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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232812

ABSTRACT

The rapid mutation and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants recently, especially through the emerging variants Omicron BA5, BF7, XBB and BQ1, necessitate the development of universal vaccines to provide broad spectrum protection against variants. For the SARS-CoV-2 universal recombinant protein vaccines, an effective approach is necessary to design broad-spectrum antigens and combine them with novel adjuvants that can induce high immunogenicity. In this study, we designed a novel targeted retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) receptor 5'triphosphate double strain RNA (5'PPP dsRNA)-based vaccine adjuvant (named AT149) and combined it with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron chimeric RBD-dimer recombinant protein (D-O RBD) to immunize mice. The results showed that AT149 activated the P65 NF-κB signaling pathway, which subsequently activated the interferon signal pathway by targeting the RIG-I receptor. The D-O RBD + AT149 and D-O RBD + aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Al) + AT149 groups showed elevated levels of neutralizing antibodies against the authentic Delta variant, and Omicron subvariants, BA1, BA5, and BF7, pseudovirus BQ1.1, and XBB compared with D-O RBD + Al and D-O RBD + Al + CpG7909/Poly (I:C) groups at 14 d after the second immunization, respectively. In addition, D-O RBD + AT149 and D-O RBD + Al + AT149 groups presented higher levels of the T-cell-secreted IFN-γ immune response. Overall, we designed a novel targeted RIG-I receptor 5'PPP dsRNA-based vaccine adjuvant to significantly improve the immunogenicity and broad spectrum of the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Mice , Adjuvants, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic , ABO Blood-Group System , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 19(4): e1011083, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306502

ABSTRACT

As infected and vaccinated population increases, some countries decided not to impose non-pharmaceutical intervention measures anymore and to coexist with COVID-19. However, we do not have a comprehensive understanding of its consequence, especially for China where most population has not been infected and most Omicron transmissions are silent. This paper aims to reveal the complete silent transmission dynamics of COVID-19 by agent-based simulations overlaying a big data of more than 0.7 million real individual mobility tracks without any intervention measures throughout a week in a Chinese city, with an extent of completeness and realism not attained in existing studies. Together with the empirically inferred transmission rate of COVID-19, we find surprisingly that with only 70 citizens to be infected initially, 0.33 million becomes infected silently at last. We also reveal a characteristic daily periodic pattern of the transmission dynamics, with peaks in mornings and afternoons. In addition, by inferring individual professions, visited locations and age group, we found that retailing, catering and hotel staff are more likely to get infected than other professions, and elderly and retirees are more likely to get infected at home than outside home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Big Data , Occupations , China/epidemiology
3.
Molecules ; 28(8)2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293250

ABSTRACT

Disease-related biomarkers may serve as indicators of human disease. The clinical diagnosis of diseases may largely benefit from timely and accurate detection of biomarkers, which has been the subject of extensive investigations. Due to the specificity of antibody and antigen recognition, electrochemical immunosensors can accurately detect multiple disease biomarkers, including proteins, antigens, and enzymes. This review deals with the fundamentals and types of electrochemical immunosensors. The electrochemical immunosensors are developed using three different catalysts: redox couples, typical biological enzymes, and nanomimetic enzymes. This review also focuses on the applications of those immunosensors in the detection of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, novel coronavirus pneumonia and other diseases. Finally, the future trends in electrochemical immunosensors are addressed in terms of achieving lower detection limits, improving electrode modification capabilities and developing composite functional materials.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunoassay , Electrochemical Techniques , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biomarkers
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286210

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV) that causes lethal watery diarrhea in neonatal pigs and poses economic and public health burdens. Currently, there are no effective antiviral agents against PDCoV. Curcumin is the active ingredient extracted from the rhizome of turmeric, which has a potential pharmacological value because it exhibits antiviral properties against several viruses. Here, we described the antiviral effect of curcumin against PDCoV. At first, the potential relationships between the active ingredients and the diarrhea-related targets were predicted through a network pharmacology analysis. Twenty-three nodes and 38 edges were obtained using a PPI analysis of eight compound-targets. The action target genes were closely related to the inflammatory and immune related signaling pathways, such as the TNF signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, and so on. Moreover, IL-6, NR3C2, BCHE and PTGS2 were identified as the most likely targets of curcumin by binding energy and 3D protein-ligand complex analysis. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited PDCoV replication in LLC-PK1 cells at the time of infection in a dose-dependent way. In poly (I:C) pretreated LLC-PK1 cells, PDCoV reduced IFN-ß production via the RIG-I pathway to evade the host's antiviral innate immune response. Meanwhile, curcumin inhibited PDCoV-induced IFN-ß secretion by inhibiting the RIG-I pathway and reduced inflammation by inhibiting IRF3 or NF-κB protein expression. Our study provides a potential strategy for the use of curcumin in preventing diarrhea caused by PDCoV in piglets.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Curcumin , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , LLC-PK1 Cells , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/metabolism , Coronavirus/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Diarrhea
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-11, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232612

ABSTRACT

Over one billion people have received 2-3 dosages of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine for basic immunization. Whether a booster dose should be delivered to protect against the Omicron variant and its sub-lineages, remains controversial. Here, we tested different vaccine platforms targeting the ancestral or Omicron strain as a secondary booster of the ancestral inactivated vaccine in mice. We found that the Omicron-adapted inactivated viral vaccine promoted a neutralizing antibody response against Omicron in mice. Furthermore, heterologous immunization with COVID-19 vaccines based on different platforms remarkably elevated the levels of cross- neutralizing antibody against Omicron and its sub-lineages. Omicron-adapted vaccines based on heterologous platforms should be prioritized in future vaccination strategies to control COVID-19.

6.
MedComm ; 3(4), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147815

ABSTRACT

Integrating different types of vaccines into a singular immunization regimen is an effective and accessible approach to strengthen and broaden the immunogenicity of existing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) vaccine candidates. To optimize the immunization strategy of the novel mRNA‐based vaccine and recombinant protein subunit vaccine that attracted much attention in COVID‐19 vaccine development, we evaluated the immunogenicity of different combined regimens with the mRNA vaccine (RNA‐RBD) and protein subunit vaccine (PS‐RBD) in mice. Compared with homologous immunization of RNA‐RBD or PS‐RBD, heterologous prime‐boost strategies for mRNA and protein subunit vaccines failed to simultaneously enhance neutralizing antibody (NAb) and Th1 cellular response in this study, showing modestly higher serum neutralizing activity and antibody‐dependent cell‐mediated cytotoxicity for “PS‐RBD prime, RNA‐RBD boost” and robust Th1 type cellular response for “RNA‐RBD prime, PS‐RBD boost”. Interestingly, immunizing the mice with the mixed formulation of the two aforementioned vaccines in various proportions further significantly enhanced the NAb responses against ancestral, Delta, and Omicron strains and manifested increased Th1‐type responses, suggesting that a mixed formulation of mRNA and protein vaccines might be a more prospective vaccination strategy. This study provides basic research data on the combined vaccination strategies of mRNA and protein‐based COVID‐19 vaccines. The immunogenicity of vaccines can be enhanced by the optimization of immunization strategies. In this paper, we investigated the immunogenicity of different combined regimens with the mRNA vaccine RNA‐RBD and protein subunit vaccine PS‐RBD. The result showed that compared with homologous immunization, heterologous prime‐boost strategies for mRNA and protein subunit vaccines failed to simultaneously enhance NAb and Th1 cellular response, but immunizing the mice with the mixed formulation of the two aforementioned vaccines in various proportions further significantly enhanced the NAb responses and Th1 cellular response.

7.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143699

ABSTRACT

Small molecular nucleic acid drugs produce antiviral effects by activating pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, a small molecular nucleotide containing 5'triphosphoric acid (5'PPP) and possessing a double-stranded structure was designed and named nCoV-L. nCoV-L was found to specifically activate RIG-I, induce interferon responses, and inhibit duplication of four RNA viruses (Human enterovirus 71, Human poliovirus 1, Human coxsackievirus B5 and Influenza A virus) in cells. In vivo, nCoV-L quickly induced interferon responses and protected BALB/c suckling mice from a lethal dose of the enterovirus 71. Additionally, prophylactic administration of nCoV-L was found to reduce mouse death and relieve morbidity symptoms in a K18-hACE2 mouse lethal model of SARS-CoV-2. In summary, these findings indicate that nCoV-L activates RIG-I and quickly induces effective antiviral signals. Thus, it has potential as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mice , Animals , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Cell Line , DEAD Box Protein 58 , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Interferons
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(46): 21295-21303, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118107

ABSTRACT

Multivalent display of SARS-CoV-2 RBDs (receptor-binding domains, prime proteins for viral infection and as vaccine immunogens) affects infectivity and as immunogens on a virus-like particle (VLP) can enhance immune response. However, the viral attachment and immune response initiated by the copy number and distribution pattern of SARS-CoV-2 RBDs remain poorly understood. Here, we organize SARS-CoV-2 RBDs on DNA nanoballs of ∼74 nm diameter by an aptamer-guided assembly for a systematic interrogation. We find that both the affinity and the rate of the DNA-based VLP binding to the host cell increase with the RBD number (10-90). In addition, a concentrated RBD distribution promotes faster and stronger interaction to the host cell than an even RBD distribution. Moreover, it is interesting to learn that the immunity activation does not increase linearly with RBD numbers on the VLP. As few as 20 evenly distributed RBDs per VLP can elicit up to 86% immunity of macrophage cells. Overall, the work provides a new tool to study SARS-CoV-2 infection and VLP-based immunity activation, which should deepen our understanding of viral infection and facilitate the development of highly effective antiviral vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral , DNA
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0219822, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097937

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus in pigs, is one of the major pathogens for lethal watery diarrhea in piglets and poses a threat to public health because of its potential for interspecies transmission to humans. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25HC), a derivative of cholesterol, exhibits multiple potential modulating host responses to pathogens, including viruses and bacteria, as well as pathogen-induced inflammation, while its antiviral effect on PDCoV and how it mediates the biological process of host cells to counter against infections remain poorly understood. Here, we thoroughly explored the antiviral effect of 25HC on PDCoV infection and tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. 25HC showed no toxic effect in LLC-PK1 cells and exerted antiviral ability against PDCoV infection in vitro. The viral cycle and time-of-addition analyses showed that 25HC mainly restricted the early and middle periods of the PDCoV postentry stage to inhibit infection. 25HC regulated disordered cholesterol metabolism induced by PDCoV infection and stimulated interferon-related lipid droplet accumulation. Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), screened by bioinformatic analyses, seemed to play an important role in PDCoV infection and was downregulated by 25HC. One interesting finding is that inhibition of TGF-ß1 with the inhibitor asiaticoside exhibited a similar antiviral capacity to 25HC and demonstrated regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Taking all of the findings together, we verified the antiviral effect of 25HC on PDCoV through interference with cholesterol metabolism, which may be related to its suppression of TGFß1. IMPORTANCE As an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus in pigs, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) causes giant economic loss in the pig industry because of lethal diarrhea and possesses the potential for transmission from animals to humans. Several pieces of evidence have suggested the antiviral potential of cholesterol-25-hydroxylase and importance of cholesterol in viral infection. This study reports that 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) significantly restricted PDCoV infection through modulation of cholesterol metabolism, and we identified that lipid droplets play important roles in interferon response against virus infection. Moreover, this study identified the importance of TGF-ß1 in CoV infection by bioinformatic analysis and verified that the inhibition of TGF-ß1 showed anti-PDCoV capacity. Moreover, we uncovered the relationship between TGF-ß and cholesterol metabolism initially. Given that the importance of cholesterol in viral infection, 25HC has a great potential to treat PDCoV infection and TGF-ß1 can be a crucial antiviral target.

10.
Cell Rep Phys Sci ; 3(9): 101048, 2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042209

ABSTRACT

The mechanical force between a virus and its host cell plays a critical role in viral infection. However, characterization of the virus-cell mechanical force at the whole-virus level remains a challenge. Herein, we develop a platform in which the virus is anchored with multivalence-controlled aptamers to achieve transfer of the virus-cell mechanical force to a DNA tension gauge tether (Virus-TGT). When the TGT is ruptured, the complex of binding module-virus-cell is detached from the substrate, accompanied by decreased host cell-substrate adhesion, thus revealing the mechanical force between whole-virus and cell. Using Virus-TGT, direct evidence about the biomechanical force between SARS-CoV-2 and the host cell is obtained. The relative mechanical force gap (<10 pN) at the cellular level between the wild-type virus to cell and a variant virus to cell is measured, suggesting a possible positive correlation between virus-cell mechanical force and infectivity. Overall, this strategy provides a new perspective to probe the SARS-CoV-2 mechanical force.

11.
TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry ; : 116767, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031715

ABSTRACT

Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can selectively bind to a specific target. They are generally obtained by SELEX, but the procedure is challenging and time-consuming. Moreover, the identified aptamers tend to be insufficient in stability, specificity, and affinity. Thus, only a handful of aptamers have entered the practical use stage. Recently, computational approaches have demonstrated a significant capacity to assist in the discovery of high-performance aptamers. This review discusses the advances achieved in several aspects of computational tools in this field, as well as the new progress in machine learning and deep learning, which are used in aptamer identification and optimization. To illustrate these computationally aided processes, aptamers selection against SARS-CoV-2 is discussed in detail as a case study. We hope that this review will aid and motivate researchers to develop and utilize more computational techniques to discover ideal aptamers effectively.

12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 949248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022731

ABSTRACT

To cope with the decline in COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity caused by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, a heterologous immunization regimen using chimpanzee adenovirus vectored vaccine expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike (ChAd-S) and an inactivated vaccine (IV) was tested in mice and non-human primates (NHPs). Heterologous regimen successfully enhanced or at least maintained antibody and T cell responses and effectively protected against SARS-CoV-2 variants in mice and NHPs. An additional heterologous booster in mice further improved and prolonged the spike-specific antibody response and conferred effective neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. Interestingly, priming with ChAd-S and boosting with IV reduced the lung injury risk caused by T cell over activation in NHPs compared to homologous ChAd-S regimen, meanwhile maintained the flexibility of antibody regulation system to react to virus invasion by upregulating or preserving antibody levels. This study demonstrated the satisfactory compatibility of ChAd-S and IV in prime-boost vaccination in animal models.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Simian , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunization , Macaca , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0226322, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019798

ABSTRACT

We investigated the distribution, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of mutated SARS-CoV-2 to clarify the association between virulence and the viral spreading ability of current and future circulating strains. Chinese rhesus macaques were infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain GD108 and Beta variant B.1.351 (B.1.351) and assessed for clinical signs, viral distribution, pathological changes, and pulmonary inflammation. We found that GD108 replicated more efficiently in the upper respiratory tract, whereas B.1.351 replicated more efficiently in the lower respiratory tract and lung tissue, implying a reduced viral shedding and spreading ability of B.1.351 compared with that of GD108. Importantly, B.1.351 caused more severe lung injury and dramatically elevated the level of inflammatory cytokines compared with those observed after infection with GD108. Moreover, both B.1.351 and GD108 induced spike-specific T-cell responses at an early stage of infection, with higher levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the B.1.351 group and higher levels of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in the GD108 group, indicating a divergent pattern in the T-cell-mediated inflammatory "cytokine storm." This study provides a basis for exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs. IMPORTANCE One of the priorities of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and drug research strategy is to determine the changes in transmission ability, virulence, and pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 variants. In addition, nonhuman primates (NHPs) are suitable animal models for the study of the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and could contribute to the understanding of pathogenicity and transmission mechanisms. As SARS-CoV-2 variants continually emerge and the viral biological characteristics change frequently, the establishment of NHP infection models for different VOCs is urgently needed. In the study, the virulence and tissue distribution of B.1.351 and GD108 were comprehensively studied in NHPs. We concluded that the B.1.351 strain was more virulent but exhibited less viral shedding than the latter. This study provides a basis for determining the pathogenic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and establishes an applicable animal model for evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaccines and drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Interleukin-17 , Virus Shedding , Virulence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Macaca mulatta , Interferon-gamma , Disease Models, Animal
14.
ACS Nano ; 16(9): 15310-15317, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016546

ABSTRACT

Natural ligand-receptor interactions that play pivotal roles in biological events are ideal models for design and assembly of artificial recognition molecules. Herein, aiming at the structural characteristics of the spike trimer and infection mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, we have designed a DNA framework-guided spatial-patterned neutralizing aptamer trimer for SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. The ∼5.8 nm tetrahedral DNA framework affords precise spatial organization and matched valence as four neutralizing aptamers (MATCH-4), which matches with nanometer precision the topmost surface of SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer, enhancing the interaction between MATCH-4 and spike trimer. Moreover, the DNA framework provides a dimensionally complementary nanoscale barrier to prevent the spike trimer-ACE2 interaction and the conformational transition, thereby inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-host cell fusion and infection. As a result, the spatial- and valence-matched MATCH-4 ensures improved binding affinity and neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and its varied mutant strains, particularly the current Omicron variant, that are evasive of the majority of existing neutralizing antibodies. In addition, because neutralizing aptamers specific to other targets can be evolved and assembled, the present design has the potential to inhibit other wide-range and emerging pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , DNA , Humans , Ligands , Membrane Glycoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry
15.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997806

ABSTRACT

The research and development (R&D) of novel adjuvants is an effective measure for improving the immunogenicity of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recombinant protein vaccine. Toward this end, we designed a novel single-stranded RNA-based adjuvant, L2, from the SARS-CoV-2 prototype genome. L2 could initiate retinoic acid-inducible gene-I signaling pathways to effectively activate the innate immunity. ZF2001, an aluminum hydroxide (Al) adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD) subunit vaccine with emergency use authorization in China, was used for comparison. L2, with adjuvant compatibility with RBD, elevated the antibody response to a level more than that achieved with Al, CpG 7909, or poly(I:C) as adjuvants in mice. L2 plus Al with composite adjuvant compatibility with RBD markedly improved the immunogenicity of ZF2001; in particular, neutralizing antibody titers increased by about 44-fold for Omicron, and the combination also induced higher levels of antibodies than CpG 7909/poly(I:C) plus Al in mice. Moreover, L2 and L2 plus Al effectively improved the Th1 immune response, rather than the Th2 immune response. Taken together, L2, used as an adjuvant, enhanced the immune response of the SARS-CoV-2 recombinant RBD protein vaccine in mice. These findings should provide a basis for the R&D of novel RNA-based adjuvants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Aluminum Hydroxide , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , RNA , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tretinoin , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 814365, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952314

ABSTRACT

To effectively control and prevent the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), suitable vaccines have been researched and developed rapidly. Currently, 31 COVID-19 vaccines have been approved for emergency use or authorized for conditional marketing, with more than 9.3 billion doses of vaccines being administered globally. However, the continuous emergence of variants with high transmissibility and an ability to escape the immune responses elicited by vaccines poses severe challenges to the effectiveness of approved vaccines. Hundreds of new COVID-19 vaccines based on different technology platforms are in need of a quick evaluation for their efficiencies. Selection and enrollment of a suitable sample of population for conducting these clinical trials is often challenging because the pandemic so widespread and also due to large scale vaccination. To overcome these hurdles, methods of evaluation of vaccine efficiency based on establishment of surrogate endpoints could expedite the further research and development of vaccines. In this review, we have summarized the studies on neutralizing antibody responses and effectiveness of the various COVID-19 vaccines. Using this data we have analyzed the feasibility of establishing surrogate endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of vaccines based on neutralizing antibody titers. The considerations discussed here open up new avenues for devising novel approaches and strategies for the research and develop as well as application of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feasibility Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(29): 13146-13153, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908099

ABSTRACT

Broad-spectrum anti-SARS-CoV-2 strategies that can inhibit the infection of wild-type and mutant strains would alleviate their threats to global public health. Here, we propose an icosahedral DNA framework for the assembly of up to 30 spatially arranged neutralizing aptamers (IDNA-30) to inhibit viral infection. Each triangular plane of IDNA-30 is composed of three precisely positioned aptamers topologically matching the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer, thus forming a multivalent spatially patterned binding. Due to its multiple binding sites and moderate size, multifaced IDNA-30 induces aggregation of viruses. The rigid icosahedron framework afforded by four helixes not only forms a steric barrier to prevent the virus from binding to the host but also limits the conformational transformation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer. Combining multivalent topologically patterned aptamers with structurally well-defined nanoformulations, IDNA-30 exhibits excellent broad-spectrum neutralization against SARS-CoV-2, including almost completely blocking the infection of Omicron pseudovirus. Overall, this multidimensional neutralizing strategy provides a new direction for the assembly of neutralizing reagents to enhance their inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection and combat other disease-causing viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , DNA , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
18.
Nano Today ; 44: 101499, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821422

ABSTRACT

Recently, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron has spread very quickly worldwide. Several studies have indicated that the Omicron variant causes a substantial evasion of the humoral immune response and the majority of existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Here we address this challenge by applying a spherical cocktail neutralizing aptamer-gold nanoparticle (SNAP) to block the interaction of Omicron receptor binding domain (RBD) and host Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2). With the synergetic blocking strategy based on multivalent multisite aptamer binding and steric hindrance by the size-matched gold scaffold, the SNAP conjugate tightly binds to Omicron RBD with a dissociation constant of 13.6 pM, almost completely blocking the infection of Omicron pseudovirus with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 35.9 pM. Overall, the SNAP strategy not only fills the gap of the humoral immune evasion caused by clustered mutations on Omicron, but also provides a clue for the development of new broad neutralizing reagents against future variants.

19.
Vaccine ; 40(14): 2233-2239, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757910

ABSTRACT

A reference standard is needed for quality control of protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to meet urgent domestic needs. The Chinese National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) launched a project to establish the first reference material for the protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine to be used for calibration of antigen testing. The potency and stability of the national candidate standard (CS) were determined by collaborative calibration, and accelerated and freeze-thaw degradation studies. Moreover, a suitability study of the CS was performed. Eight laboratories in mainland China were asked to detect antigen content of CS using a common validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit established by NIFDC and in-house kits in the collaborative study. Six laboratories returned valid results, which established that the antigen content of the CS was 876,938 YU/mL, with good agreement across laboratories. In the suitability study, the CS exhibited excellent parallelism and a linear relationship with four samples produced by different expression systems and target proteins. In addition, good stability in the accelerated and freeze-thaw degradation study was observed. In conclusion, the CS was approved by the Biological Product Reference Standards Sub-Committee of the National Drug Reference Standards Committee as the first Chinese national standard for determining antigen content of protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, with an assigned antigen content of 877,000 U/mL (Lot. 300050-202101). This standard will contribute to a standardized assessment of protein subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in China and may provide experience for developing reference materials for antigen content detection of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Protein Subunits , Reference Standards , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 69, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721495

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and the gradually decreasing neutralizing antibodies over time post vaccination have led to an increase in incidents of breakthrough infection across the world. To investigate the potential protective effect of the recombinant protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine targeting receptor-binding domain (RBD) (PS-RBD) and whole inactivated virus particle vaccine (IV) against the variant strains, in this study, rhesus macaques were immunized with PS-RBD or IV vaccine, followed by a Beta variant (B.1.351) challenge. Although neutralizing activity against the Beta variant was reduced compared with that against the prototype, the decreased viral load in both upper and lower respiratory tracts, milder pathological changes, and downregulated inflammatory cytokine levels in lung tissues after challenge demonstrated that PS-RBD and IV still provided effective protection against the Beta variant in the macaque model. Furthermore, PS-RBD-induced macaque sera possessed general binding and neutralizing activity to Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants in our study, though the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers declined by varying degrees, demonstrating potential protection of PS-RBD against current circulating variants of concern (VOCs). Interestingly, although the IV vaccine-induced extremely low neutralizing antibody titers against the Beta variant, it still showed reduction for viral load and significantly alleviated pathological change. Other correlates of vaccine-induced protection (CoP) like antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and immune memory were both confirmed to be existing in IV vaccinated group and possibly be involved in the protective mechanism.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/pharmacology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology
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