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1.
British Journal of Social Work ; : 19, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1852945

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of child maltreatment is quite high during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in rural Hubei province, and children from vulnerable families are at greater risk of self-harm behaviours. The impact of lockdown measures in Wuhan, China during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on child maltreatment remains unknown. The present study attempted to estimate the prevalence of child maltreatment during this period, to identify risk factors, and the influence of child maltreatment. A representative sample of 1,062 school-aged children in rural Hubei province was surveyed. Results indicated that the prevalence of family violence, physical violence, emotional abuse and neglect during the lockdown period were 13.9, 13.7, 20.2 and 7.3 percent, respectively, and that of lifetime prevalence were 17.0, 13.9, 14.6 and 6.9 percent, respectively. And most victims did not seek official help. Boys were more likely to experience physical violence. Children from separated/divorced families tended to report more emotional abuse. Those having family members with a history of drug abuse and mental illness were more likely to experience neglect during the lockdown period. All types of child maltreatment were positively associated with self-harm behaviours. These findings highlight the importance of identifying at-risk children immediately and implementing timely intervention programmes to prevent self-harm behaviours for social workers and health professionals.

2.
Public Health ; 205: 6-13, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for illness severity and adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Alcohol drinking may also be a potential risk factor for disease severity. However, the combined and interactive effects of drinking and smoking on COVID-19 have not yet been reported. This study aimed to examine the combined and interactive effects of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking on the risk of severe illness and poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicentre retrospective cohort study. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed the data of 1399 consecutive hospitalised COVID-19 patients from 43 designated hospitals. Patients were grouped according to different combinations of drinking and smoking status. Multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to estimate the combined and interactive effects of drinking and smoking on the risk of severe COVID-19 and poor clinical outcomes. RESULTS: In the study population, 7.3% were drinkers/smokers, 4.3% were drinkers/non-smokers and 4.9% were non-drinkers/smokers. After controlling for potential confounders, smokers or drinkers alone did not show a significant increase in the risk of severe COVID-19 or poor clinical outcomes compared with non-drinkers/non-smokers. Moreover, this study did not observe any interactive effects of drinking and smoking on COVID-19. Drinkers/smokers had a 62% increased risk (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.60) of severe COVID-19 but did not have a significant increase in the risk for poor clinical outcomes compared with non-drinkers/non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Combined exposure to drinking and smoking increases the risk of severe COVID-19, but no direct effects of drinking or smoking, or interaction effects of drinking and smoking, were detected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies
3.
Acs Applied Polymer Materials ; 3(4):1747-1755, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1253886

ABSTRACT

Quick fever screening at a mass scale is proven effective during a pandemic to single out the ones with suspected symptoms of infectious diseases. However, achieving affordable and real-time fever alert at an individual level, although more preferable, remains elusive. Herein, we report an inexpensive and highly sensitive fever detector, which possesses a sharp color transition temperature window tailor-tuned for fever screening. The sensing component of the detector is rationally designed thermoresponsive agarose@poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-acrylamide hydrogel. The hydrogel turns from transparent to opaque white when its temperature is higher than its cloud point. As a proof of concept of its practical applicability, a wearable fever monitoring device was fabricated in the form of a wristband. When the wrist temperature is higher than the threshold of a human fever, the device shows a remarkable color change, alerting an elevated body temperature. The wearable detector provides a promising strategy for real-time fever alert monitoring and is capable of making contributions to inhibit the spread of infectious diseases during a pandemic.

4.
Statistics and Its Interface ; 14(1):3-12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1008526

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread around the world since it was detected in December 2019. The Chinese government executed a series of interventions to curb the pandemic. The "battle" against COVID-19 in Shenzhen, China is valuable because populated industrial cities are the epic centres of COVID-19 in many regions. We made use of synthetic control methods to create a reference population matching specific characteristics of Shenzhen. With both the synthetic and observed data, we introduced an epidemic compartmental model to compare the spread of COVID-19 between Shenzhen and its counterpart regions in the United States that didn't implement interventions for policy evaluation. Once the effects of policy interventions adopted in Shenzhen were estimated, the delay effects of those interventions were referred to provide the further control degree of interventions. Thus, the hypothetical epidemic situations in Shenzhen were inferred by using time-varying reproduction numbers in the proposed SIHR (Susceptible, Infectious, Hospitalized, Removed) model and considering if the interventions were delayed by 0 day to 5 days. The expected cumulative confirmed cases would be 1546, which is 5.75 times of the observed cumulative confirmed cases of 269 in Shenzhen on February 3, 2020, based on the data from the counterpart counties (mainly from Broward, New York, Santa Clara, Pinellas, and Westchester) in the United States. If the interventions were delayed by 5 days from the day when the interventions started, the expected cumulative confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Shenzhen on February 3, 2020 would be 676 with 95% credible interval (303,1959). Early implementation of mild interventions can subdue the epidemic of COVID-19. The later the interventions were implemented, the more severe the epidemic was in the hard-hit areas. Mild interventions are less damaging to the society but can be effective when implemented early.

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