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1.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292452

ABSTRACT

On April 13, 2021, the CDC announced that the administration of Johnson and Johnson’s COVID-19 vaccine would be paused due to a rare blood clotting side effect in ~0.0001% of people given the vaccine. Most people who are hesitant to get a COVID-19 vaccine list potential side effects as their main concern (PEW, 2021);thus, it is likely that this announcement increased vaccine hesitancy among the American public. Two days after the CDC’s announcement, we administered a survey to a group of 2,046 Americans to assess their attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate best practices for communicating information about the risk of side effects to the public. We found that the use of icon arrays to illustrate the small chance of experiencing the blood clotting side effect greatly decreased reported aversion toward the Johnson and Johnson vaccine as well as all other COVID-19 vaccines.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 730567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505033

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Xuanfei Baidu decoction (XFBD), a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, was designed and successfully applied for COVID-19 disease treatment in China, while the mechanism is still not clear. Methods: To evaluate the protective effect of XFBD on immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (CY)-treated mice, XFBD was orally administrated, the body weight was measured, and the immune organ index was calculated. HE staining was performed to analyze the pathological structures of the liver, spleen, and thymus. The levels of cytokines and immunoglobulin in the serum and spleen were evaluated by ELISA and RT-PCR. Splenic lymphocytes were isolated, and LPS-stimulated cell proliferation and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were evaluated. Results: XFBD significantly suppressed body weight loss and increased the indices of spleen and thymus. The pathological alteration was much improved after XFBD administration. The reductions of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgG, and IgM levels in serum and IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 expressions in the spleen were all significantly alleviated by XFBD. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS was further enhanced after treatment with XFBD. The reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in CY-treated mice was also highly increased in XFBD groups. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that XFBD played a crucial role in protection against immunosuppression in CY-treated mice and could be a potential candidate for immune modification and therapy.

3.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499623

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread across the globe, posing an enormous threat to public health and safety. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in combination with Western medicine (WM), has made important and lasting contributions in the battle against COVID-19. In this review, updated clinical effects and potential mechanisms of TCM, presented in newly recognized three distinct phases of the disease, are summarized and discussed. By integrating the available clinical and preclinical evidence, the efficacies and underlying mechanisms of TCM on COVID-19, including the highly recommended three Chinese patent medicines and three Chinese medicine formulas, are described in a panorama. We hope that this comprehensive review not only provides a reference for health care professionals and the public to recognize the significant contributions of TCM for COVID-19, but also serves as an evidence-based in-depth summary and analysis to facilitate understanding the true scientific value of TCM.

4.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487711

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been successfully applied worldwide in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the pharmacological mechanisms underlying this success remain unclear. Hence, the aim of this review is to combine pharmacological assays based on the theory of TCM in order to elucidate the potential signaling pathways, targets, active compounds, and formulas of herbs that are involved in the TCM treatment of COVID-19, which exhibits combatting viral infections, immune regulation, and amelioration of lung injury and fibrosis. Extensive reports on target screening are elucidated using virtual prediction via docking analysis or network pharmacology based on existing data. The results of these reports indicate that an intricate regulatory mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Therefore, more pharmacological research on the natural herbs used in TCM should be conducted in order to determine the association between TCM and COVID-19 and account for the observed therapeutic effects of TCM against COVID-19.

5.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology ; 283:114701, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1446835

ABSTRACT

Ethnopharmacological relevance Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD), one of the “three medicines and three prescriptions” for the clinically effective treatment of COVID-19 in China, plays an important role in the treatment of mild and/or common patients with dampness-toxin obstructing lung syndrome. Aim of the study The present work aims to elucidate the protective effects and the possible mechanism of XFBD against the acute inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods We use TGF-β1 induced fibroblast activation model and LPS/IL-4 induced macrophage inflammation model as in vitro cell models. The mice model of lung fibrosis was induced by BLM via endotracheal drip, and then XFBD (4.6 g/kg, 9.2 g/kg) were administered orally respectively. The efficacy and molecular mechanisms in the presence or absence of XFBD were investigated. Results The results proved that XFBD can effectively inhibit fibroblast collagen deposition, down-regulate the level of α-SMA and inhibit the migration of fibroblasts. IL-4 induced macrophage polarization was also inhibited and the secretions of the inflammatory factors including IL6, iNOS were down-regulated. In vivo experiments, the results proved that XFBD improved the weight loss and survival rate of the mice. The XFBD high-dose administration group had a significant effect in inhibiting collagen deposition and the expression of α-SMA in the lungs of mice. XFBD can reduce bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 activation and related macrophage infiltration. Conclusions Xuanfei Baidu Decoction protects against macrophages induced inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis via inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

6.
Chinese Sociological Review ; : 1-37, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1429124

ABSTRACT

How do citizens react to authoritarian responsiveness? To investigate this question, we study how Chinese citizens reacted to a novel government initiative which enabled social media users to publicly post requests for COVID-related medical assistance. To understand the effect of this initiative on public perceptions of government effectiveness, we employ a two-part empirical strategy. First, we conduct a survey experiment in which we directly expose subjects to real help-seeking posts, in which we find that viewing posts did not improve subjects’ ratings of government effectiveness, and in some cases worsened them. Second, we analyze over 10,000 real-world Weibo posts to understand the political orientation of the discourse around help-seekers. We find that negative and politically critical posts far outweighed positive and laudatory posts, complementing our survey experiment results. To contextualize our results, we develop a theoretic framework to understand the effects of different types of responsiveness on citizens’ political attitudes. We suggest that citizens’ negative reactions in this case were primarily influenced by public demands for help, which illuminated existing problems and failures of governance. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Chinese Sociological Review is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 194: 113588, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372896

ABSTRACT

Ultrasensitive, versatile sensors for molecular biomarkers are a critical component of disease diagnostics and personalized medicine as the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed in dramatic fashion. Integrated electrical nanopore sensors can fill this need via label-free, direct detection of individual biomolecules, but a fully functional device for clinical sample analysis has yet to be developed. Here, we report amplification-free detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNAs with single molecule sensitivity from clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples on an electro-optofluidic chip. The device relies on optically assisted delivery of target carrying microbeads to the nanopore for single RNA detection after release. A sensing rate enhancement of over 2,000x with favorable scaling towards lower concentrations is demonstrated. The combination of target specificity, chip-scale integration and rapid detection ensures the practicality of this approach for COVID-19 diagnosis over the entire clinically relevant concentration range from 104-109 copies/mL.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanopores , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Optical Tweezers , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e28563, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has tremendously impacted the world. The number of confirmed cases has continued to increase, causing damage to society and the economy worldwide. The public pays close attention to information on the pandemic and learns about the disease through various media outlets. The dissemination of comprehensive and accurate COVID-19 information that the public needs helps to educate people so they can take preventive measures. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the dissemination of COVID-19 information by analyzing the information released by the official WeChat account of the People's Daily during the pandemic. The most-read COVID-19 information in China was summarized, and the factors that influence information dissemination were studied to understand the characteristics that affect its dissemination. Moreover, this was conducted in order to identify how to effectively disseminate COVID-19 information and to provide suggestions on how to manage public opinion and information governance during a pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective study based on a WeChat official account. We collected all COVID-19-related information, starting with the first report about COVID-19 from the People's Daily and ending with the last piece of information about lifting the first-level emergency response in 34 Chinese provinces. A descriptive analysis was then conducted on this information, as well as on Qingbo Big Data's dissemination index. Multiple linear regression was utilized to study the factors that affected information dissemination based on various characteristics and the dissemination index. RESULTS: From January 19 to May 2, 2020, the People's Daily released 1984 pieces of information; 1621 were related to COVID-19, which mainly included headline news items, items with emotional content, and issues related to the pandemic's development. By analyzing the dissemination index, seven information dissemination peaks were discerned. Among the three dimensions of COVID-19 information-media salience, content, and format-eight factors affected the spread of COVID-19 information. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of pandemic-related information have varying dissemination power. To effectively disseminate information and prevent the spread of COVID-19, we should identify the factors that affect this dissemination. We should then disseminate the types of information the public is most concerned about, use information to educate people to improve their health literacy, and improve public opinion and information governance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Information Dissemination , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , China , Humans , Retrospective Studies
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(29)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307382

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), presents an urgent health crisis. More recently, an increasing number of mutated strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been identified globally. Such mutations, especially those on the spike glycoprotein to render its higher binding affinity to human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (hACE2) receptors, not only resulted in higher transmission of SARS-CoV-2 but also raised serious concerns regarding the efficacies of vaccines against mutated viruses. Since ACE2 is the virus-binding protein on human cells regardless of viral mutations, we design hACE2-containing nanocatchers (NCs) as the competitor with host cells for virus binding to protect cells from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The hACE2-containing NCs, derived from the cellular membrane of genetically engineered cells stably expressing hACE2, exhibited excellent neutralization ability against pseudoviruses of both wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the D614G variant. To prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections in the lung, the most vulnerable organ for COVID-19, we develop an inhalable formulation by mixing hACE2-containing NCs with mucoadhesive excipient hyaluronic acid, the latter of which could significantly prolong the retention of NCs in the lung after inhalation. Excitingly, inhalation of our formulation could lead to potent pseudovirus inhibition ability in hACE2-expressing mouse model, without imposing any appreciable side effects. Importantly, our inhalable hACE2-containing NCs in the lyophilized formulation would allow long-term storage, facilitating their future clinical use. Thus, this work may provide an alternative tactic to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infections even with different mutations, exhibiting great potential for treatment of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adhesives/administration & dosage , Adhesives/chemistry , Adhesives/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Inhalation , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Cryoprotective Agents/chemistry , Drug Storage , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Excipients/administration & dosage , Excipients/chemistry , Excipients/pharmacokinetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Hyaluronic Acid/chemistry , Hyaluronic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Attachment/drug effects
10.
Nano Today ; 40: 101243, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300951

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has become a global health emergency. Although enormous efforts have been made, there is still no effective treatment against the new virus. Herein, a TiO2 supported single-atom nanozyme containing atomically dispersed Ag atoms (Ag-TiO2 SAN) is designed to serve as a highly efficient antiviral nanomaterial. Compared with traditional nano-TiO2 and Ag, Ag-TiO2 SAN exhibits higher adsorption (99.65%) of SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus. This adsorption ability is due to the interaction between SAN and receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike 1 protein of SARS-CoV2. Theoretical calculation and experimental evidences indicate that the Ag atoms of SAN strongly bind to cysteine and asparagine, which are the most abundant amino acids on the surface of spike 1 RBD. After binding to the virus, the SAN/virus complex is typically phagocytosed by macrophages and colocalized with lysosomes. Interestingly, Ag-TiO2 SAN possesses high peroxidase-like activity responsible for reactive oxygen species production under acid conditions. The highly acidic microenvironment of lysosomes could favor oxygen reduction reaction process to eliminate the virus. With hACE2 transgenic mice, Ag-TiO2 SAN showed efficient anti-SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus activity. In conclusion, Ag-TiO2 SAN is a promising nanomaterial to achieve effective antiviral effects for SARS-CoV2.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251580, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285197

ABSTRACT

This mixed-method study examined the experiences of college students during the COVID-19 pandemic through surveys, experience sampling data collected over two academic quarters (Spring 2019 n1 = 253; Spring 2020 n2 = 147), and semi-structured interviews with 27 undergraduate students. There were no marked changes in mean levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, or loneliness between 2019 and 2020, or over the course of the Spring 2020 term. Students in both the 2019 and 2020 cohort who indicated psychosocial vulnerability at the initial assessment showed worse psychosocial functioning throughout the entire Spring term relative to other students. However, rates of distress increased faster in 2020 than in 2019 for these individuals. Across individuals, homogeneity of variance tests and multi-level models revealed significant heterogeneity, suggesting the need to examine not just means but the variations in individuals' experiences. Thematic analysis of interviews characterizes these varied experiences, describing the contexts for students' challenges and strategies. This analysis highlights the interweaving of psychosocial and academic distress: Challenges such as isolation from peers, lack of interactivity with instructors, and difficulty adjusting to family needs had both an emotional and academic toll. Strategies for adjusting to this new context included initiating remote study and hangout sessions with peers, as well as self-learning. In these and other strategies, students used technologies in different ways and for different purposes than they had previously. Supporting qualitative insight about adaptive responses were quantitative findings that students who used more problem-focused forms of coping reported fewer mental health symptoms over the course of the pandemic, even though they perceived their stress as more severe. These findings underline the need for interventions oriented towards problem-focused coping and suggest opportunities for peer role modeling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Housing , Students/psychology , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Psychological Distress , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(50): 56579-56586, 2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952789

ABSTRACT

Surgical mask is recommended by the World Health Organization for personal protection against disease transmission. However, most of the surgical masks on the market are disposable that cannot be self-sterilized for reuse. Thus, when confronting the global public health crisis, a severe shortage of mask resource is inevitable. In this paper, a novel low-cost electrothermal mask with excellent self-sterilization performance and portability is reported to overcome this shortage. First, a flexible, ventilated, and conductive cloth tape is patterned and adhered to the surface of a filter layer made of melt-blown nonwoven fabrics (MNF), which functions as interdigital electrodes. Then, a graphene layer with premier electric and thermal conductivity is coated onto the MNF. Operating under a low voltage of 3 V, the graphene-modified MNF (mod-MNF) can quickly generate large amounts of heat to achieve a high temperature above 80 °C, which can kill the majority of known viruses attached to the filter layer and the mask surface. Finally, the optimized graphene-modified masks based on the mod-MNF filter retain a relatively high particulate matter (PM) removal efficiency and a low-pressure drop. Moreover, the electrothermal masks can maintain almost the same PM removal efficiency over 10 times of electrifying, suggesting its outstanding reusability.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e23970, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has brought drastic changes to the field of plastic surgery. It is critical for stakeholders in this field to identify the changes in public interest in plastic procedures to be adequately prepared to meet the challenges of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine tweets related to the public interest in plastic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic and to help stakeholders in the field of plastic surgery adjust their practices and sustain their operations during the current difficult situation of the pandemic. METHODS: Using a web crawler, 73,963 publicly accessible tweets about the most common cosmetic surgical and minimally invasive plastic procedures were collected. The tweets were grouped into three phases, and the tweeting frequencies and Google Trends indices were examined. Tweeting frequency, sentiment, and word frequency analyses were performed with Python modules. RESULTS: Tweeting frequency increased by 24.0% in phase 2 and decreased by 9.1% in phase 3. Tweets about breast augmentation, liposuction, and abdominoplasty ("tummy tuck") procedures consecutively increased over the three phases of the pandemic. Interest in Botox and chemical peel procedures revived first when the lockdown was lifted. The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a negative impact on public sentiment about plastic procedures. The word frequency pattern significantly changed after phase 1 and then remained relatively stable. CONCLUSIONS: According to Twitter data, the public maintained their interest in plastic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stakeholders should consider refocusing on breast augmentation, liposuction, and abdominoplasty procedures during the current phase of the pandemic. In the case of a second wave of COVID-19, stakeholders should prepare for a temporary surge of Botox and chemical peel procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(3): 618-627, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126376

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic caused by the novel Sars-CoV-2 coronavirus, has resulted in millions of deaths and disruption to daily life across the globe. University students have been additionally affected by a sudden move to online learning, the closure of campuses and dramatic societal changes that have upended their experiences of higher education. Here we focus on the physical and mental health consequences of the pandemic for this population sector during 2020, and the interdependencies of these impacts. We survey the challenges for infection control on campuses and for monitoring the disease dynamics in student communities. Finally, we explore the psychological and mental health problems that have been exacerbated by the pandemic and evaluate the underlying factors that are most relevant to students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
16.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(5): 2067-2075, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092502

ABSTRACT

Heat treatment denatures viral proteins that comprise the virion, making the virus incapable of infecting a host. Coronavirus (CoV) virions contain single-stranded RNA genomes with a lipid envelope and four proteins, three of which are associated with the lipid envelope and thus are thought to be easily denatured by heat or surfactant-type chemicals. Prior studies have shown that a temperature as low as 75°C with a treatment duration of 15 min can effectively inactivate CoV. The degree of CoV heat inactivation greatly depends on the length of heat treatment time and the temperature applied. With the goal of finding whether sub-second heat exposure of CoV can sufficiently inactivate CoV, we designed and developed a simple fluidic system that can measure sub-second heat inactivation of CoV. The system is composed of a stainless-steel capillary immersed in a temperature-controlled oil bath followed by an ice bath, through which virus solution can flow at various speeds. Flowing virus solution at different speeds, along with temperature control and monitoring system, allows the virus to be exposed to the desired temperature and treatment durations with high accuracy. Using mouse hepatitis virus, a betacoronavirus, as a model CoV system, we identified that 71.8°C for 0.51 s exposure is sufficient to obtain >5 Log10 reduction in viral titer (starting titer: 5 × 107 PFU/ml), and that when exposed to 83.4°C for 1.03 s, the virus was completely inactivated (>6 Log10 reduction).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Hot Temperature , Virus Inactivation , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Viral Plaque Assay
17.
Anal Chem ; 93(2): 828-833, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065763

ABSTRACT

A variety of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing devices have been extensively used in biochemical detection for their characteristics of label-free, highly sensitive, and faster detecting. Among them, the spectrum-based SPR sensing devices have offered us great advantages in high-throughput sensing due to their large dynamic range and the possibility of detection resolution similar to that offered by angle interrogation. This paper demonstrates a spectrum-based SPR imaging sensing system with fast wavelength scanning capability achieved by an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a low-cost and speckle-free halogen lamp implemented as the SPR excitation source. Especially, we developed a novel four-parameter-based spectral curve readjusting (4-PSCR) method for data processing, which offered us a faster and more accurate spectral data curve fitting process than the traditional polynomial fitting method. With the configuration, we have also conducted an SPR high-throughput detection of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) spike protein, proving its application possibility in the screening of COVID-19 with high accuracy. We believe that the higher sensitivity and accuracy of the system have made it readily used in biochemical imaging and detecting applications.


Subject(s)
Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Optics and Photonics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance/instrumentation , Temperature
18.
Molecules ; 26(1)2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006941

ABSTRACT

December 2019 saw the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has spread across the globe. The high infectivity and ongoing mortality of SARS-CoV-2 emphasize the demand of drug discovery. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) is the functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells. ACE2 exists as a membrane-bound protein on major viral target pulmonary epithelial cells, and its peptidase domain (PD) interacts SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with higher affinity. Therefore, targeting ACE2 is an important pharmacological intervention for a SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we described the two-way switch role of ACE2 in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia and underlying comorbidities, and discussed the potential effect of the ACE inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker on a hypertension patient with the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we analyzed the S-protein-binding site on ACE2 and suggested that blocking hot spot-31 and hot spot-353 on ACE2 could be a therapeutic strategy for preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Besides, the recombinant ACE2 protein could be another potential treatment option for SARS-CoV-2 induced acute severe lung failure. This review could provide beneficial information for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents via targeting ACE2 and the clinical usage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) drugs for novel coronavirus pneumonia treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pneumonia/virology
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 576275, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004682

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on anti-VEGF treatment in ophthalmology patients in a single hospital in northern China. A total of 93 anti-VEGF injections were administered to 85 eyes of 72 patients at The China Medical University First Hospital Department of Ophthalmology during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to the same period in 2019, the number of injections decreased by 70%. Fifty-nine eyes of 46 patients were receiving 3+PRN anti-VEGF treatment prior to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic; all of these patients experienced treatment interruptions due to COVID-19-associated reasons. Anatomic and functional outcomes suggest that patients with anti-VEGF treatment interruptions are at risk for severe adverse visual sequelae. Moreover, deferred anti-VEGF treatment due to patient-related or department-related reasons during the COVID-19 pandemic may result in poor visual outcomes for new patients. Our results suggest that COVID-19 has had a significant negative effect on anti-VEGF treatment in ophthalmology patients. Detailed guidance from global experts in ophthalmology is highly sought after in these challenging circumstances.

20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 596684, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000092

ABSTRACT

Background: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses an unprecedented health crisis. The most common chronic illness among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 is hypertension. Immune dysregulation plays an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and in the development of hypertension; however, the dynamic immunological characteristics of COVID-19 patients with hypertension remain largely unclear. Methods: In total, 258 hypertensive patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were included in this study. CD38+HLA-DR+ and CD38+PD-1+ CD8+ T cells, IFNγ+CD4+ and IFNγ+CD8+ T cells, the titers of IgG, IgM, and IgA against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and SARS-CoV-2 throat viral loads were measured weekly over 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms. Clinical outcomes were also monitored. Findings: CD4+ T lymphopenia was observed in 100% of the severe and critical cases. Compared with the surviving patients, the patients with fatal outcomes exhibited high and prolonged expression of CD38+HLA-DR+ and CD38+PD-1+ on CD8+ T cells, low expression of SARS-CoV-2-specific IFNγ+CD4+ and IFNγ+CD8+ T cells, low titers of IgG, IgM, and IgA against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and high SARS-CoV-2 viral load during the illness. In the surviving patients, the viral load was significantly inversely correlated with SARS-CoV-2-specific IFNγ+CD8+and IFNγ+CD4+ T cells, IgG, IgM, and IgA. Interpretation: T lymphopenia is common in critical or severe COVID-19 cases with hypertension. Prolonged activation and exhaustion of CD8+ T cells were associated with severe disease. The delayed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses may be insufficient for overcoming severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in the absence of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hypertension/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , Lymphopenia/blood , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
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