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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e31102, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To study the changes and effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) and ACE/AngII in people with different glucose metabolisms and to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the severity of COVID-19 infection in diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 88 patients with type 2 diabetes, 72 patients with prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose, 30 patients; impaired glucose regulation, 42 patients), and 50 controls were selected. Changes and correlations of ACE2, Ang1-7 and other indicators were detected among the three groups. Patients were divided into four groups according to the course of diabetes: <1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and >10 years. ACE2 and Ang1-7 levels were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: ACE2 and Ang1-7 increased with the severity of diabetes (P0 < .05 or P < .01). The levels of ACE2 and Ang1-7 in the longer course group were lower than those in the shorter course group, whereas the levels of ACE, Ang II, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gradually increased (P < .05). Pearson correlation analysis showed that ACE2 was positively correlated with IL-6, FBG, and 2hPBG levels in the prediabetes group. In the diabetic group, ACE2 was positively correlated with Ang1-7 and negatively correlated with ACE, AngII, IL-6, and C-reactive protein levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that IL-6 and ACE were the main factors influencing ACE2 in the diabetic group. CONCLUSION SUBSECTIONS: ACE2/Ang1-7 and ACE/AngII systems are activated, and inflammatory cytokine release increases in prediabetes. With the prolongation of the disease course, the effect of ACE2/Ang1-7 decreased gradually, while the effect of ACE/AngII increased significantly. Dysfunctions of ACE2/Ang1-7 may be one of the important mechanisms underlying the severity of COVID-19 infection in patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Humans , Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin II , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein , Glucose , Interleukin-6 , Peptide Fragments/metabolism
2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(30): e2203388, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013319

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 continues to spread worldwide. Given the urgent need for effective treatments, many clinical trials are ongoing through repurposing approved drugs. However, clinical data regarding the cardiotoxicity of these drugs are limited. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hCMs) represent a powerful tool for assessing drug-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, by using hCMs, it is demonstrated that four antiviral drugs, namely, apilimod, remdesivir, ritonavir, and lopinavir, exhibit cardiotoxicity in terms of inducing cell death, sarcomere disarray, and dysregulation of calcium handling and contraction, at clinically relevant concentrations. Human engineered heart tissue (hEHT) model is used to further evaluate the cardiotoxic effects of these drugs and it is found that they weaken hEHT contractile function. RNA-seq analysis reveals that the expression of genes that regulate cardiomyocyte function, such as sarcomere organization (TNNT2, MYH6) and ion homeostasis (ATP2A2, HCN4), is significantly altered after drug treatments. Using high-throughput screening of approved drugs, it is found that ceftiofur hydrochloride, astaxanthin, and quetiapine fumarate can ameliorate the cardiotoxicity of remdesivir, with astaxanthin being the most prominent one. These results warrant caution and careful monitoring when prescribing these therapies in patients and provide drug candidates to limit remdesivir-induced cardiotoxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Humans , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiotoxicity/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/physiology , Calcium/metabolism , Lopinavir/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/metabolism , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Quetiapine Fumarate/metabolism , Quetiapine Fumarate/pharmacology , Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels/metabolism , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 902, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008333

ABSTRACT

An unprecedented number of COVID-19 vaccination campaign are under way worldwide. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which majorly binds to the host receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for cell entry, is used by most of the vaccine as antigen. ACE2 is highly expressed in the heart and has been reported to be protective in multiple organs. Interaction of spike with ACE2 is known to reduce ACE2 expression and affect ACE2-mediated signal transduction. However, whether a spike-encoding vaccine will aggravate myocardial damage after a heart attack via affecting ACE2 remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that cardiac ACE2 is up-regulated and protective after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Infecting human cardiac cells or engineered heart tissues with a spike-based adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine (AdSpike) does not affect their survival and function, whether subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation injury or not. Furthermore, AdSpike vaccination does not aggravate heart damage in wild-type or humanized ACE2 mice after I/R injury, even at a dose that is ten-fold higher as used in human. This study represents the first systematic evaluation of the safety of a leading COVID-19 vaccine under a disease context and may provide important information to ensure maximal protection from COVID-19 in patients with or at risk of heart diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Injuries , Adenoviridae/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 153, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585845

ABSTRACT

Recent approval of mRNA vaccines for emergency use against COVID-19 is likely to promote rapid development of mRNA-based vaccines targeting a wide range of infectious diseases. Compared to conventional approaches, this vaccine modality promises comparable potency while substantially accelerating the pace of development and deployment of vaccine doses. Already demonstrated successfully for single antigen vaccines such as for COVID-19, this technology could be optimized for complex multi-antigen vaccines. Herein, utilizing multiple influenza antigens, we demonstrated the suitability of the mRNA therapeutic (MRT) platform for such applications. Seasonal influenza vaccines have three or four hemagglutinin (HA) antigens of different viral subtypes. In addition, influenza neuraminidase (NA), a tetrameric membrane protein, is identified as an antigen that has been linked to protective immunity against severe viral disease. We detail the efforts in optimizing formulations of influenza candidates that use unmodified mRNA encoding full-length HA or full-length NA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). HA and NA mRNA-LNP formulations, either as monovalent or as multivalent vaccines, induced strong functional antibody and cellular responses in non-human primates and such antigen-specific antibody responses were associated with protective efficacy against viral challenge in mice.

5.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 61, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193587

ABSTRACT

Emergency use authorization of COVID vaccines has brought hope to mitigate pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there remains a need for additional effective vaccines to meet the global demand and address the potential new viral variants. mRNA technologies offer an expeditious path alternative to traditional vaccine approaches. Here we describe the efforts to utilize an mRNA platform for rational design and evaluations of mRNA vaccine candidates based on the spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Several mRNA constructs of S-protein, including wild type, a pre-fusion stabilized mutant (2P), a furin cleavage-site mutant (GSAS) and a double mutant form (2P/GSAS), as well as others, were tested in animal models for their capacity to elicit neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). The lead 2P/GSAS candidate was further assessed in dose-ranging studies in mice and Cynomolgus macaques, and for efficacy in a Syrian golden hamster model. The selected 2P/GSAS vaccine formulation, designated MRT5500, elicited potent nAbs as measured in neutralization assays in all three preclinical models and more importantly, protected against SARS-CoV-2-induced weight loss and lung pathology in hamsters. In addition, MRT5500 elicited TH1-biased responses in both mouse and non-human primate (NHP), thus alleviating a hypothetical concern of potential vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory diseases known associated with TH2-biased responses. These data position MRT5500 as a viable vaccine candidate for entering clinical development.

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