxford UKA, has been increasingly used in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, the process of choosing treatment for patients with both patellar fractures and anteromedial knee OA remains unclear. We present the case of a patient with a patellar fracture and anteromedial OA. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of bilateral medial compartment OA of the knees and a right Oxford UKA. She also experienced a recent left patellar fracture. ORIF and Oxford UKA were performed in a single stage. The patient showed excellent postoperative clinical results. CONCLUSION: ORIF and Oxford UKA can be performed simultaneously for patients with patellar fracture and anteromedial OA on the same knee.

8.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 151, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the feasibility of two biomarkers of endothelial damage (Syndecan-1 and thrombomodulin) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and their association with inflammation, coagulopathy, and mortality. METHODS: The records of 49 COVID-19 patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in Wuhan, China between February and April 2020 were examined. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, and outcomes were compared between survivors and non-survivors COVID-19 patients, and between patients with high and low serum Syndecan-1 levels. The dynamics of serum Syndecan-1 levels were also analyzed. RESULTS: The levels of Syndecan-1 were significantly higher in non-survivor group compared with survivor group (median 1031.4 versus 504.0 ng/mL, P = 0.002), and the levels of thrombomodulin were not significantly different between these two groups (median 4534.0 versus 3780.0 ng/mL, P = 0.070). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the group with high Syndecan-1 levels had worse overall survival (log-rank test: P = 0.023). Patients with high Syndecan-1 levels also had significantly higher levels of thrombomodulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Data on the dynamics of Syndecan-1 levels indicated much greater variations in non-survivors than survivors. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with high levels of Syndecan-1 develop more serious endothelial damage and inflammatory reactions, and have increased mortality. Syndecan-1 has potential for use as a marker for progression or severity of COVID-19. Protecting the glycocalyx from destruction is a potential treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelium/metabolism , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Syndecan-1/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombomodulin/blood , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
9.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2021: 5944518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of invasive pulmonary fungal disease and the spectrum of pathogens causing invasive pulmonary fungal disease diagnosed by pathological examination using fungal stains. METHODS: Patients with an invasive pulmonary fungal disease diagnosed by histopathological analysis through the use of fungal stains (including Grocott's methenamine silver and periodic acid-Schiff stains) were included in this study. The clinical records, radiological reports, pathology, and fungal culture results were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-eight invasive pulmonary fungal disease patients diagnosed by histopathological analysis in the Tianjin Haihe Hospital (including 8 cases obtained by pulmonary resection, 35 cases by fiberoptic bronchoscopic biopsy, and 5 cases by percutaneous lung biopsy) were included. There were 24 male and 24 female patients, aged 21-80 years (53 ± 13 years). There were 37 cases of pulmonary aspergillosis, 4 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis, 2 cases of pulmonary mucormycosis, and 5 in which pathogens were not determined due to limited tissue availability. Among 48 cases, 32 specimens were submitted to fungal culture. No fungus was detected in culture, although 26 cases of fungus infections were diagnosed by histopathological analysis. Only 3 cases were consistent between histopathological and culture results. In 3 cases, the pathogen was identified as Aspergillus spp. by the histopathological analysis, while the contrasting fungal culture results identified Candida albicans. CONCLUSION: Candida albicans pneumonia was rare, while aspergillosis was common in invasive pulmonary fungal disease diagnosed by histopathological analysis. The majority of patients with an invasive pulmonary fungal disease were culture-negative. Although culture can clarify the fungal pathogen species, it has low sensitivity. Pathological examination with fungal stains has its advantages in diagnosing fungal disease; therefore, more attention should be paid to the role of pathological examination in the diagnosis of fungal disease.

10.
Front Neurol ; 12: 743110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485083

ABSTRACT

Objective: We conducted a survey to assess vaccination coverage, vaccination willingness, and variables associated with vaccination hesitancy to provide evidence on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination strategies. Methods: This anonymous questionnaire study conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional survey of outpatients and inpatients with epilepsy (PWE) registered in epilepsy clinics, in 2021, in 10 hospitals in seven cities of Shandong Province. Results: A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed, and 557 valid questionnaires were returned. A total of 130 people were vaccinated against COVID-19. Among 427 unvaccinated participants, 69.32% (296/427) were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine in the future, and the remaining 30.68% (131/427) were unwilling to receive vaccination. Most (89.9%) of the participants believed that the role of vaccination was crucial in response to the spread of COVID-19. A significant association was found between willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine and the following variables: age, marital status, level of education, occupation, residence, seizure type, and seizure control after antiepileptic drug therapy. It is noteworthy that education level, living in urban areas, and seizure freedom were significantly related to willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusions: Vaccination is a key measure for the prevention and control of COVID-19, and most PWE are willing to be vaccinated. Vaccine safety, effectiveness, and accessibility are essential in combatting vaccine hesitation and increasing vaccination rates.

11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 304, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361622

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive analysis of the humoral immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential in understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis and developing antibody-based diagnostics and therapy. In this work, we performed a longitudinal analysis of antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins in 104 serum samples from 49 critical COVID-19 patients using a peptide-based SARS-CoV-2 proteome microarray. Our data show that the binding epitopes of IgM and IgG antibodies differ across SARS-CoV-2 proteins and even within the same protein. Moreover, most IgM and IgG epitopes are located within nonstructural proteins (nsps), which are critical in inactivating the host's innate immune response and enabling SARS-CoV-2 replication, transcription, and polyprotein processing. IgM antibodies are associated with a good prognosis and target nsp3 and nsp5 proteases, whereas IgG antibodies are associated with high mortality and target structural proteins (Nucleocapsid, Spike, ORF3a). The epitopes targeted by antibodies in patients with a high mortality rate were further validated using an independent serum cohort (n = 56) and using global correlation mapping analysis with the clinical variables that are associated with COVID-19 severity. Our data provide fundamental insight into humoral immunity during SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 immunogenic epitopes identified in this work could also help direct antibody-based COVID-19 treatment and triage patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Disease-Free Survival , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Protein Array Analysis , Survival Rate
12.
Chin J Acad Radiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent risk factor of major adverse cardiovascular events; however, the impact of CAC on in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between CAC and in-hospital mortality and adverse events in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study enrolled 2067 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with definitive clinical outcomes (death or discharge) admitted from 22 tertiary hospitals in China between January 3, 2020 and April 2, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory results, chest CT findings, and CAC on admission were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital death and the secondary outcome was composed of in-hospital death, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), and requiring mechanical ventilation. Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to explore the association between CAC and in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age was 50 years (SD,16) and 1097 (53.1%) were male. A total of 177 patients showed high CAC level, and compared with patients with low CAC, these patients were older (mean age: 49 vs. 69 years, P < 0.001) and more likely to be male (52.0% vs. 65.0%, P = 0.001). Comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) ([33.3%, 59/177] vs. [4.7%, 89/1890], P < 0.001), presented more often among patients with high CAC, compared with patients with low CAC. As for laboratory results, patients with high CAC had higher rates of increased D-dimer, LDH, as well as CK-MB (all P < 0.05). The mean CT severity score in high CAC group was also higher than low CAC group (12.6 vs. 11.1, P = 0.005). In multivariable Cox regression model, patients with high CAC were at a higher risk of in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.731; 95% CI 1.010-2.971, P = 0.046) and adverse clinical outcomes (HR, 1.611; 95% CL 1.087-2.387, P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: High CAC is a risk factor associated with in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with confirmed COVID-19, which highlights the importance of calcium load testing for hospitalized COVID-19 patients and calls for attention to patients with high CAC. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42058-021-00072-4.

13.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(11): 3221-3232, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in dietary patterns among youths in China after COVID-19 lockdown. DESIGN: This study was based on the COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey (COINLICS), a national retrospective survey established in early May 2020. The questionnaire was distributed through social media platforms. The sociodemographic information and routine dietary patterns before and after lockdown of participants were investigated. t tests and χ2 tests were used to compare the differences in consumption patterns of twelve major food groups and beverages between sex and across educational levels before and after lockdown. Factor analysis was employed to obtain the main dietary patterns. SETTINGS: China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 082 youths. RESULTS: A significant decrease was observed in the average weekly frequency of rice intake, while significant increases were observed in the frequency of intake of wheat products, other staple foods, fish, eggs, fresh vegetables, preserved vegetables, fresh fruit and dairy products (all P values < 0·01). Heterogeneities of average weekly frequency existed between sex and across educational levels to different extents. The three main dietary patterns derived were loaded most heavily on dairy products, rice and wheat products, separately; the rice pattern became more dominant than the wheat products pattern after lockdown. The frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption had decreased, while the frequency of other beverages had increased. CONCLUSIONS: Our timely survey would inform policymakers and health professionals of these significant changes in youths' dietary patterns after lockdown, with heterogeneities observed to different extents between sex and across educational levels, for better policy-making and public health practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Quarantine , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Male , Quarantine/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 345-350, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: According to recent studies, the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with an increased risk of mental health problems across many subpopulations including pregnant and postnatal women. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms (depression hereafter) in Chinese pregnant and postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study comprising 1309 pregnant and postpartum women across 12 provinces in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Depression was assessed using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression in pregnant and postpartum women was 27.43% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.01%-29.85%). Women who were worried about themselves or their babies being infected with COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.562, 95% CI = 1.670-3.929), and those who had delayed regular medical checkups (OR = 2.434, 95% CI = 1.580-3.750) were at higher risk of depression. Compared with those living in central and western parts of China, women living in northern (OR = 0.513, 95% CI = 0.326-0.807) and southeastern parts of China (OR = 0.626, 95% CI = 0.463-0.846) were less likely to have depression. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increased likelihood of mental health problems among pregnant and postnatal women. Over a quarter of the pregnant and postpartum women in China had depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative health impact of depression, preventive measures, regular mental health screening, and medical checkups are needed with the goal to reduce the risk of depression in this vulnerable population during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204476

ABSTRACT

Social capital refers to the effective functioning of social groups through networks of relationships. The lockdown measures due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may change the social capital among youths. This study aimed to evaluate changes in social capital before and during COVID-19 lockdown among Chinese youths. It was based on the online COVID-19 Impact on Lifestyle Change Survey (COINLICS) conducted among 10 540 youths at three educational levels, including high/vocational school, undergraduate, and graduate, before and during COVID-19 lockdown. Measures of perceptions of social capital were adapted from a validated Chinese version of Health-related Social Capital Measurement based on youths' characteristics of living and studying environment. Social capital was measured at four dimensions, including individual social capital (ISC), family social capital (FSC), community social capital (CSC), and society social capital (SSC). Overall, compared to before lockdown, ISC and CSC scores decreased, while FSC and SSC scores increased during lockdown. When stratified by educational levels, the trends for each dimension of social capital were consistent with the overall population. There were 43.9%, 5.7%, 32.1%, and 3.7% of the participants showing decreased scores during lockdown for ISC, FSC, CSC, and SSC, respectively, while 7.2%, 24.0%, 15.3%, and 10.7% of participants showed increased scores for ISC, FSC, CSC, and SSC, respectively. Our timely, large-scale study showed decreased social capital in individual and community dimensions and increased social capital in family and society dimensions during lockdown.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(4): 276, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies have revealed several risk factors associated with the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the risk factors associated with death in critically ill COVID-19 patients still needs to be fully elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed clinical characteristics and laboratory data of ICU patients to identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 death. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 from the ICU in the Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital Wuhan, China, between February 4 and February 29, 2020, were enrolled in this study. The final date of follow-up was April 4, 2020. Clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatment, and outcome of participants before and during the ICU stay were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were admitted or transferred to the ICU from February 4 to February 29, 2020. Compared to survivors, the majority of non-survivors (73.8%) presented with dyspnea. A random forest classifier and ROC curve were used to develop a predictive model. IL-6, D-dimer, lymphocytes, and albumin achieved good performance with AUCs of 0.9476, 0.9165, 0.8994, and 0.9251, respectively, which were consistent with clinical observations, such as inflammation, lymphopenia, and coagulation dysfunction. Combining IL-6 and D-dimer improved the performance of this model with an excellent AUC (0.997). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in COVID-19 was not rare in critically ill patients. The model that combined IL-6 and D-dimer was valuable for predicting the mortality of patients with COVID-19 with excellent performance. This model needs to be further optimized by adding more indicators and then evaluated with a multicenter study.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(10): 5852-5863, 2021 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125003

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has recently caused a global health crisis and an effective interventional therapy is urgently needed. Remdesivir is one effective inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA replication. It supersedes other NTP analogues because it not only terminates the polymerization activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), but also inhibits the proofreading activity of intrinsic exoribonuclease (ExoN). Even though the static structure of Remdesivir binding to RdRp has been solved and biochemical experiments have suggested it to be a "delayed chain terminator", the underlying molecular mechanisms is not fully understood. Here, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with an accumulated simulation time of 24 microseconds to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of Remdesivir on nucleotide addition and proofreading. We found that when Remdesivir locates at an upstream site in RdRp, the 1'-cyano group experiences electrostatic interactions with a salt bridge (Asp865-Lys593), which subsequently halts translocation. Our findings can supplement the current understanding of the delayed chain termination exerted by Remdesivir and provide an alternative molecular explanation about Remdesivir's inhibitory mechanism. Such inhibition also reduces the likelihood of Remdesivir to be cleaved by ExoN acting on 3'-terminal nucleotides. Furthermore, our study also suggests that Remdesivir's 1'-cyano group can disrupt the cleavage site of ExoN via steric interactions, leading to a further reduction in the cleavage efficiency. Our work provides plausible and novel mechanisms at the molecular level of how Remdesivir inhibits viral RNA replication, and our findings may guide rational design for new treatments of COVID-19 targeting viral replication.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Cyanides/chemistry , Nucleotides/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ribose/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Static Electricity , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(5): 1185-1188, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055259

ABSTRACT

Background: Increased stress among medical personnel had been reported in previous virus outbreaks. The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in December 2019, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). No qualitative assessment has yet described the physical and mental health conditions of frontline medical personnel in the COVID-19 outbreaks. Methods: Here, 251 frontline medical personnel involved in COVID-19 missions completed electronic questionnaires, consisting of 31 categorical variables related to their physical and mental health status, medical history and environmental conditions. We constructed a correlation amongst these variables through pairwise Kendall rank correlation coefficient test. Then, clusters of highly correlated variables were identified using the leading eigenvector. Finally, we used the network and clusters to clarify the correlations amongst variables. Results: This qualitative study identified the six clusters. Cluster 1 was characterized by skin allergy. Cluster 2 was predominantly associated with anxiety. Cluster 3 consisted mostly of respiratory symptoms. The participants in cluster 4 had medical history. Cluster 5 and cluster 6 were characterized by disinfection and demography, respectively. Finally, we revealed three major findings. First, more than 80% of medical personnel worry about COVID-19-related infection and experience newly appearing anxiety (56.2%), airway or heart symptoms (34.3%) and skin allergies (20.3%). Second, COVID-19-related worry significantly associates with all variables in the anxiety and respiratory symptom clusters. Third, new-onset skin allergies did not associate with either disinfection or anxiety, but did associate with a previous history of allergies. Conclusions: COVID-19-related worry leads to physical and mental health problems amongst medical personnel. Effective responses and interventions could relieve a series of new-onset physical and mental health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Young Adult
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 57, 2021 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Moreover, it has become a global pandemic. This is of great value in describing the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients in detail and looking for markers which are significant to predict the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, 476 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled from a consecutive series. After screening, a total of 395 patients were included in this study. All-cause death was the primary endpoint. All patients were followed up from admission till discharge or death. RESULTS: The main symptoms observed in the study included fever on admission, cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. The most common comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Patients with lower CD4+T cell level were older and more often male compared to those with higher CD4+T cell level. Reduced CD8+T cell level was an indicator of the severity of COVID-19. Both decreased CD4+T [HR:13.659; 95%CI: 3.235-57.671] and CD8+T [HR: 10.883; 95%CI: 3.277-36.145] cell levels were associated with in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients, but only the decrease of CD4+T cell level was an independent predictor of in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets were common in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe cases of COVID-19. It was the CD8+T cell level, not the CD4+T cell level, that reflected the severity of the patient's disease. Only reduced CD4+T cell level was independently associated with increased in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prognostic Factors of Patients With COVID-19, NCT04292964 . Registered 03 March 2020. Retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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