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1.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres ; n/a(n/a):e2021JD036251, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1783944

ABSTRACT

With the continuation of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, the impacts of this catastrophe on anthropogenic emissions are no longer limited to its early stage. This study quantitatively estimates effective radiative forcings (ERFs) due to anthropogenic well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs) and aerosols for the period 2020-2050 under the three latest Covid-19 economic-recovery scenarios using an aerosol-climate model. The results indicate that reductions in both WMGHG and aerosol emissions under the Covid-19 green recoveries lead to increases ranging from 0 to 0.3 W m-2 in global annual mean anthropogenic ERF over the period 2020-2050 relative to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 2-4.5 scenario (the baseline case). These positive ERFs are mainly attributed to the rapid and dramatic decreases in atmospheric aerosol content that increase net shortwave radiative flux at the top of atmosphere via weakening the direct aerosol effect and low cloud cover. At the regional scale, reductions in aerosols contribute to positive ERFs throughout the Northern Hemisphere, while the decreased WMGHGs dominate negative ERFs over the areas away from aerosol pollutions, such as the Southern Hemisphere oceans. This drives a strong interhemispheric contrast of ERFs. In contrast, the increased anthropogenic emissions under the fossil-fueled recovery scenario lead to an increase of 0.3 W m-2 in global annual mean ERF in 2050 compared with the baseline case, primarily due to the contribution of WMGHG ERFs. The regional ERF changes are highly dependent on local cloud radiative effects.

2.
Energies ; 15(7):2395, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762759

ABSTRACT

In the context of the economic situation, international relations, and the consequences of COVID-19, the future competition pattern of crude oil trade is uncertain. In this paper, the crude oil international import competition and export competition networks are based on a complex network model. The link prediction method is used to construct a crude oil competition relationship prediction model. We summarize the evolving characteristics of the competitive landscape of the global crude oil trade from 2000 to 2019 and explore the reasons for the changes. Finally, we forecast the future potential crude oil import and export competition. The results indicate the following. (1) The crude oil import competition center is transferred from Europe and America to the Asia–Pacific region and it may continue to shift to developing regions. (2) At present, the competition among traditional crude oil exporters is the core of crude oil export competition, such as OPEC, Canada, and Russia. The United States has become the world's largest crude oil exporter, which means that the core of crude oil export competition has begun to shift to emerging countries. The competition intensity of emerging crude oil exporters is gradually increasing. There is likely to be fierce export competition between traditional and emerging exporters. (3) In the future crude oil competition, we should pay attention to the trend of the United States, which may lead to the restructuring of the global oil trade pattern. Finally, this paper considers the exporters and importers and puts forward policy suggestions for policymakers to deal with the future global crude oil trade competition.

3.
Chinese Journal of Biologicals ; 35(1):68-73, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1744598

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the influencing factors of medical staff's vaccination opinions on immune-compromised children and provide a scientific basis for formulating vaccination policies for immune-compromised children during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325034

ABSTRACT

Background: A large-scale global outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) out of Wuhan, from China, occurred in January 2020. Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19in infected patients out of Wuhan, from China. Patients and Methods: Thirteen patients were confirmed to be infected with novel coronavirus-2019 (2019-nCoV) between January 27andFebruary 8, 2020, in Baoji city, Shanxi, northwestern China. Epidemiological and clinical information, and computed to morphology imaging data from all COVID-19 patients were collected;cases were divided into two groups according to the severity of infection (mild or severe). Results: : Nine (9/13) COVID-19patientsexhibitedmild disease severity, and defined as second-generation, human-to-human transmission cases. Most patients (11/13) had a history of travel to or from Wuhan. There were no differences in sex and age between the mild and severe cases (all P >0.05). A moderate degree of fever (11/13), cough (13/13), and fatigue (8/13) were common symptoms;however, there was no statistical difference between mild and severe cases in this regard (all P >0.05). Oxyhemoglobin saturation and oxygenation index decreased, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were elevated in all patients with COVID-19infection, with statistically significant differences between those with severe disease and mild infection (all P <0.05).Twelve of 13COVID-19patients exhibited changes in chest CT imaging features, and time course changes were different between mild and severe cases (all P <0.05). Conclusion: Most cases of COVID-19infection were second-generation human-to-human transmissions from Wuhan and were mild in severity. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19varied.Oxyhemoglobin saturation, oxygenation index, CRP and SAA levels, and CT features were reliable parameters to evaluate the severity of COVID-19 infection. However, a few patients with mild COVID-19diseaselackedtypicalcharacteristics such as fever and changes in CT imaging features.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323583

ABSTRACT

Background: With the increasing spread of COVID-19, healthcare workers, especially front-line medical staff, have become more vulnerable to emotional exhaustion. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the influence of time pressure on the emotional exhaustion of front-line healthcare workers, and explore the effects of social sharing and cognitive reappraisal on this. Methods: : This cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2020. A total of 232 questionnaires were completed by front-line healthcare workers in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Hierarchical linear regression and conditional process analysis were performed to explore the relationships among time pressure, social sharing, cognitive reappraisal, and emotional exhaustion. Results: : Time pressure was positively associated with social sharing and emotional exhaustion. Social sharing presented a dark side in terms of the impact on emotional exhaustion. Cognitive reappraisal negatively moderated the relationship between time pressure and social sharing, and it further indirectly influenced the relationship between time pressure and emotional exhaustion through social sharing. Conclusions: : Our findings shed light on how time pressure influences the emotional exhaustion of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 period. Although social sharing is commonly regarded as a positive behavior, we identified a dark side in terms of its impact. We also identified that improving cognitive reappraisal may present a positive strategy toward alleviating emotional exhaustion.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318915

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe the imaging characteristics in COVID-19 Patients from non-pandemic regions to improve understanding of the disease. Methods We reviewed chest CT scans of 30 COVID-19 patients from three hospitals in Sichuan province, China. Results Typical CT manifestations include the involvement of multiple lobes, mostly in the peripheral zone of the lungs, and subpleural distribution. GGO, crazy paving or mixed GGO and consolidation is the most common signs. Few patients can present small amount of pleural effusion. It is worth noting that none of the lung cavities, tree buds, and lymphadenopathy appeared. The follow-up imaging findings of some patients showed progress when the initial CT score reached 7. Conclusion The CT scan still play an important role in screening the COVID-19, most of the images present positive signs, mainly subpleural, multiple GGO. CT might can predict the severity or whether the patient will progress to severe illness. A small number of patients may be missed if they are based on CT findings alone, which should be closely combined with the patient's epidemiological history and nucleic acid test.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315976

ABSTRACT

The relationship between gut microbes and COVID-19 or H1N1 flu is not fully understood. Here, we compared gut mycobiota of 67 COVID-19 patients, 35 H1N1 patients and 48 healthy controls (HCs) using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 3-ITS4 sequencing. Fungal richness decreased in COVID-19 and H1N1 patients compared to HCs, but fungal diversity decreased in only H1N1 patients. Fungal mycobiota dysbiosis in both COVID-19 and H1N1 patients was mainly characterized by depletions of fungi such as Aspergillus , Penicillium , but several fungi, such as Candida parapsilosis , and Malassezia yamatoensis , were enriched in H1N1 patients. The altered fungal taxa were strongly associated with clinical features such as the incidence of diarrhoea, albumin. Gut mycobiota between COVID-19 patients with mild and severity symptoms are not different, as well as between COVID-19 patients in and out hospital. Therefore, gut mycobiota dysbiosis occur in covid-19 or H1N1 patients and do not improve until discharge.

9.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0125321, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639525

ABSTRACT

Over the past 20 years, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 emerged, causing severe human respiratory diseases throughout the globe. Developing broad-spectrum drugs would be invaluable in responding to new, emerging coronaviruses and to address unmet urgent clinical needs. Main protease (Mpro; also known as 3CLpro) has a major role in the coronavirus life cycle and is one of the most important targets for anti-coronavirus agents. We show that a natural product, noncovalent inhibitor, shikonin, is a pan-main protease inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, human coronavirus (HCoV)-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-229E with micromolar half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Structures of the main protease of different coronavirus genus, SARS-CoV from the betacoronavirus genus and HCoV-NL63 from the alphacoronavirus genus, were determined by X-ray crystallography and revealed that the inhibitor interacts with key active site residues in a unique mode. The structure of the main protease inhibitor complex presents an opportunity to discover a novel series of broad-spectrum inhibitors. These data provide substantial evidence that shikonin and its derivatives may be effective against most coronaviruses as well as emerging coronaviruses of the future. Given the importance of the main protease for coronavirus therapeutic indication, insights from these studies should accelerate the development and design of safer and more effective antiviral agents. IMPORTANCE The current pandemic has created an urgent need for broad-spectrum inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. The main protease is relatively conservative compared to the spike protein and, thus, is one of the most promising targets in developing anti-coronavirus agents. We solved the crystal structures of the main protease of SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63 that bound to shikonin. The structures provide important insights, have broad implications for understanding the structural basis underlying enzyme activity, and can facilitate rational design of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus ligands as new therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Molecular Docking Simulation , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Protein Binding
10.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the measures and rules of Chinese medicine (CM) and provide reference for clinical application in the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: The data source was from CM COVID-19 prevention and treatment programs on government websites and official media websites of the different provinces and cities. The search lasted from December 8, 2019 to March 10, 2020. Main variables were medication frequency and combinations of medicines. Cluster analysis and complex network analysis were used by prevention and treatment stage and by area. RESULTS: Among 27 CM diagnosis and treatment plans, 203 therapeutic prescriptions were enrolled, of which the top 4 herbs were: Radix glycyrrhizae, Semen armeniacae amarum, Herba ephedrae, and Herba agastachis, respectively. The core combinations were Herba ephedrae and Semen armeniacae amarum. Forty-eight preventive formulae were identified. Ten herbs, including Radix Astragali seu hedysari, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix saposhnikoviae, Flos lonicerae, etc. were most frequently used. The core prescription of CM compatibility was Radix astragali seu hedysari, Radix glycyrrhizae, and Radix saposhnikoviae, which is the main component of Yu Ping Feng San. There were 45 prevention and treatment prescriptions in East China; the most used CM was Radix glycyrrhizae, Herba agastachis, Pericarpium citri reticulatae, and Gypsum fibrosum. Fifty prescriptions were identified in North China. According to CM analyses, Herba agastachis, Semen armeniacae amarum, Herba ephedrae, and Poria were most frequently used. CONCLUSIONS: CM for COVID-19 prevention mainly focuses on improving human immunity; for treatment, prescription focuses on clearing the lungs and removing dampness. Prescriptions vary with regions, perhaps due to climatic and environmental differences, which help clinicians to quickly make CM plans and treat patients according to clinical status, further minimizing resource wastage.

11.
Science China. Chemistry ; : 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615421

ABSTRACT

Cost-effective, rapid, and accurate virus detection technologies play key roles in reducing viral transmission. Prompt and accurate virus detection enables timely treatment and effective quarantine of virus carrier, and therefore effectively reduces the possibility of large-scale spread. However, conventional virus detection techniques often suffer from slow response, high cost or sophisticated procedures. Recently, two-dimensional (2D) materials have been used as promising sensing platforms for the high-performance detection of a variety of chemical and biological substances. The unique properties of 2D materials, such as large specific area, active surface interaction with biomolecules and facile surface functionalization, provide advantages in developing novel virus detection technologies with fast response and high sensitivity. Furthermore, 2D materials possess versatile and tunable electronic, electrochemical and optical properties, making them ideal platforms to demonstrate conceptual sensing techniques and explore complex sensing mechanisms in next-generation biosensors. In this review, we first briefly summarize the virus detection techniques with an emphasis on the current efforts in fighting again COVID-19. Then, we introduce the preparation methods and properties of 2D materials utilized in biosensors, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and other 2D materials. Furthermore, we discuss the working principles of various virus detection technologies based on emerging 2D materials, such as field-effect transistor-based virus detection, electrochemical virus detection, optical virus detection and other virus detection techniques. Then, we elaborate on the essential works in 2D material-based high-performance virus detection. Finally, our perspective on the challenges and future research direction in this field is discussed.

12.
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol ; 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541682

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the protective and medical resources were limited, while a limited number of studies have concentrated on the influences of COVID-19 on the treatment of cancer patients. This survey aimed to explore the protective awareness about COVID-19, the incidence and factors influencing treatment delay, and expected treatment modality of cancer patients, so as to assist cancer patients. METHODS: A current prospective, online survey was conducted through the WeChat platform on cancer outpatients at the Department of Peking University Third Hospital in China from March 4 to April 4, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients completed the survey after excluding 35 patients with an incomplete questionnaire. Note that 100% of the patients wore masks and paid attention to hand hygiene during the hospital visits, 73.0% of the patients had a strong desire to treat cancer, and 41.8% experienced treatment delay. The rate of treatment delay among the patients treated in other departments was markedly higher than that in our department (64.7% vs. 38.7%, p = .042). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the previous treatment department was independently correlated with treatment delay. Moreover, 51.8% of the patients preferred to receive chemotherapy in the day ward, 54.6% hoped to receive a strong contact with doctors, and 83.7% would like to receive online therapeutic consultation. CONCLUSION: The rate of treatment delay was remarkable, which may be related to previous treatment departments. Promotion of "active management of attending physician" and "telemedicine" may be highly advantageous for cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292742

ABSTRACT

Background: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), as a major public health issue of high complexity, multifactorial causes and great socioeconomic and family impact, affects China now especially after COVID-19. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical and psychological characteristic in adolescent psychiatric patients with or without NSSI.Methods:: Adolescent psychiatric patients were recruited from psychiatric outpatient and inpatient unit in Guangdong mental Health Center between October and December 2020. NSSI was evaluated by the modified version of Adolescents Self-Harm Scale. Childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF). Peer bullying experience was evaluated by The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire(BVQ-R). Depression was assessed by the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Clinical data were collected from electronic medical record system.Results:: The sample included 157 adolescent psychiatric patients (72.6% female), aged 13-18 years (M=15.39, SD=0.145). NSSI group experienced more peer bullying (t=4.08, P <0.001), more likely to get into romantic relationship currently(χ2=5.38, P =0.02), more times of hospitalization (t=0.36, P <0.001), receiving more antipsychotic treatment (t=3.58, P <0.001), benzodiazepine treatment (t=3.46, P <0.001), and mood-stabilizer treatment (χ2 =8.53, P <0.001). The significant predictor of NSSI for the last one year included being in romantic relationship currently (OR =4.27, 95% CI=[1.53,11.93]), outpatient (OR=0.38, 95%CI=[0.16,0.88]), BVQ-R total (OR=1.10, 95% CI=[1.02,1.18]),MARDS total (OR= 1.05, 95% CI=[1.01,1.09]), and benzodiazepine PDD/DDD (OR=5.79, 95% CI=[0.99,33.72]).Conclusions:: Adolescent psychiatric patients with NSSI have significantly higher incidences of life event such as peer bulling, childhood trauma experience, and they were more likely to get into a romantic relationship. Meanwhile, patients with NSSI had significantly severe level of depression, being more on benzodiazepine and mood-stabilizer use. This provides a valuable basis for our clinical treatment of adolescent mental patients with NSSI.

14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 755047, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470775

ABSTRACT

This paper analyses the stochastic dynamics of the COVID-19 Case-Fatality Ratios (CFR) in three developing economies in East Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The sample covers the daily frequency data from April 28, 2020, to June 29, 2021. For this purpose, we utilize two unit root tests, which consider one structural break and two structural breaks. The findings reveal that the CFR follows a unit root process in Indonesia and the Philippines. However, the CFR is stationary in Malaysia. This evidence indicates that the COVID-19 has a permanent effect in Indonesia and the Philippines but temporary in Malaysia. The paper also discusses the potential economic implications of these results for the post-COVID-19 era in the related developing economies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developing Countries , Humans , Indonesia , Malaysia/epidemiology , Philippines , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Psychol ; 12: 719454, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468367

ABSTRACT

This study uses the structure-conduct-performance analytical framework in industrial organization theory to analyze Chinese startups' corporate social responsibility (CSR) assuming normalization after the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, we take the external impact of the pandemic on startups during the pandemic as a starting point for analyzing the changes in the structure of startups and their CSR performance. We find a positive correlation between the pandemic and the performance of startups. We propose that the CSR of startups is not simply altruism but must involve an "altruistic and self-interested" mechanism. Therefore, this study proposes that during the pandemic, startups need to rebuild their CSR model. Furthermore, the company's "economic man" and "social man" are interdependent; economic, ethical, and legal responsibilities are parallel and charitable responsibilities remain the highest pursuit amid the pandemic. The social responsibility of startups as the COVID-19 pandemic normalizes is a strategic choice.

16.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127144, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433515

ABSTRACT

During coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the exponential increase in clinical waste (CW) generation has caused immense burden to CW treatment facilities. Co-incineration of CW in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) is an emergency treatment method. A material flow model was developed to estimate the change in feedstock characteristics and resulting acid gas emission under different CW co-incineration ratios. The ash contents and lower heating values of the feedstocks, as well as HCl concentrations in flue gas showed an upward trend. Subsequently, 72 incineration residue samples were collected from a MSWI performing co-incineration (CW ratio <10 wt%) in Wuhan city, China, followed by 20 incineration residues samples from waste that were not co-incineration. The results showed that the contents of major elements and non-volatile heavy metals in the air pollution control residues increased during co-incineration but were within the reported ranges, whereas those in the bottom ashes revealed no significant changes. The impact of CW co-incineration at a ratio <10 wt% on the distribution of elements in the incineration residues was not significant. However, increase in alkali metals and HCl in flue gas may cause potential boiler corrosion. These results provide valuable insights into pollution control in MSWI during pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metals, Heavy , Refuse Disposal , Coal Ash , Humans , Incineration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Waste/analysis
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(8): 1111-1112, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352217
20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4578-4586, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348031

ABSTRACT

Children with hematological malignancies are at increased risk of hepatitis B virus infection. This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety profile of HBV vaccination in pediatric hemato-oncological children. A nonrandomized interventional study was conducted from January 2017 to February 2020 in Shanghai, China. Seventy-three pediatric hemato-oncological children with hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titers <10 mIU/ml were recruited. The participants received three doses of recombinant HBV vaccine according to the 0-, 1-, and 6- month immunization schedule. Adverse events following immunization and anti-HBs titers (at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months after inoculation) were recorded. Forty-three males and thirty females with median ages of 9.12 and 9.60 years, respectively, were included. The mean anti-HBs titer was 4.88 ± 2.61 mIU/ml, 893.12 ± 274.12 mIU/ml, and 711.45 ± 337.88 mIU/ml at baseline, one month, and six months after inoculation, respectively (P< .001). A total of fourteen adverse events following immunization were reported, and among them, 5 (6.85%), 5 (6.85%), and 4 (5.48%) events were reported after the first, second, and third inoculation, respectively (P= .927). In conclusions, the HBV vaccine is immunogenic and safe in children with hematological malignancies. It is worth noting that the anti-HBs titer was decreased at the 6-month follow-up, and periodic monitoring of the anti-HBs titer accompanied by timely booster vaccination should be carefully considered.Abbreviations: AEFI: Adverse events following immunization; HBV: Hepatitis B virus; Anti-HBs: Antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen; HBsAg: Hepatitis B surface antigen; APC: Antigen-presenting cell; HSCT: Hemopoietic stem cell transplantation; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Hematologic Neoplasms , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B , COVID-19 , Child , China , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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