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1.
Phytomedicine ; 96: 153888, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is regarded as a large database containing hundreds to thousands of chemical constituents that can be further developed as clinical drugs, such as artemisinin in Artemisia annua. However, effectively exploring novel candidates is still a challenge faced by researchers. PURPOSE: In this work, an integrated strategy combining chemical profiling, molecular networking, chemical isolation, and activity evaluation (CMCA strategy) was proposed and applied to systematically characterize and screen novel candidates, and Forsythiae fructus (FF) was used as an example. STUDY DESIGN: It contained four parts. First, the chemical compounds in FF were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) with data-dependent acquisition, and further, the targeted compounds were screened out based on an in-house database. In the meantime, the representative MS/MS fragmentation behaviors of different chemical structure types were summarized. Second, homologous constituents were grouped and organized based on feature-guided molecular networking, and the nontargeted components with homologous mass fragmentation behaviors were characterized. Third, the novel compounds were isolated and unambiguously identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Finally, the anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activities of isolated chemical constituents were further evaluated by in vitro experiments. RESULTS: A total of 278 compounds were profiled in FF, including 151 targeted compounds and 127 nontargeted compounds. Among them, 16 were unambitiously identified by comparison with reference standards. Moreover, 25 were classified into potential novel compounds. Two novel compounds were unambiguously identified by using conventional chromatographic methods, and they were named phillyrigeninside D (peak 254) and forsythenside O (peak 155). Furthermore, the ACE2 activity of the compounds in FF was evaluated by modern pharmacological methods, and among them, suspensaside A was confirmed to present obvious anti-ACE2 activity. CONCLUSION: Our work provides meaningful information for revealing potential FF candidates for the treatment of COVID-19, along with new insight for exploring novel candidates from complex systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Plant Extracts , SARS-CoV-2 , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296269

ABSTRACT

By largely unknown mechanisms, dysregulated gene-specific translation directly contributes to chronic inflammation-associated diseases such as sepsis and ARDS. Here, we report that G9a, a histone methyltransferase and well-regarded transcriptional repressor, non-canonically or non-epigenetically activates translation of select antimicrobial genes to promote proliferation of cytokine producing macrophages and to impair T cell function;all hallmarks of endotoxin-tolerance related complications including sepsis, ARDS and COVID19. Mechanistically, G9a interacts with translation regulators including METTL3, an N6-methyladenosine or m6A RNA methyltransferase, and methylates it to cooperatively upregulate the translation of certain m6A-modified mRNAs that encode immune checkpoint and anti-inflammatory proteins. Further, translatome proteomic analysis of ET macrophages progressively treated by a G9a inhibitor identified proteins showing G9a-dependent translation that unite the networks associated with hyperinflammation and T cell dysfunction. Overall, we identified a previously unrecognized function of G9a in gene-specific translation that can be leveraged to treat ET-related chronic inflammatory diseases.

3.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295441

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are powerful tools to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, but vaccine hesitancy threatens these vaccines’ effectiveness. To address COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and ensure equitable distribution, understanding the extent of and factors associated with vaccine acceptance and uptake is critical. We report the results of a large nationwide study conducted December 2020-May 2021 of 34,470 users from COVID-19-focused smartphone-based app How We Feel on their willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Nineteen percent of respondents expressed vaccine hesitancy, the majority being undecided. Of those who were undecided or unlikely to get a COVID-19 vaccine, 86% reported they ultimately did receive a COVID-19 vaccine. We identified sociodemographic and behavioral factors that were associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and uptake, and we found several vulnerable groups at increased risk of COVID-19 burden, morbidity, and mortality were more likely to be vaccine hesitant and had lower rates of vaccination. Our findings highlight specific populations in which targeted efforts to develop education and outreach programs are needed to overcome vaccine hesitancy and improve equitable access, diversity, and inclusion in the national response to COVID-19.

5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 351: 109744, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509623

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir, an intravenous nucleotide prodrug, has been approved for treating COVID-19 in hospitalized adults and pediatric patients. Upon administration, remdesivir can be readily hydrolyzed to form its active form GS-441524, while the cleavage of the carboxylic ester into GS-704277 is the first step for remdesivir activation. This study aims to assign the key enzymes responsible for remdesivir hydrolysis in humans, as well as to investigate the kinetics of remdesivir hydrolysis in various enzyme sources. The results showed that remdesivir could be hydrolyzed to form GS-704277 in human plasma and the microsomes from human liver (HLMs), lung (HLuMs) and kidney (HKMs), while the hydrolytic rate of remdesivir in HLMs was the fastest. Chemical inhibition and reaction phenotyping assays suggested that human carboxylesterase 1 (hCES1A) played a predominant role in remdesivir hydrolysis, while cathepsin A (CTSA), acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BchE) contributed to a lesser extent. Enzymatic kinetic analyses demonstrated that remdesivir hydrolysis in hCES1A (SHUTCM) and HLMs showed similar kinetic plots and much closed Km values to each other. Meanwhile, GS-704277 formation rates were strongly correlated with the CES1A activities in HLM samples from different individual donors. Further investigation revealed that simvastatin (a therapeutic agent for adjuvant treating COVID-19) strongly inhibited remdesivir hydrolysis in both recombinant hCES1A and HLMs. Collectively, our findings reveal that hCES1A plays a predominant role in remdesivir hydrolysis in humans, which are very helpful for predicting inter-individual variability in response to remdesivir and for guiding the rational use of this anti-COVID-19 agent in clinical settings.

6.
Pharmacol Res ; 174: 105955, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487920

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by numerous complications, complex disease, and high mortality, making its treatment a top priority in the treatment of COVID-19. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine played an important role in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of COVID-19 during the epidemic. However, currently there are no evidence-based guidelines for the integrated treatment of severe COVID-19 with TCM and western medicine. Therefore, it is important to develop an evidence-based guideline on the treatment of severe COVID-19 with integrated TCM and western medicine, in order to provide clinical guidance and decision basis for healthcare professionals, public health personnel, and scientific researchers involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of COVID-19 patients. We developed and completed the guideline by referring to the standardization process of the "WHO handbook for guideline development", the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, and the Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT).

7.
Health Science Journal ; 15(9):1-5, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1479206

ABSTRACT

In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death. [...]there is giant demand for the COVID-19 tests. In samples without infected, since there is no target gene amplification, no increase in fluorescence signal can be detected. [...]nucleic acid detection is actually to determine whether there is novel coronavirus nucleic acid in the sample by detecting the accumulation of fluorescent signals. According to the principle of double-antibody sandwich method, using two antigen-specific antibodies to recognize and bind to different epitopes of a target antigen can greatly reduce the probability of cross-reaction, thereby effectively improving its specificity [1]. Positive detection of IgG in blood can be used as an indicator of infection and previous infection [8]. [...]an increase of IgM antibody indicates a recent acute infection, and an increase of IgG antibody indicates a previous infection.

8.
Health Science Journal ; 15(9):1-4, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1479205

ABSTRACT

In samples without infected, since there is no target gene amplification, no increase in fluorescence signal can be detected. [...]nucleic acid detection is actually to determine whether there is novel coronavirus nucleic acid in the sample by detecting the accumulation of fluorescent signals. According to the principle of doubleantibody sandwich ELISA, using two antigen-specific antibodies to recognize and bind to different epitopes of a target antigen can greatly reduce the probability of cross-reaction, thereby effectively improving its specificity [2]. [...]to provide sufficient information for the research participants. [...]ensuring that participants are not subject to coercion to take part or not taking part [12], the survey is entirely dependent on the wishes of the participants.

9.
Health Science Journal ; 15(7):1-5, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1391202

ABSTRACT

Other infected patients have mild or severe symptoms and may be life-threatening. [...]there is giant demand for the COVID-19 rapid tests. In samples without infected, since there is no target gene amplification, no increase in fluorescence signal would be detected. [...]nucleic acid detection is actually to determine whether there is novel coronavirus nucleic acid in the sample by detecting the accumulation of fluorescent signals. According to the principle of doubleantibody sandwich ELISA, using two antigen-specific antibodies to recognize and bind to different epitopes of a target antigen can greatly reduce the probability of cross-reaction, thereby effectively improving its specificity [1]. Positive detection of IgG in blood can be used as an indicator of infection and previous infection [8]. [...]an increase of IgM antibody indicates a recent acute infection, and an increase of IgG antibody indicates a previous infection.

12.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(10): 1343-1350, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368408

ABSTRACT

Importance: Much remains unknown about the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. How the severity of the index case and timing of exposure is associated with disease in close contacts of index patients with COVID-19 and clinical presentation in those developing disease is not well elucidated. Objectives: To investigate the association between the timing of exposure and development of disease among close contacts of index patients with COVID-19 and to evaluate whether the severity of the index case is associated with clinical presentation in close contacts who develop COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used a large, population-based cohort of 730 individuals (index patients) who received a diagnosis of COVID-19 in Zhejiang Province, China, from January 8 to July 30, 2020, along with a contact tracing surveillance program. Field workers visited 8852 close contacts of the index patients and evaluated them for COVID-19 through August 2020. A timeline was constructed to characterize different exposure periods between index patients and their contacts. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the attack rate of COVID-19, defined as the total number of new COVID-19 cases diagnosed among contacts of index patients divided by the total number of exposed contacts. A secondary outcome was asymptomatic clinical presentation among infected contacts. Relative risks were calculated to investigate risk factors for COVID-19 among contacts and asymptomatic clinical presentation among infected contacts. Results: Among 8852 close contacts (4679 male contacts [52.9%]; median age, 41 years [interquartile range, 28-54 years]) of 730 index patients (374 male patients [51.2%]; median age, 46 years [interquartile range, 36-56 years]), contacts were at highest risk of COVID-19 if they were exposed between 2 days before and 3 days after the index patient's symptom onset, peaking at day 0 (adjusted relative risk [ARR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.5). Compared with being exposed to an asymptomatic index patient, the risk of COVID-19 among contacts was higher when they were exposed to index patients with mild (ARR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.8-9.1) and moderate (ARR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.9-9.7) cases of COVID-19. As index case severity increased, infected contacts were less likely to be asymptomatic (exposed to patient with mild COVID-19: ARR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; exposed to patient with moderate COVID-19: ARR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that individuals with COVID-19 were most infectious a few days before and after symptom onset. Infected contacts of asymptomatic index patients were less likely to present with COVID-19 symptoms, suggesting that quantity of exposure may be associated with clinical presentation in close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
Pharmacol Res ; 163: 105224, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364404

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as common life-threatening lung diseases with high mortality rates are mostly associated with acute and severe inflammation in lungs. With increasing in-depth studies of ALI/ARDS, significant breakthroughs have been made, however, there are still no effective pharmacological therapies for treatment of ALI/ARDS. Especially, the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is ravaging the globe, and causes severe respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, developing new drugs for therapy of ALI/ARDS is in great demand, which might also be helpful for treatment of COVID-19. Natural compounds have always inspired drug development, and numerous natural products have shown potential therapeutic effects on ALI/ARDS. Therefore, this review focuses on the potential therapeutic effects of natural compounds on ALI and the underlying mechanisms. Overall, the review discusses 159 compounds and summarizes more than 400 references to present the protective effects of natural compounds against ALI and the underlying mechanism.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung/drug effects , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Animals , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Signal Transduction
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e29312, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious and highly pathogenic disease caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and it has become a pandemic. As a vulnerable population, university students are at high risk during the epidemic, as they have high mobility and often overlook the severity of the disease because they receive incomplete information about the epidemic. In addition to the risk of death from infection, the epidemic has placed substantial psychological pressure on the public. In this respect, university students are more prone to psychological problems induced by the epidemic compared to the general population because for most students, university life is their first time outside the structure of the family, and their mental development is still immature. Internal and external expectations and academic stress lead to excessive pressure on students, and unhealthy lifestyles also deteriorate their mental health. The outbreak of COVID-19 was a significant social event, and it could potentially have a great impact on the life and the mental health of university students. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate university students' mental health status during the outbreak of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The principal objective of this study was to investigate the influencing factors of the psychological responses of Chinese university students during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: This study used data from a survey conducted in China between February 21 and 24, 2020, and the data set contains demographic information and psychological measures including the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Self-Rating Depression Scale, and the compulsive behaviors portion of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. A total of 2284 questionnaires were returned, and 2270 of them were valid and were used for analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test for two independent samples and binary logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Our study surveyed 563 medical students and 1707 nonmedical students. Among them, 251/2270 students (11.06%) had mental health issues. The results showed that contact history of similar infectious disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.363, P=.02), past medical history (OR 3.282, P<.001), and compulsive behaviors (OR 3.525, P<.001) contributed to the risk of mental health issues. Older students (OR 0.928, P=.02), regular daily life during the epidemic outbreak (OR 0.410, P<.001), exercise during the epidemic outbreak (OR 0.456, P<.001), and concern related to COVID-19 (OR 0.638, P=.002) were protective factors for mental health issues. CONCLUSIONS: According to the study results, mental health issues have seriously affected university students, and our results are beneficial for identifying groups of university students who are at risk for possible mental health issues so that universities and families can prevent or intervene in the development of potential mental health issues at the early stage of their development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Surveys , Internet , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(7): 643-656, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324420

ABSTRACT

The accurate and timely diagnosis of disease is a prerequisite for efficient therapeutic intervention and epidemiological surveillance. Diagnostics based on the detection of nucleic acids are among the most sensitive and specific, yet most such assays require costly equipment and trained personnel. Recent developments in diagnostic technologies, in particular those leveraging clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), aim to enable accurate testing at home, at the point of care and in the field. In this Review, we provide a rundown of the rapidly expanding toolbox for CRISPR-based diagnostics, in particular the various assays, preamplification strategies and readouts, and highlight their main applications in the sensing of a wide range of molecular targets relevant to human health.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acids/analysis , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/diagnosis , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Point-of-Care Systems , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Analysis, DNA
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(29)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307383

ABSTRACT

Understanding the trends in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolution is paramount to control the COVID-19 pandemic. We analyzed more than 300,000 high-quality genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 variants available as of January 2021. The results show that the ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 during the pandemic is characterized primarily by purifying selection, but a small set of sites appear to evolve under positive selection. The receptor-binding domain of the spike protein and the region of the nucleocapsid protein associated with nuclear localization signals (NLS) are enriched with positively selected amino acid replacements. These replacements form a strongly connected network of apparent epistatic interactions and are signatures of major partitions in the SARS-CoV-2 phylogeny. Virus diversity within each geographic region has been steadily growing for the entirety of the pandemic, but analysis of the phylogenetic distances between pairs of regions reveals four distinct periods based on global partitioning of the tree and the emergence of key mutations. The initial period of rapid diversification into region-specific phylogenies that ended in February 2020 was followed by a major extinction event and global homogenization concomitant with the spread of D614G in the spike protein, ending in March 2020. The NLS-associated variants across multiple partitions rose to global prominence in March to July, during a period of stasis in terms of interregional diversity. Finally, beginning in July 2020, multiple mutations, some of which have since been demonstrated to enable antibody evasion, began to emerge associated with ongoing regional diversification, which might be indicative of speciation.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Epistasis, Genetic , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mutation , Nuclear Localization Signals/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phylogeny , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination
18.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287813

ABSTRACT

Frequent testing of large population groups combined with contact tracing and isolation measures will be crucial for containing Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreaks. Here we present LAMP-Seq, a modified, highly scalable reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method. Unpurified biosamples are barcoded and amplified in a single heat step, and pooled products are analyzed en masse by sequencing. Using commercial reagents, LAMP-Seq has a limit of detection of ~2.2 molecules per µl at 95% confidence and near-perfect specificity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 given its sequence readout. Clinical validation of an open-source protocol with 676 swab samples, 98 of which were deemed positive by standard RT-qPCR, demonstrated 100% sensitivity in individuals with cycle threshold values of up to 33 and a specificity of 99.7%, at a very low material cost. With a time-to-result of fewer than 24 h, low cost and little new infrastructure requirement, LAMP-Seq can be readily deployed for frequent testing as part of an integrated public health surveillance program.

19.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285959

ABSTRACT

Jingyin granules, a marketed antiviral herbal medicine, have been recommended for treating H1N1 influenza A virus infection and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. To fight viral diseases in a more efficient way, Jingyin granules are frequently co-administered in clinical settings with a variety of therapeutic agents, including antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and other Western medicines. However, it is unclear whether Jingyin granules modulate the pharmacokinetics of Western drugs or trigger clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study aims to assess the inhibitory potency of the herbal extract of Jingyin granules (HEJG) against human drug-metabolizing enzymes and to clarify whether HEJG can modulate the pharmacokinetic profiles of Western drug(s) in vivo. The results clearly demonstrated that HEJG dose-dependently inhibited human CES1A, CES2A, CYPs1A, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, and 2E1; this herbal medicine also time- and NADPH-dependently inhibited human CYP2C19 and CYP3A. In vivo tests showed that HEJG significantly increased the plasma exposure of lopinavir (a CYP3A-substrate drug) by 2.43-fold and strongly prolonged its half-life by 1.91-fold when HEJG (3 g/kg) was co-administered with lopinavir to rats. Further investigation revealed licochalcone A, licochalcone B, licochalcone C and echinatin in Radix Glycyrrhizae, as well as quercetin and kaempferol in Folium Llicis Purpureae, to be time-dependent CYP3A inhibitors. Collectively, our findings reveal that HEJG modulates the pharmacokinetics of CYP substrate-drug(s) by inactivating CYP3A, providing key information for both clinicians and patients to use herb-drug combinations for antiviral therapy in a scientific and reasonable way.

20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 580304, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256375

ABSTRACT

Gamma-delta (γδ) T cells are a subset of T cells that promote the inflammatory responses of lymphoid and myeloid lineages, and are especially vital to the initial inflammatory and immune responses. Given the capability to connect crux inflammations of adaptive and innate immunity, γδ T cells are responsive to multiple molecular cues and can acquire the capacity to induce various cytokines, such as GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, and IFN-γ. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms responsible for γδ T cell proinflammatory functions remain poorly understood, particularly in the context of the central nervous system (CNS) diseases. CNS disease, usually leading to irreversible cognitive and physical disability, is becoming a worldwide public health problem. Here, we offer a review of the neuro-inflammatory and immune functions of γδ T cells, intending to understand their roles in CNS diseases, which may be crucial for the development of novel clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Animals , Central Nervous System , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/metabolism
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