Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334351

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate the impact and factors of home quarantine life on women's sexual life and behavior in different areas of China, and analyze the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: We selected adult women (over 18 years old) who have regular sexual life (including regular masturbation) and had been isolated at home for at least one month during the COVID-19 outbreak. We use online questionnaires to survey respondents, the content of this questionnaire includes three parts: general demographic information, the impact of the epidemic on sexual life, and the Female Sexual Dysfunction Scale. Results: After screening, a total of 678 complete questionnaires were recovered in this study. The results showed that during the epidemic, the overall score of female sexual dysfunction (FSFI) was 21.98±6.38, the incidence of FSD was 61.9%, the incidence of FSD in Shanghai, Nanjing, and Ningxia were 60.6%, 75.2%, and 52.2%, respectively. The differences in the incidence of FSFI score and other specific items (Desire, Arousal, Lubrication, Orgasm, Satisfaction, and Pain) are in the three regions were statistically significant (P<0.05). In a separate analysis of women who used masturbation for sex, we found that the incidence of FSD was 34.4%, which was lower than paired sexual intercourse 60.1%.(p<0.05). Further analysis we found that the occurrence of FSD during the epidemic was related to different age stages, menopause, mode of delivery, degree of anxiety and depression, and different sexual lifestyles. Conclusion: The COVID-19 epidemic has had a great impact on people's spiritual life and sexual life. This impact has a negative impact on mental health, but for sex life it has both negative and positive effects, which is mainly caused by it is determined by the characteristics of this life mode of home isolation. In addition, we comparatively analyzed the sexual health status and influencing factors of sexual intercourse and masturbation groups during the epidemic, which helps us to care about the sexual health of masturbation population. Finally, we also found that sex knowledge and education are lacking in many women, which may be the root cause of sex unhealthy. And we should pay attention to the importance of sexual health in epidemic, and having a harmonious and stable sex life will help us get through the boring life of isolation.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768931
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325537

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the enveloped RNA virus SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from faecal samples and active viral replication was reported in human intestinal cells. The human gut also harbors an enormous amount of resident viruses (collectively known as the virome) that play a role in regulating host immunity and disease pathophysiology. Understanding gut virome perturbation that underlies SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity is an unmet need. Methods: : We enrolled 98 COVID-19 patients with varying disease severity (3 asymptomatic, 53 mild, 34 moderate, 5 severe, 3 critical) and 78 non-COVID-19 controls matched for gender and co-morbidities. All subjects had faecal specimens sampled at inclusion. Blood specimens were collected for COVID-19 patients at admission to test for inflammatory markers and white cell counts. Among COVID-19 cases, 37 (38%) patients had serial faecal samples collected 2 to 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until after discharge. Using shotgun metagenomics sequencing, we sequenced and profiled the faecal RNA and DNA virome. We investigated alterations and longitudinal dynamics of the gut virome in association with disease severity and blood parameters. Results: : Patients with COVID-19 showed underrepresentation of Pepper mild mottle virus (RNA virus) and multiple bacteriophage lineages (DNA viruses) and enrichment of environment-derived eukaryotic DNA viruses in faecal samples, compared to non-COVID-19 subjects. Such gut virome alterations persisted up to 30 days after disease resolution. Faecal virome in SARS-CoV-2 infection harboured more stress-, inflammation- and virulence-associated gene encoding capacities including those pertaining to bacteriophage integration, DNA repair, and metabolism and virulence associated with their bacterial host. Baseline fecal abundance of 10 virus species (1 RNA virus, Pepper chlorotic spot virus, and 9 DNA virus species) inversely correlated with disease COVID-19 severity. These viruses inversely correlated with blood levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, white cells and neutrophils. Among the 10 COVID-19 severity-associated DNA virus species, 4 showed inverse correlation with age;5 showed persistent lower abundance both during disease course and after disease resolution relative to non-COVID-19 subjects. Conclusions: Both enteric RNA and DNA virome in COVID-19 patients were different from non-COVID-19 subjects, which persisted after disease resolution of COVID-19. Gut virome may calibrate host immunity and regulate severity to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our observation that gut viruses inversely correlated with both severity of COVID-19 and host age may partly explain that older subjects are prone to severe and worse COVID-19 outcomes. Altogether our data highlight the importance of human gut virome in severity and potentially therapeutics of COVID-19.

4.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(3): 3177-3201, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662736

ABSTRACT

Patch models can better reflect the impact of spatial heterogeneity and population mobility on disease transmission. While, there is relatively little work on using patch models to study the role of travel restrictions, contact tracing and vaccination in COVID-19 epidemic. In this paper, based on COVID-19 epidemic propagation and diffusion mechanism, we establish a dynamic model of disease spread among two patches in which Wuhan is regarded as one patch and the rest of Mainland China (outside Wuhan) as the other patch. The existence of the final size is proved theoretically and some model parameters are estimated by using the reported confirmed cases. The results show that travel restrictions greatly reduce the number of confirmed cases in Mainland China, and the earlier enforced, the fewer confirmed cases. However, it is impossible to bring the COVID-19 epidemic under control and lift travel restrictions on April 8, 2020 by imposing travel restrictions alone, the same is true for contact tracing. While, the disease can always be controlled if the protection rate of herd immunity is high enough and the corresponding critical threshold is given. Therefore, in order to quickly control the spread of the emerging infectious disease (such as COVID-19), it is necessary to combine a variety of control measures and develop vaccines and therapeutic drugs as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Contact Tracing , Infection Control , Travel , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Gastroenterology ; 162(2): 548-561.e4, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with altered gut microbiota composition. Phylogenetic groups of gut bacteria involved in the metabolism of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were depleted in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We aimed to characterize a functional profile of the gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19 before and after disease resolution. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing on fecal samples from 66 antibiotics-naïve patients with COVID-19 and 70 non-COVID-19 controls. Serial fecal samples were collected (at up to 6 times points) during hospitalization and beyond 1 month after discharge. We assessed gut microbial pathways in association with disease severity and blood inflammatory markers. We also determined changes of microbial functions in fecal samples before and after disease resolution and validated these functions using targeted analysis of fecal metabolites. RESULTS: Compared with non-COVID-19 controls, patients with COVID-19 with severe/critical illness showed significant alterations in gut microbiome functionality (P < .001), characterized by impaired capacity of gut microbiome for SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis and enhanced capacity for urea production. Impaired SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis in gut microbiome persisted beyond 30 days after recovery in patients with COVID-19. Targeted analysis of fecal metabolites showed significantly lower fecal concentrations of SCFAs and L-isoleucine in patients with COVID-19 before and after disease resolution. Lack of SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis significantly correlated with disease severity and increased plasma concentrations of CXCL-10, NT- proB-type natriuretic peptide, and C-reactive protein (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiome of patients with COVID-19 displayed impaired capacity for SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis that persisted even after disease resolution. These 2 microbial functions correlated with host immune response underscoring the importance of gut microbial functions in SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Fatty Acids, Volatile/biosynthesis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Immunity/physiology , Isoleucine/biosynthesis , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Feces/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenomics , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Security and Communication Networks ; 2021, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1317077

ABSTRACT

As the planet watches in shock the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic, new forms of sophisticated, versatile, and extremely difficult-to-detect malware expose society and especially the global economy. Machine learning techniques are posing an increasingly important role in the field of malware identification and analysis. However, due to the complexity of the problem, the training of intelligent systems proves to be insufficient in recognizing advanced cyberthreats. The biggest challenge in information systems security using machine learning methods is to understand the polymorphism and metamorphism mechanisms used by malware developers and how to effectively address them. This work presents an innovative Artificial Evolutionary Fuzzy LSTM Immune System which, by using a heuristic machine learning method that combines evolutionary intelligence, Long-Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and fuzzy knowledge, proves to be able to adequately protect modern information system from Portable Executable Malware. The main innovation in the technical implementation of the proposed approach is the fact that the machine learning system can only be trained from raw bytes of an executable file to determine if the file is malicious. The performance of the proposed system was tested on a sophisticated dataset of high complexity, which emerged after extensive research on PE malware that offered us a realistic representation of their operating states. The high accuracy of the developed model significantly supports the validity of the proposed method. The final evaluation was carried out with in-depth comparisons to corresponding machine learning algorithms and it has revealed the superiority of the proposed immune system.

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186959

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of 2020, the global outbreak of the novel coronavirus COVID-19 posed a huge challenge to the governance capabilities of public health in various countries. In this paper, the SEIR model is used to fit the number of confirmed cases in each province in China, and the reduction rate of the basic reproduction number is used to measure the actual score of the control effect of COVID-19. The potential capacity of prevention and control of epidemics, in theory, is constructed, and we use the difference between theoretical ability and actual score to measure the ability of governance of public health. We found that there were significant differences between actual effect and theoretical ability in various regions, and governance capabilities were an important reason leading to this difference, which was not consistent with the level of economic development. The balance of multiple objectives, the guiding ideology of emphasizing medical treatment over prevention, the fragmentation of the public health system, and the insufficiency of prevention and control ability in primary public health systems seriously affected the government's ability to respond to public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Basic Reproduction Number , China , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 91, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the enveloped RNA virus SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from fecal samples, and active viral replication was reported in human intestinal cells. The human gut also harbors an enormous amount of resident viruses (collectively known as the virome) that play a role in regulating host immunity and disease pathophysiology. Understanding gut virome perturbation that underlies SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity is an unmet need. METHODS: We enrolled 98 COVID-19 patients with varying disease severity (3 asymptomatic, 53 mild, 34 moderate, 5 severe, 3 critical) and 78 non-COVID-19 controls matched for gender and co-morbidities. All subjects had fecal specimens sampled at inclusion. Blood specimens were collected for COVID-19 patients at admission to test for inflammatory markers and white cell counts. Among COVID-19 cases, 37 (38%) patients had serial fecal samples collected 2 to 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until after discharge. Using shotgun metagenomics sequencing, we sequenced and profiled the fecal RNA and DNA virome. We investigated alterations and longitudinal dynamics of the gut virome in association with disease severity and blood parameters. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 showed underrepresentation of Pepper mild mottle virus (RNA virus) and multiple bacteriophage lineages (DNA viruses) and enrichment of environment-derived eukaryotic DNA viruses in fecal samples, compared to non-COVID-19 subjects. Such gut virome alterations persisted up to 30 days after disease resolution. Fecal virome in SARS-CoV-2 infection harbored more stress-, inflammation-, and virulence-associated gene encoding capacities including those pertaining to bacteriophage integration, DNA repair, and metabolism and virulence associated with their bacterial host. Baseline fecal abundance of 10 virus species (1 RNA virus, pepper chlorotic spot virus, and 9 DNA virus species) inversely correlated with disease COVID-19 severity. These viruses inversely correlated with blood levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, white cells, and neutrophils. Among the 10 COVID-19 severity-associated DNA virus species, 4 showed inverse correlation with age; 5 showed persistent lower abundance both during disease course and after disease resolution relative to non-COVID-19 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Both enteric RNA and DNA virome in COVID-19 patients were different from non-COVID-19 subjects, which persisted after disease resolution of COVID-19. Gut virome may calibrate host immunity and regulate severity to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our observation that gut viruses inversely correlated with both severity of COVID-19 and host age may partly explain that older subjects are prone to severe and worse COVID-19 outcomes. Altogether, our data highlight the importance of human gut virome in severity and potentially therapeutics of COVID-19. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Child, Preschool , DNA , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Virome
9.
Gut ; 70(4): 698-706, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, there is mounting evidence suggesting that the GI tract is involved in this disease. We investigated whether the gut microbiome is linked to disease severity in patients with COVID-19, and whether perturbations in microbiome composition, if any, resolve with clearance of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: In this two-hospital cohort study, we obtained blood, stool and patient records from 100 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Serial stool samples were collected from 27 of the 100 patients up to 30 days after clearance of SARS-CoV-2. Gut microbiome compositions were characterised by shotgun sequencing total DNA extracted from stools. Concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and blood markers were measured from plasma. RESULTS: Gut microbiome composition was significantly altered in patients with COVID-19 compared with non-COVID-19 individuals irrespective of whether patients had received medication (p<0.01). Several gut commensals with known immunomodulatory potential such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Eubacterium rectale and bifidobacteria were underrepresented in patients and remained low in samples collected up to 30 days after disease resolution. Moreover, this perturbed composition exhibited stratification with disease severity concordant with elevated concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and blood markers such as C reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. CONCLUSION: Associations between gut microbiota composition, levels of cytokines and inflammatory markers in patients with COVID-19 suggest that the gut microbiome is involved in the magnitude of COVID-19 severity possibly via modulating host immune responses. Furthermore, the gut microbiota dysbiosis after disease resolution could contribute to persistent symptoms, highlighting a need to understand how gut microorganisms are involved in inflammation and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , COVID-19 , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/immunology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Dysbiosis/epidemiology , Dysbiosis/etiology , Dysbiosis/immunology , Dysbiosis/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Transferases/analysis
10.
Aging Dis ; 11(6): 1481-1495, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955205

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is causing problems worldwide. Most people are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but elderly populations are more susceptible. Elevated susceptibility and death rates in elderly COVID-19 patients, especially those with age-related complications, are challenges for pandemic prevention and control. In this paper, we review the clinical features of elderly patients with COVID-19 and explore the related molecular mechanisms that are essential for the exploration of preventive and therapeutic strategies in the current pandemic. Furthermore, we analyze the feasibility of currently recommended potential novel methods against COVID-19 among elderly populations.

12.
Gut ; 70(2): 276-284, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was detected in faeces of patients with COVID-19, the activity and infectivity of the virus in the GI tract during disease course is largely unknown. We investigated temporal transcriptional activity of SARS-CoV-2 and its association with longitudinal faecal microbiome alterations in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: We performed RNA shotgun metagenomics sequencing on serial faecal viral extractions from 15 hospitalised patients with COVID-19. Sequencing coverage of the SARS-CoV-2 genome was quantified. We assessed faecal microbiome composition and microbiome functionality in association with signatures of faecal SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. RESULTS: Seven (46.7%) of 15 patients with COVID-19 had stool positivity for SARS-CoV-2 by viral RNA metagenomic sequencing. Even in the absence of GI manifestations, all seven patients showed strikingly higher coverage (p=0.0261) and density (p=0.0094) of the 3' vs 5' end of SARS-CoV-2 genome in their faecal viral metagenome profile. Faecal viral metagenome of three patients continued to display active viral infection signature (higher 3' vs 5' end coverage) up to 6 days after clearance of SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory samples. Faecal samples with signature of high SARS-CoV-2 infectivity had higher abundances of bacterial species Collinsella aerofaciens, Collinsella tanakaei, Streptococcus infantis, Morganella morganii, and higher functional capacity for nucleotide de novo biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis and glycolysis, whereas faecal samples with signature of low-to-none SARS-CoV-2 infectivity had higher abundances of short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, Parabacteroides merdae, Bacteroides stercoris, Alistipes onderdonkii and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 1_1_57FAA. CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides evidence for active and prolonged 'quiescent' GI infection even in the absence of GI manifestations and after recovery from respiratory infection of SARS-CoV-2. Gut microbiota of patients with active SARS-CoV-2 GI infection was characterised by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens, loss of salutary bacteria and increased functional capacity for nucleotide and amino acid biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Feces/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
13.
Gastroenterology ; 159(4): 1302-1310.e5, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects intestinal cells, and might affect the intestinal microbiota. We investigated changes in the fecal fungal microbiomes (mycobiome) of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization and on recovery. METHODS: We performed deep shotgun metagenomic sequencing analysis of fecal samples from 30 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong, from February 5 through May 12, 2020. Fecal samples were collected 2 to 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until discharge. We compared fecal mycobiome compositions of patients with COVID-19 with those from 9 subjects with community-acquired pneumonia and 30 healthy individuals (controls). We assessed fecal mycobiome profiles throughout time of hospitalization until clearance of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal samples. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 had significant alterations in their fecal mycobiomes compared with controls, characterized by enrichment of Candia albicans and a highly heterogeneous mycobiome configuration, at time of hospitalization. Although fecal mycobiomes of 22 patients with COVID-19 did not differ significantly from those of controls during times of hospitalization, 8 of 30 patients with COVID-19 had continued significant differences in fecal mycobiome composition, through the last sample collected. The diversity of the fecal mycobiome of the last sample collected from patients with COVID-19 was 2.5-fold higher than that of controls (P < .05). Samples collected at all timepoints from patients with COVID-19 had increased proportions of opportunistic fungal pathogens, Candida albicans, Candida auris, and Aspergillus flavus compared with controls. Two respiratory-associated fungal pathogens, A. flavus and Aspergillus niger, were detected in fecal samples from a subset of patients with COVID-19, even after clearance of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal samples and resolution of respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In a pilot study, we found heterogeneous configurations of the fecal mycobiome, with enrichment of fungal pathogens from the genera Candida and Aspergillus, during hospitalization of 30 patients with COVID-19 compared with controls. Unstable gut mycobiomes and prolonged dysbiosis persisted in a subset of patients with COVID-19 up to 12 days after nasopharyngeal clearance of SARS-CoV-2. Studies are needed to determine whether alterations in intestinal fungi contribute to or result from SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the effects of these changes in disease progression.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mycobiome , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aspergillus flavus/genetics , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/genetics , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Candida/genetics , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida albicans/genetics , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Female , Fungi/genetics , Humans , Male , Metagenomics , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
14.
Gastroenterology ; 159(3): 944-955.e8, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects gastrointestinal tissues, little is known about the roles of gut commensal microbes in susceptibility to and severity of infection. We investigated changes in fecal microbiomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization and associations with severity and fecal shedding of virus. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing analyses of fecal samples from 15 patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong, from February 5 through March 17, 2020. Fecal samples were collected 2 or 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until discharge; disease was categorized as mild (no radiographic evidence of pneumonia), moderate (pneumonia was present), severe (respiratory rate ≥30/min, or oxygen saturation ≤93% when breathing ambient air), or critical (respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock, or organ failure requiring intensive care). We compared microbiome data with those from 6 subjects with community-acquired pneumonia and 15 healthy individuals (controls). We assessed gut microbiome profiles in association with disease severity and changes in fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 had significant alterations in fecal microbiomes compared with controls, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens and depletion of beneficial commensals, at time of hospitalization and at all timepoints during hospitalization. Depleted symbionts and gut dysbiosis persisted even after clearance of SARS-CoV-2 (determined from throat swabs) and resolution of respiratory symptoms. The baseline abundance of Coprobacillus, Clostridium ramosum, and Clostridium hathewayi correlated with COVID-19 severity; there was an inverse correlation between abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (an anti-inflammatory bacterium) and disease severity. Over the course of hospitalization, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides massiliensis, and Bacteroides ovatus, which downregulate expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in murine gut, correlated inversely with SARS-CoV-2 load in fecal samples from patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a pilot study of 15 patients with COVID-19, we found persistent alterations in the fecal microbiome during the time of hospitalization, compared with controls. Fecal microbiota alterations were associated with fecal levels of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 severity. Strategies to alter the intestinal microbiota might reduce disease severity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Dysbiosis/virology , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL