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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 427, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795805

ABSTRACT

Abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in COVID-19 patients were recently reported with unclear mechanism. In this study, we retrospectively investigated a cohort of COVID-19 patients without pre-existing metabolic-related diseases, and found new-onset insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL-C in these patients. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 infection increased the expression of RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which modulated the expression of secreted metabolic factors including myeloperoxidase, apelin, and myostatin at the transcriptional level, resulting in the perturbation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, several lipids, including (±)5-HETE, (±)12-HETE, propionic acid, and isobutyric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers of COVID-19-induced metabolic dysregulation, especially in insulin resistance. Taken together, our study revealed insulin resistance as the direct cause of hyperglycemia upon COVID-19, and further illustrated the underlying mechanisms, providing potential therapeutic targets for COVID-19-induced metabolic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/blood , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Lipids/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325321

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic and caused over one hundred thousand death. Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were recommended for off-label use in the treatment of COVID-19 in some countries despite their unclear benefit. However, the toxicity of these agents has been ignored, so the investigation of their safety in the treatment of COVID-19 is crucial for providing a reference for the rational use. Methods: The medical records obtained from the information management system of Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital were reviewed to extract data about patients who received chloroquine phosphate tablets for COVID-19 treatment from January 20th to March 5th, 2020. The data were assessed to determine the correlation of adverse reaction with chloroquine phosphate based on Chinese CFDA standards as well as the severity of adverse events based on American CTCAE5.0 standard, and evaluate the safety of this medication. Results: A total of 42 patients (23 males and 19 females, average 42.19±14.29 years old) with COVID-19 were treated with low-dose chloroquine phosphate (oral, 500 mg, once per day). Totally 18 patients(42.86%)experienced 20 adverse events. The mean duration of CQ administration was 6.57 days (SD, 3.16 days;range: 1 day to 16 days) and 52.4% received CQ for 7 to 9 days. The adverse events occurred within 6–8 days of treatment. For the 20 adverse events, 19 were not higher than grade 2 and only one was grade 3 because of the severely limited self-care ability in one patient. The most common adverse events were related to the digestive, circulatory, hepatic, and nervous systems. Conclusion: Oral chloroquine phosphate tablets resulted in a high incidence of adverse reactions. In the clinical trial of chloroquine phosphate for COVID-19 treatment, it should be used under pharmaceutical care;timely evaluation of the drug safety during the treatment process is necessary and a randomized controlled clinical trial should be conducted.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324295

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the outcomes of elderly patients with COVID-19. Methods: : All 265 confirmed adult patients with COVID-19 were included in this retrospective study, 43 (16.2%) of whom were 65 years and older. Electronic medical records of the subjects were reviewed to obtain information on clinical characteristics and outcomes. The allocations of medical resource were also recorded. Results: : Only one death case occurred in the elderly. The mortality of elderly patients was no higher than that of young patients (2.3% vs. 0%, P = 0.126). The cure rate was 95.3% in elderly patients and 99.5% in young patients ( P = 0.067), and the duration of hospitalization is 27 days in elderly patients and 18 days in young patients ( P = 0.001). The elderly suffered from more comorbidities (67.4% vs. 24.8%, P < 0.001), most of which is hypertension. Significantly more severe cases occurred in elderly patients compared with young patients (37.2% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.004). The elderly were more likely to present with complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute myocardial injury, septic shock and acute kidney injury (all P < 0.05), respectively. No medical staffs were infected during the treatment of COVID-19. Conclusion: The cure rate and the mortality of the elderly seemed to be no worse than that of the young, though the elderly were with longer hospitalization. Elderly patients with COVID-19 could be treatable if handled properly. More severe cases and complications in elderly patients should prompt for more complex treatment and special considerations.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324294

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the clinical features of cured patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the relevance of IgM and IgG testing. Methods: : A total of 187 cured COVID-19 patients with antibody test were followed up every two weeks at Guangzhou Eighth People's hospital. Assessment for general condition, symptoms, epidemiological contact history, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and antibody tests were performed and recorded. Information from Guangzhou CDC was also screened. Results: : There were 154 (82.4%) patients with positive results for IgG and 35 (18.7%) patients with positive results for IgM. PCR assay was positive in 10 (5.3%) patients. Neither IgG nor IgM results showed a relationship with PCR test results (all P > 0.05). No re-infection was found in the cured patients. Among people who were in close contact with the cured patients, no one was diagnosed with COVID-19 as reported both by the cured patients and the Guangzhou CDC. Factors associated with appearance of IgG comprised hospitalization days (OR: 1.07, 95%CI: 1.02-1.13, P = 0.004) and antibiotics treatment (OR: 2.78, 95%CI: 1.10-7.01, P = 0.031) . Conclusion: In our study, neither re-infection nor human-to-human transmission was found in cured patients with COVID-19. Additionally, neither IgG nor IgM can be used to replace the PCR test in cured patients.

5.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; - (6):438, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1675353

ABSTRACT

:Objective To study the kinetics of IgM and IgG antibodies based on nucleocapsid(N) and spike(S) protein of SARS-Co V2-in COVID-19 patients. Methods Immunofluorescent kits were used to detect N and S protein specific IgM and IgG antibodies from Jan.21 to Feb.11, 2020 for the 60 hospitalized COVID-19 patients(48 mild, 12 severe cases) with a total of 290 plasma samples collected 9 weeks after the onset of the disease. Results The level of antibodies specific for S protein varied significantly with the course of disease(Ig M from 27.32 to 110.10 TU/ml, IgG from 56.85 to 135.00 TU/ml), but not for N protein.Higher level of Ig M/Ig G antibodies specific to S protein was observed during the 2-7 week than that to N protein.The seropositive rate of antibodies gradually increased during the early stage of disease.IgM/IgG antibodies specific to N protein changed from 12.50% at the first week to peak level(51.72% and 86.21% respectively) at the 4 th week and those for S protein from 25.00% and 14.58% to 100.00%, and then declined.The seropositive rate of Ig M antibody specific to S protein was higher than that for N protein during 2-8 th week and that for Ig G antibody at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 th week.The seropositive rate of Ig G antibody specific to N protein in severe patients at the third week was higher than that in mild patients(100.00% vs 59.52%,χ2=9.67, P=0.001 9), and the same as to Ig G antibody for S protein at the second week after disease onset(80.00% vs 46.58%, χ2=5.57, P=0.018 2). Conclusions SARS-Co V2-S protein can induc stronger antibody response than N protein, and the antibody level was related to the severity of the disease.

6.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; - (4):266, 2021.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1576016

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in COVID-19 patients and the correlation with disease severity. Methods A total of 290 plasma samples were collected from 60 hospitalized patients including 48 mild cases and 12 severe cases within 63 days after disease onset in Guangzhou Eighth People′s Hospital affiliated to Guangzhou Medical University during January 21 to April 11, 2020.SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were determined by four commercial colloidal gold serologic reagents validated by National Medical Products Administration in China. Results The seropositive rate ranged from 19.23% to 34.62% by four assays within one week after disease onset, and rapidly increased within the following two weeks.The seropositive rates were 52.27% to 68.18% and 83.05% to 98.31%, respectively.IgM antibody peaked within the fourth week and maintained high level for 1 to 2 weeks, and decreased significantly until the 9 th week.But no obvious decreasing trend of the seropositive rate of IgG antibody was observed during two months after disease onset.The seropositive rates of antibodies between mild and severe cases showed no statistical difference.Four assays demonstrated a sensitivity of 78.33%to 91.67%in 60 COVID-19 patients.The difference was statistically significant between the highest and the lowest values(χ2=4.183,P=0.041). Conclusions The colloidal gold serologic reagents show good sensitivity during the late stage of disease but not at the early stage.There is no correlation between seropositive and disease severity.The sensitivity of different reagents is different

7.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1491-1493, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286464

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present the clinical characteristics and dynamic changes in laboratory parameters of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Guangzhou, and explore the probable early warning indicators of disease progression. METHOD: We enrolled all the patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the Guangzhou No. 8 People's Hospital. The patients' demographic and epidemiologic data were collected, including chief complaints, lab results, and imaging examination findings. RESULTS: The characteristics of the patients in Guangzhou are different from those in Wuhan. The patients were younger in age, predominately female, and their condition was not commonly combined with other diseases. A total of 75% of patients suffered fever on admission, followed by cough occurring in 62% patients. Comparing the mild/normal and severe/critical patients, being male, of older age, combined with hypertension, abnormal blood routine test results, raised creatine kinase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time, and positive proteinuria were early warning indicators of severe disease. CONCLUSION: The patients outside epidemic areas showed different characteristics from those in Wuhan. The abnormal laboratory parameters were markedly changed 4 weeks after admission, and also were different between the mild and severe patients. More evidence is needed to confirm highly specific and sensitive potential early warning indicators of severe disease.

9.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(2): 229-232, 2021 Feb.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138769

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cardiac presentations and the possible influencing factors of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted. Patients with severe and critical COVID-19 admitted to the Eighth People's Hospital of Guangzhou from January 21st to February 24th 2020 were enrolled. According to the clinical classification, the patients were divided into severe group and critical group. The myocardial injury markers, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), myoglobin (MYO), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 55 COVID-19 patients were selected, including 15 critical cases and 40 severe cases. The patients with severe and critical COVID-19 were male-dominated (61.8%), the average age was (61.2±13.0) years old, 83.6% (46 cases) of them had contact history of Hubei, 38.2% (21 cases) of them were complicated with hypertension. There was no significant difference in baseline data between the critical group and the severe group. Myocardial injury markers of critical and severe COVID-19 patients were increased in different proportion, LDH increased in most patients (20 severe cases and 7 critical cases), followed by AST (16 severe cases and 5 critical cases). There was significant difference in the number of patients with elevated CK between severe group and critical group (cases: 1 vs. 4, P = 0.027). Abnormal ECG was found in 39 of 42 patients with ECG examination. Nonspecific change of T wave was the most common. Before and after treatment, 9 of 15 patients with changes of ECG and myocardial injury markers had oxygenation index less than 100 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), and the prominent changes of ECG were heart rate increasing and ST-T change. CONCLUSIONS: The increase of myocardial injury markers and abnormal ECG were not specific to the myocardial injury of severe and critical COVID-19 patients. At the same time, the dynamic changes of myocardial injury markers and ECG could reflect the situation of myocardial damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Biomarkers , Creatine Kinase, MB Form , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(6): ofaa187, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestations and factors associated with the severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections outside of Wuhan are not clearly understood. METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases with SARS-Cov-2 infection who were hospitalized and monitored in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital were recruited from January 20 to February 10. RESULTS: A total of 275 patients were included in this study. The median patient age was 49 years, and 63.6% had exposure to Wuhan. The median virus incubation period was 6 days. Fever (70.5%) and dry cough (56.0%) were the most common symptoms. A decreased albumin level was found in 51.3% of patients, lymphopenia in 33.5%, and pneumonia based on chest computed tomography in 86%. Approximately 16% of patients (n = 45) had severe disease, and there were no deaths. Compared with patients with nonsevere disease, those with severe disease were older, had a higher frequency of coexisting conditions and pneumonia, and had a shorter incubation period (all P < .05). There were no differences between patients who likely contacted the virus in Wuhan and those who had no exposure to Wuhan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that older age, male sex, and decreased albumin level were independently associated with disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Guangzhou, China are not severe cases and patients with older age, male, and decreased albumin level were more likely to develop into severe ones.

11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 593133, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983756

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To clarify the clinical characteristics of cured patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and to clarify the re-infection and person-to-person transmission in the cured. Methods: A total of 187 cured COVID-19 patients with antibody test were followed up every 2 weeks in this retrospective observational study. Assessment for general condition, symptoms, epidemiological contact history, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and antibody tests were performed and recorded. Information from Guangzhou CDC was also screened. Results: There were 33 (17.6%) patients with negative results for IgG and 35 (18.7%) patients with positive results for IgM. The average days of antibody detection from disease onset were 53.0. PCR assay was positive in 10 (5.3%) patients during the follow-up. Neither IgG nor IgM results showed a relationship with PCR test results (all P > 0.05). Neither re-infection nor person-to-person transmission was found in the cured patients. Factors associated with appearance of antibody comprised hospitalization days (OR: 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02-1.11, P = 0.006) and antibiotics treatment (OR: 3.50, 95%CI: 1.40-8.77, P = 0.007). Conclusions: In our study, no evidence of person-to-person transmission was found in cured COVID-19 patients. There seemed to be no re-infection in the cured COVID-19 patients in Guangzhou. These finding suggest that the cured do not cause the spread of disease. Additionally, neither IgG nor IgM can be used to replace the PCR test in cured patients.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 561674, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945686

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in grave morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is currently no effective drug to cure COVID-19. Based on analyses of available data, we deduced that excessive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) produced by cyclooxygenase-2 was a key pathological event of COVID-19. Methods: A prospective clinical study was conducted in one hospital for COVID-19 treatment with Celebrex to suppress the excessive PGE2 production. A total of 44 COVID-19 cases were enrolled, 37 cases in the experimental group received Celebrex as adjuvant (full dose: 0.2 g, bid; half dose: 0.2 g, qd) for 7-14 days, and the dosage and duration was adjusted for individuals, while seven cases in the control group received the standard therapy. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by measuring the urine PGE2 levels, lab tests, CT scans, vital signs, and other clinical data. The urine PGE2 levels were measured by mass spectrometry. The study was registered and can be accessed at http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=50474. Results: The concentrations of PGE2 in urine samples of COVID-19 patients were significantly higher than those of PGE2 in urine samples of healthy individuals (mean value: 170 ng/ml vs 18.8 ng/ml, p < 0.01) and positively correlated with the progression of COVID-19. Among those 37 experimental cases, there were 10 cases with age over 60 years (27%, 10/37) and 13 cases (35%, 13/37) with preexisting conditions including cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Twenty-five cases had full dose, 11 cases with half dose of Celebrex, and one case with ibuprofen. The remission rates in midterm were 100%, 82%, and 57% of the full dose, half dose, and control group, respectively, and the discharged rate was 100% at the endpoint with Celebrex treatment. Celebrex significantly reduced the PGE2 levels and promoted recovery of ordinary and severe COVID-19. Furthermore, more complications, severity, and death rate were widely observed and reported in the COVID-19 group of elders and with comorbidities; however, this phenomenon did not appear in this particular Celebrex adjunctive treatment study. Conclusion: This clinical study indicates that Celebrex adjuvant treatment promotes the recovery of all types of COVID-19 and further reduces the mortality rate of elderly and those with comorbidities.

13.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(8)2020 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833422

ABSTRACT

We report the complete genome sequences of five human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) strains obtained using next-generation sequencing. The five HCoV-NL63 strains were obtained from hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infection detected in Guangdong, China. This study provides several complete genomes of HCoV-NL63 and improves our understanding of HCoV-NL63 evolution in China.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 246-255, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774889

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is primarily associated with common cold in children, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Outbreaks caused by HCoV-NL63 are rare. Here we report a cluster of HCoV-NL63 cases with severe lower respiratory tract infection that arose in Guangzhou, China, in 2018. Twenty-three hospitalized children were confirmed to be HCoV-NL63 positive, and most of whom were hospitalized with severe pneumonia or acute bronchitis. Whole genomes of HCoV-NL63 were obtained using next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic and single amino acid polymorphism analyses showed that this outbreak was associated with two subgenotypes (C3 and B) of HCoV-NL63. Half of patients were identified to be related to a new subgenotype C3. One unique amino acid mutation at I507 L in spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) was detected, which segregated this subgenotype C3 from other known subgenotypes. Pseudotyped virus bearing the I507 L mutation in RBD showed enhanced entry into host cells as compared to the prototype virus. This study proved that HCoV-NL63 was undergoing continuous mutation and has the potential to cause severe lower respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus NL63, Human/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Child, Preschool , China , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Genotype , Humans , Infant , Phylogeny
15.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(5): 548-553, 2020 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and CT imaging features of patients with different clinical types of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), so as to provide a reference for the treatment and evaluation of COVID-19. METHODS: The clinical data of 278 patients with COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital from January 20th to February 10th in 2020 were collected. The patients were divided into mild, ordinary, severe and critical types. The differences of clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory examination indexes and CT image features of lung in different clinical types were analyzed and compared, and the relationship between clinical and imaging features and clinical types of diseases were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 278 patients with COVID-19, 130 were male (46.8%) and 148 were female (53.2%), of whom 88.8% (247/278) were 20 to 69 years old. 238 (85.6%) patients combined one or more basic diseases. The source of cases was mainly imported cases (n = 201, 72.3%), of whom 89 cases were imported from Wuhan, accounting for 44.3% of all imported cases. With the aggravation of the disease, the male composition ratio, age and the number of basic diseases of patients gradually increased, and the incidences of fever, dry cough, chilly or chills, and fatigue in severe and critical patients were significantly higher than those in the mild and ordinary ones. The white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil counts (NEU) and proportions (NEU%) of the severe and critical patients were higher than those of the mild and ordinary patients [WBC (×109/L): 5.7±3.1, 6.5±2.4 vs. 5.4±1.7, 4.9±1.6; NEU (×109/L): 4.4±3.1, 4.9±2.5 vs. 2.8±1.2, 2.9±1.3; NEU%: 0.72±0.13, 0.73±0.14 vs. 0.51±0.12, 0.59±0.11; all P < 0.01], while the lymphocyte count (LYM) and ratio (LYM%), platelet count (PLT) were lower than those in the mild and ordinary patients [LYM (×109/L): 1.0±0.4, 1.2±0.8 vs. 2.1±0.9, 1.5±0.6; LYM%: 0.21±0.11, 0.20±0.12 vs. 0.40±0.11, 0.32±0.11; PLT (×109/L): 177.1±47.8, 157.7±51.6 vs. 215.3±59.7, 191.8±64.3; all P < 0.05]. The level of albumin (Alb) was the lowest in the critical patients and the level of total bilirubin (TBil) was the highest, which was statistically significant as compared with the mild, ordinary and severe patients [Alb (g/L): 33.0±5.8 vs. 42.8±4.4, 39.6±5.1, 34.4±4.2; TBil (µmol/L): 20.1±12.8 vs. 12.0±8.7, 10.9±6.3, 12.2±8.3; both P < 0.01]. Lactate dehydration (LDH) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in the severe and critical patients were significantly higher than those in the mild and ordinary patients [LDH (µmol×s-1×L-1): 5.6±2.2, 5.0±2.9 vs. 2.8±0.9, 3.3±1.2; cTnI (µg/L): 0.010 (0.006, 0.012), 0.010 (0.006, 0.012) vs. 0.005 (0.003, 0.006), 0.005 (0.001, 0.008); both P < 0.05]. C-reactive protein (CRP) level of severe patients were higher than that in the mild, ordinary and critical patients [mg/L: 43.3 (33.2, 72.1) vs. 22.1 (16.2, 25.7), 29.7 (19.8, 43.1), 25.8 (23.0, 36.7), P < 0.01]. The level of procalcitonin (PCT) in the severe and critical patients was higher than that in the mild and ordinary patients [µg/L: 0.17 (0.12, 0.26), 0.13 (0.09, 0.24) vs. 0.06 (0.05, 0.08), 0.05 (0.04, 0.09), P < 0.01]. The typical CT imaging features were as follows: the ordinary type mainly showed the single or multiple ground glass shadows on the chest image; the severe type mainly showed the multiple ground glass shadows, infiltration shadows or solid transformation shadows. Compared with the ordinary patients, the lesions increase, and the scope of the lesion expanded to show double lungs. Critical type was mainly manifested as diffuse consolidation of both lungs with multiple patchy density increase shadows, multiple leafy patchy density increase shadows were seen on each leaf, most of them were ground glass-like density, and some were shown separately lung consolidation. CONCLUSIONS: Men, advanced aged, and combining multiple underlying diseases are high-risk populations of COVID-19, and they should pay close attention to the risk of progressing to severe or critical type. CT imaging features could be used as an important supplement when diagnosing severe and critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 940-948, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155426

ABSTRACT

The emerging COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection poses severe challenges to global public health. Serum antibody testing is becoming one of the critical methods for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. We investigated IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) protein after symptom onset in the intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients. 130 blood samples from 38 COVID-19 patients were collected. The levels of IgM and IgG specific to N and S protein were detected by ELISA. A series of blood samples were collected along the disease course from the same patient, including 11 ICU patients and 27 non-ICU patients for longitudinal analysis. N and S specific IgM and IgG (N-IgM, N-IgG, S-IgM, S-IgG) in non-ICU patients increased after symptom onset. N-IgM and S-IgM in some non-ICU patients reached a peak in the second week, while N-IgG and S-IgG continued to increase in the third week. The combined detection of N and S specific IgM and IgG could identify up to 75% of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in the first week. S-IgG was significantly higher in non-ICU patients than in ICU patients in the third week. In contrast, N-IgG was significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients. The increase of S-IgG positively correlated with the decrease of C-reactive protein (CRP) in non-ICU patients. N and S specific IgM and IgG increased gradually after symptom onset and can be used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Analysis of the dynamics of S-IgG may help to predict prognosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood
17.
Med (N Y) ; 1(1): 105-113.e4, 2020 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antiviral therapies against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which has caused a global pandemic of respiratory illness called COVID-19, are still lacking. METHODS: Our study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04252885, named ELACOI), was an exploratory randomized (2:2:1) controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or arbidol monotherapy for treating patients with mild/moderate COVID-19. FINDINGS: This study successfully enrolled 86 patients with mild/moderate COVID-19, with 34 randomly assigned to receive LPV/r, 35 to arbidol, and 17 with no antiviral medication as control. Baseline characteristics of the three groups were comparable. The primary endpoint, the rate of positive-to-negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, was similar between groups (all p > 0.05). There were no differences between groups in the secondary endpoints, the rates of antipyresis, cough alleviation, or improvement of chest computed tomography (CT) at days 7 or 14 (all p > 0.05). At day 7, 8 (23.5%) patients in the LPV/r group, 3 (8.6%) in the arbidol group, and 2 (11.8%) in the control group showed a deterioration in clinical status from moderate to severe/critical (p = 0.206). Overall, 12 (35.3%) patients in the LPV/r group and 5 (14.3%) in the arbidol group experienced adverse events during the follow-up period. No apparent adverse event occurred in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: LPV/r or arbidol monotherapy present little benefit for improving the clinical outcome of patients hospitalized with mild/moderate COVID-19 over supportive care. FUNDING: This study was supported by project 2018ZX10302103-002, 2017ZX10202102-003-004, and Infectious Disease Specialty of Guangzhou High-level Clinical Key Specialty (2019-2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ritonavir , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Indoles , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfides
18.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 672-675, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-65153

ABSTRACT

We report temporal patterns of viral shedding in 94 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and modeled COVID-19 infectiousness profiles from a separate sample of 77 infector-infectee transmission pairs. We observed the highest viral load in throat swabs at the time of symptom onset, and inferred that infectiousness peaked on or before symptom onset. We estimated that 44% (95% confidence interval, 25-69%) of secondary cases were infected during the index cases' presymptomatic stage, in settings with substantial household clustering, active case finding and quarantine outside the home. Disease control measures should be adjusted to account for probable substantial presymptomatic transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Virus Shedding , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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