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1.
Virus Res ; 322: 198954, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050063

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) are the main porcine enteric coronaviruses that cause severe diarrhoea in piglets, posing huge threat to the swine industry. Our previous study verified that the co-infection of PDCoV and PEDV is common in natural swine infections and obviously enhances the disease severity in piglets. However, the effects of co-infection of PDCoV and PEDV on intestinal microbial community are unknown. In current study, the microbial composition and diversity in the colon of piglets were analyzed. Our results showed that both of PDCoV and PEDV were mainly distributed in the small intestines and caused severe damage of ileum but not colon in the co-inoculated piglets. Furthermore, we observed that PDCoV and PEDV co-infection alters the gut microbiota composition at the phylum, family and genus levels. The abundance of Mitsuokella and Collinsella at genus level were significantly increased in PDCoV-PEDV co-infection piglets. Spearman's correlation analysis further suggested that there existed strong positive correlation between Mitsuokella and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, these two factors may together aggravating the small intestine pathological lesions. These results proved there existed obvious correlation between the disease severity caused by PDCoV-PEDV co-infection and intestinal microbial community.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Coinfection/veterinary
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5723-5738, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971295

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that causes diarrhea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission, posing a threat to animal and human health. However, the susceptibility profile of different species of mice to PDCoV infection and its evolutionary characteristics are still unclear. In the current study, we found that BALB/c and Kunming mice are susceptible to PDCoV. Our results showed that there were obvious lesions in intestinal and lung tissues from the infected mice. PDCoV RNAs were detected in the lung, kidney, and intestinal tissues from the infected mice of both strains, and there existed wider tissue tropism in the PDCoV-infected BALB/c mice. The RNA and protein levels of aminopeptidase N from mice were relatively high in the kidney and intestinal tissues and obviously increased after PDCoV infection. The viral-specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against PDCoV were detected in the serum of infected mice. An interesting finding was that two key amino acid mutations, D138H and Q641K, in the S protein were identified in the PDCoV-infected mice. The essential roles of these two mutations for PDCoV-adaptive evolution were confirmed by cryo-electron microscope structure model analysis. The evolutionary characteristics of PDCoV among Deltacoronaviruses (δ-CoVs) were further analyzed. δ-CoVs from multiple mammals are closely related based on the phylogenetic analysis. The codon usage analysis demonstrated that similar codon usage patterns were used by most of the mammalian δ-CoVs at the global codon, synonymous codon, and amino acid usage levels. These results may provide more insights into the evolution, host ranges, and cross-species potential of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Amino Acids , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD13 Antigens/genetics , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , Deltacoronavirus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Mammals/metabolism , Mice , Phylogeny , RNA , Swine
3.
Journal of Destination Marketing & Management ; : 100705, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799853

ABSTRACT

Crowding used to be a double-edged sword in the tourism industry. However, the COVID-19 pandemic seems to make the disadvantage of crowding more obvious. Here, we investigated the relationship between vaccination status (including vaccination completeness and willingness), crowding perception, popular perception, destination attractiveness, and loyalty based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response model. Empirical research data were collected through a survey of 535 tourists to Nanjing's Confucian Temple, China, which is known for its tremendous travel volume. The results show that both crowding perception and popular perception significantly affect loyalty, but with opposite signs. Moreover, if tourists have been vaccinated, the positive effect of destination attractiveness on loyalty will intensify, meaning that the rarely investigated variable vaccination status indeed plays a moderating role.

4.
J Clean Prod ; 339: 130621, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704101

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the passenger flow. Facing the same pandemic, various regions differ in the resilience of population mobility due to differences in the regional cultural. This study uses mobile big data to quantifies regional mobility resilience of 358 cities in China. Study results reveal the differences in regional mobility resilience of cities through spatial autocorrelation analysis, and verify the effects of regional culture on mobility resilience using a panel logit regression model based on pathogen-stress theory. Spatial heterogeneity and autocorrelation in the regional mobility resilience of Chinese cities are identified through spatial analysis, which are manifested by various hot spots over time. Moreover, the panel regression results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has a significant negative effect on regional mobility resilience; and that the negative effect of COVID-19 on regional mobility resilience is amplified in the cities with high degrees of dialect diversity, while it is weakened in the cities with high degrees of cultural tightness (which have strict norms and punishments for deviance). This study provides theoretical implications for mobility resilience in the context of COVID-19 and advances the pathogen-stress theory. Study findings also provide practical recommendations for regions to enhance regional mobility resilience under the challenges of future public health crisis events.

5.
Journal of cleaner production ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1647690

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the passenger flow. Facing the same pandemic, various regions differ in the resilience of population mobility due to differences in the regional cultural. This study uses mobile big data to quantifies regional mobility resilience of 358 cities in China. Study results reveal the differences in regional mobility resilience of cities through spatial autocorrelation analysis, and verify the effects of regional culture on mobility resilience using a panel logit regression model based on pathogen-stress theory. Spatial heterogeneity and autocorrelation in the regional mobility resilience of Chinese cities are identified through spatial analysis, which are manifested by various hot spots over time. Moreover, the panel regression results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic has a significant negative effect on regional mobility resilience;and that the negative effect of COVID-19 on regional mobility resilience is amplified in the cities with high degrees of dialect diversity, while it is weakened in the cities with high degrees of cultural tightness (which have strict norms and punishments for deviance). This study provides theoretical implications for mobility resilience in the context of COVID-19 and advances the pathogen-stress theory. Study findings also provide practical recommendations for regions to enhance regional mobility resilience under the challenges of future public health crisis events.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488540

ABSTRACT

While protective measures in response to infectious diseases may reduce the freedom of tourists (regarding their behaviors), few studies have documented the effects of destination protective measures on the self-protective behaviors of tourists. By applying the protection motivation theory, this study examines the effects of perceived destination protective supports on the social distancing intentions of tourists during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results reveal significant relationships among perceived destination support, coping appraisal, threat appraisal, and the social distancing intentions of tourists. Moreover, two cognitive appraisals-toward the pandemic-partially mediate the relationship between perceived destination support and social distancing intention, and this mediational process is 'intervened' with by social norms. This has implications on whether tourist destinations apply more rigorous social distancing polices during the COVID-19 pandemic, to enhance the coping confidence behaviors of tourists, without causing anxiety and fear, and to achieve the goal of enhancing tourists' intentions to protect themselves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Tourism
7.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 897, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615617

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes watery diarrhea and induces proinflammatory cytokine responses in piglets. Our previous research showed that the specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks exhibited mild diarrhea and low fecal viral shedding, along with cecum lesions after PDCoV infection. Disturbances in the homeostasis of the gut microbiota have been associated with various diseases. We aimed to explore the effects of PDCoV infection on chick gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) production, and inflammatory cytokine expression in chicks, and also to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and SCFAs or inflammatory cytokine expression of the PDCoV-infected chicks. Results obtained using 16S rRNA sequencing showed that infection with PDCoV strain HNZK-02 significantly altered the composition of chick gut microbiota, with the reduced abundance of Eisenbergiella and Anaerotruncus genera at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi) (P < 0.05), and an increased abundance of Alistipes genus at 17 dpi (P < 0.05). The production of SCFAs in the cecum of PDCoV HNZK-02-infected chicks, including acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, decreased in all cases. The expression of inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-10) was increased in the cecum tissue and serum of the PDCoV HNZK-02-infected chicks when detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Further analysis showed significant correlation between bacterial genera and SCFAs or inflammatory cytokines expression in cecum of the PDCoV infected chicks. These findings might provide new insight into the pathology and physiology of PDCoV in chicks.

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