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1.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874382

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cesarean scar defect (CSD) is a long-term outcome of cesarean section (CS) and associated with numerous gynecological and obstetric problems. Previous studies indicate that infection may be a risk factor for CSD. Adjunctive azithromycin was shown to reduce the risk of postoperative infection in patients undergoing non-elective primary cesarean delivery in labor or after the rupture of membranes compared with standard antibiotic prophylaxis. This study investigated the protective effect of adjunctive azithromycin in combination with single-dose cephalosporin against CSD in women undergoing non-elective cesarean delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in a University hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 242 women who underwent their first non-elective CS were randomly assigned to receive 1500 mg cefuroxime sodium plus 500 mg intravenous azithromycin (n = 121; experimental group) or 1500 mg cefuroxime sodium plus a placebo (n = 121; placebo group). The primary outcome was CSD prevalence, as determined by transvaginal ultrasound and saline infusion sonohysterography within 6 months of delivery. Secondary outcomes were changes in infectious indicators (e.g. hypersensitive C-reactive protein and procalcitonin), postoperative morbidity, and use of postoperative antibiotics. We also examined the operative procedure, pathogenic microorganism cultures, and fetal outcomes. Outcomes were compared between groups with the chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, or Student's t test. RESULTS: Between May 2018 and May 2021, 121 women were randomized to each arm. Because the sonographic follow up was disrupted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and strict management policies, we merged the follow-up time points (6 weeks and 6 months) into a single time period (6 weeks to 6 months); 104 and 108 women in the experimental and placebo groups, respectively, completed the first sonographic follow up. CSD was diagnosed by sonography in 34/104 (32.7%) and 50/108 (46.3%) patients in the experimental and placebo groups, respectively (relative risk 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.99; p = 0.043). Characteristics of CSD and short-term infection outcomes did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of intravenous 500 mg azithromycin adjunctive to single-dose cefuroxime prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CSD in women undergoing non-elective CS.

2.
Agronomy ; 12(5):1191, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871929

ABSTRACT

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oilseed crop grown worldwide with a planting area of 6.57 million ha in China, which accounts for about 20% of the world’s total rapeseed planting area. However, in recent years, the planting area in China has decreased by approximately 12.2% due to the low yield and economic benefits. Thus, to ensure oil security, it is necessary to develop high-efficiency cultivation for rapeseed production. Crop growth models are powerful tools to analyze and optimize the yield composition of crops under certain environmental and management conditions. In this study, the CROPGRO-Canola model was first calibrated and evaluated using the rapeseed planting data of four growing seasons in Wuhan with nine nitrogen fertilizer levels (from 120 to 360 kg ha−1) and five planting densities (from 15 to 75 plants m−2). The results indicated that the CROPGRO-Canola model simulated rapeseed growth well under different nitrogen rates and planting densities in China, with a simulation error of 0–3 days for the anthesis and maturity dates and a normalized root mean square error lower than 7.48% for the yield. Furthermore, we optimized the management of rapeseed by calculating the marginal net return under 10 nitrogen rates (from 0 to 360 kg ha−1 at an increasing rate of 40 kg ha−1) and 6 planting densities (from 15 to 90 plant m−2 at an increasing rate of 15 plant m−2) from 1989 to 2019. The results indicated that the long-term optimal nitrogen rate was 120–160 kg N ha−1, and the optimal planting density was 45–75 plants m−2 under normal fertilizer prices. The optimal nitrogen rate decreased with increasing fertilizer price within a reasonable range. In conclusion, long-term rapeseed management can be optimized based on rapeseed and nitrogen cost using long-term weather records and local soil information.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337661

ABSTRACT

A bstract Persistent SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in immune-compromised individuals and people undergoing immune-modulatory treatments. It has been speculated that the emergence of antigenically diverse SARS-CoV-2 variants such as the Omicron variant may be the result of intra-host viral evolution driven by suboptimal immune responses, which must be followed by forward transmission. However, while intrahost evolution has been documented, to our knowledge no direct evidence of subsequent forward transmission is available to date. Here we describe the emergence of an Omicron BA.1 sub-lineage with 8 additional amino acid substitutions within the spike (E96D, L167T, R346T, L455W, K458M, A484V, H681R, A688V) in an immune-compromised host along with evidence of 5 forward transmission cases. Our findings show that the Omicron BA.1 lineage can further diverge from its exceptionally mutated genome during prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection;highlighting an urgent need to employ therapeutic strategies to limit duration of infection and spread in vulnerable patients.

4.
Appl Bionics Biomech ; 2022: 6293908, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832694

ABSTRACT

Entering the 21st century, material abundance has been greatly enriched, and living standards have been continuously improved. Now society is gradually moving towards the era of experience economy. From the perspective of experience economy, patients' demands for hospitals are not only the satisfaction of medical technology, but their catering consumption also has begun to change to the pursuit of higher requirements. Decision tree algorithm is a kind of data mining algorithm. Data mining technology is a young technology for data analysis. It can simulate mathematical models or algorithms through data analysis, which greatly improves the prediction accuracy. This paper aims to study how to identify the influencing factors of hospital catering service satisfaction, and proposes the application of decision tree algorithm to the hospital catering service satisfaction research, and proposes decision tree-related algorithms, such as ID3, C4.5, and C5.0. Based on the analysis of patients' satisfaction with the hospital catering service in a certain hospital, the results of the model study based on the decision tree algorithm show that the risk estimation value of the training set is 0.064, and the total correct percentage is 93.6%. The risk estimate for the test set was 0.065, for a total correct percentage of 93.5%. It can be seen that the effect of the model is good and can be effectively predicted.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335490

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to explore whether Lymphocyte-C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) can differentiate disease severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and its value as an assistant screening tool for admission to the hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 184 adult COVID-19 patients from the COVID-19 Treatment Center in Heilongjiang Province at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University between January 2020 and March 2021 were included in this study. Patients were divided into asymptomatic infection group, mild group, moderate group, severe group, and critical group according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia (9th edition). Demographic and clinical data including gender, age, comorbidities, severity of COVID-19, white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil proportion (NEUT%), lymphocyte count (LYMPH), lymphocyte percentage (LYM%), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet (PLT), C-reaction protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum creatinine (SCr), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin (IBIL), and D-Dimer were obtained and collated from medical records at admission, from which sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and LCR were calculated, and all above indicators were compared among groups. Multiple clinical parameters, including LYMPH, CRP and LCR, showed significant differences among groups. The related factors to classify COVID-19 patients into moderate, severe and critical groups included age, number of comorbidities, WBC, LCR, and AST. Among these factors, number of comorbidities showed the greatest effect, and only WBC and LCR were protective factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of LCR to classify COVID-19 patients into moderate, severe and critical groups was 0.176. The cut-off value of LCR, and the sensitivity and specificity of ROC curve were 1780.7050, 84.6% and 66.2%, respectively. The related factors to classify COVID-19 patients into severe and critical groups included number of comorbidities, PLT, LCR, and SOFA score. Among these factors, SOFA score showed the greatest effect, and LCR was the only protective factor. The area under ROC curve of LCR to classify COVID-19 patients into severe and critical groups was 0.106. The cut-off value of LCR and the sensitivity and specificity of ROC curve were 571.2200, 81.3% and 90.0%, respectively. In summary, LCR can differentiate disease severity of COVID-19 patients and serve as a simple and objective assistant screening tool for hospital and ICU admission.

7.
Phytomed Plus ; 2(3): 100280, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796221

ABSTRACT

Background: The presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among COVID-19 patients is associated with increased hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. Evidence has shown that hyperglycemia potentiates SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection and plays a central role in severe COVID-19 and diabetes comorbidity. In this review, we explore the therapeutic potentials of herbal medications and natural products in the management of COVID-19 and DM comorbidity and the challenges associated with the preexisting or concurrent use of these substances. Methods: Research papers that were published from January 2016 to December 2021 were retrieved from PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases. Papers reporting clinical evidence of antidiabetic activities and any available evidence of the anti-COVID-19 potential of ten selected natural products were retrieved and analyzed for discussion in this review. Results: A total of 548 papers (73 clinical trials on the antidiabetic activities of the selected natural products and 475 research and review articles on their anti-COVID-19 potential) were retrieved from the literature search for further analysis. A total of 517 articles (reviews and less relevant research papers) were excluded. A cumulative sum of thirty-one (31) research papers (20 clinical trials and 10 others) met the criteria and have been discussed in this review. Conclusion: The findings of this review suggest that phenolic compounds are the most promising phytochemicals in the management of COVID-19 and DM comorbidity. Curcumin and propolis have shown substantial evidence against COVID-19 and DM in humans and are thus, considered the best potential therapeutic options.

8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 754199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775952

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung cancer is the leading source of cancer-caused disability-adjusted life years. Medical cost burden impacts the well-being of patients through reducing income, cutting daily expenses, curtailing leisure activities, and depleting exhausting savings. The COmprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity (COST) was created and validated by De Souza and colleagues. Our study intends to measure the financial burdens of cancer therapy and investigate the link between financial toxicity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in an advanced lung cancer population. Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with confirmed stage III to IV lung cancer were eligible. The COST questionnaire verified by de Souza et al. was used to identify financial toxicity. Multivariable linear regression analysis with log transformation univariate analysis and Pearson correlations were used to perform the analysis. Results: The majority of the patients (90.8%, n = 138/152) had an annual income of $50,000 ($7,775). The cohort's insurance situation was as follows: 64.5% of the cohort had social insurance, 20.4% had commercial insurance, and 22.0% had both. Patients who were younger age (50-59, P < 0.001), employed but on sick leave, and had lower income reported increased levels of financial toxicity (P < 0.05). The risk factors for high financial toxicity: (i) younger age (50-59), (ii) <1 month of savings, and (iii) being employed but on sick leave. Increased financial toxicity is moderately correlated with a decrease in QoL. Conclusion: Poorer psychological status and specific demographics are linked to increased financial toxicity (lower COST). Financial toxicity has a modest relationship with HRQoL and may have a clear link with HRQoL measurements.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Adolescent , China , Cost of Illness , Financial Stress , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/psychology , Quality of Life
9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 228: 114030, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768048

ABSTRACT

The epidemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now spread worldwide and efficacious therapeutics are urgently needed. 3-Chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) is an indispensable protein in viral replication and represents an attractive drug target for fighting COVID-19. Herein, we report the discovery of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives as non-peptidomimetic and non-covalent inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The structure-activity relationships of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrenes as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors have carefully been investigated and discussed in this study. Among all tested 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene derivatives, C1 and C2 display the most potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activity, with IC50 values of 1.55 ± 0.21 µM and 1.81 ± 0.17 µM, respectively. Further enzyme kinetics assays show that these two compounds dose-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLprovia a mixed-inhibition manner. Molecular docking simulations reveal the binding modes of C1 in the dimer interface and substrate-binding pocket of the target. In addition, C1 shows outstanding metabolic stability in the gastrointestinal tract, human plasma, and human liver microsome, suggesting that this agent has the potential to be developed as an orally administrated SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery/methods , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
Front Psychol ; 11: 583604, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760252

ABSTRACT

Drawing on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and event system theory (EST), this study constructed a moderated mediating model to investigate the direct effect of career calling on work fatigue, the mediating effect of role overload, and the moderating effect of COVID-19 event disruption in the above relationships. We administered an online questionnaire to 488 Chinese police officers who participated in frontline work to prevent and control the COVID-19 pandemic. The results showed a U-shaped curvilinear relationship of career calling with physical fatigue, mental fatigue, emotional fatigue, and role overload. Moreover, role overload partially mediated these curvilinear relationships. In addition, COVID-19 event disruption positively moderated the direct curvilinear effect of career calling on role overload, physical fatigue, and emotional fatigue, as well as the first stage of the mediating effect in the relationship between career calling and physical, mental, and emotional fatigue through role overload. Furthermore, the direct U-shaped curvilinear effects and the indirect effects were more significant when COVID-19 event disruption was high.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(6):3453, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1742705

ABSTRACT

The economic uncertainty caused by COVID-19 has led governments around the world to attach more importance to green innovation to accomplish their carbon reduction schemes. To improve the green innovation encouraging effect of an environmental policy system, this study introduces a unit progressive carbon tax on the basis of a green innovation subsidy to discuss the synergy green innovation effect between them. We set up a dynamic evolutionary game model to analyze the respective influences of green innovation subsidies and an environmental policy system containing a unit progressive carbon tax on Low Carbon Technology (LCT) heterogeneous enterprises' endogenous green innovation strategies. The Evolutionary Stable Strategy analysis of dynamic game models demonstrate that there does exist a synergy green innovation effect between green innovation subsidies and unit carbon taxes. The numerical simulation shows that the synergy green innovation effect of green innovation subsidies and carbon taxes contains both an overlapping policy effect and a more significant green innovation stimulating effect on enterprises with high LCT. Additionally, the introduction of a carbon tax will increase enterprises' affordability on the green innovation cost coefficient. Furthermore, introducing a unit progressive carbon tax would also create additional stimulation for enterprises to pursue a larger carbon reduction amount for the carbon emission cost-saving advantage. Based on the synergy green innovation effect mentioned above, we also investigate the policy implications of varying the tax rate and subsidy proportion in different situations.

12.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725883

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, has imposed enormous challenges on the health system, economy, and food supply and has substantially modified people's lifestyles. This study aimed to (1) explore the dietary diversity during the lockdown time in China and (2) examine factors associated with dietary diversity including socio-economic characteristics, sources for food and food purchases, and specific dietary behaviors responding to COVID-19 and isolation. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted online in March 2020. Multi-stage sampling was used to recruit participants living in Hubei Province and other parts of China. Dietary diversity was assessed using the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) and clustering analysis was used to categorize people with different propensities of methods for purchasing or obtaining foods. Logistic regression was used to model the associations among HDDS, participants' characteristics, approaches to purchase or obtain food, and behaviors adopted to cope with COVID-19. Results: A total of 1938 participants were included in the analysis. The overall mean HDDS was 9.7 ± 2.1, and the median (25th, 75th) was 10 (8, 12). There were relatively low consumptions of fish, legumes, and miscellaneous foods (e.g., processed food like snacks and beverages). After adjusting for age, family income, and geographic regions, people living in places where laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases were above 500 (ORadjusted = 0.79, 95%CI 0.65, 0.96), or living in Hubei Province (ORadjusted = 0.60, 95%CI 0.39, 0.93) had a lower HDDS. During isolation time, the most common sources for food and food purchases were in-house storage and in person grocery shopping. More than half of the participants (55.9%) purchased food at least once via online ordering and delivery services. There was no significant difference in HDDS among people with distinct dependences on different ways to obtain or purchase food (i.e., dependence on in-person grocery shopping, dependence on both in-house storage and in-person grocery shopping, or dependence on online food purchasing). We also identified a total of 37.7% participants who consumed certain foods or nutritional supplements to cope with COVID-19, which included vitamin C, probiotics, other dietary supplements, alcohol, and vinegar. People who reported these specific dietary behaviors had a significantly higher HDDS (ORadjusted = 1.23, 95%CI 1.02, 1.45) than those who did not do so. This study revealed an overall good dietary diversity among the studied Chinese residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we observed a lower dietary diversity among people living in areas with a high number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. Online ordering and delivery services were popular and could serve as a feasible method to obtain and purchase food, contributing to ensure diversified diets during the time of lockdown. Certain dietary behaviors associated with COVID-19 were also identified and had significant impacts on HDDS.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diet/classification , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet/standards , Diet/trends , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Female , Food Supply/methods , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population , Young Adult
13.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 2639470, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH) has produced a substantial burden of medical and social experience. However, the current diagnosis is still limited. Thus, this study is aimed at identifying potential biomarkers in the peripheral serum of patients with SONFH. METHODS: The expression profile data of SONFH (number: GSE123568) was acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in SONFH were identified and used for weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses were performed to investigate the biological functions. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and machine learning algorithms were employed to screen for potential biomarkers. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), transcription factor (TF) enrichment analysis, and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network were used to determine the biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of the potential biomarkers. RESULTS: A total of 562 DEGs, including 318 upregulated and 244 downregulated genes, were identified between SONFH and control samples, and 94 target genes were screened based on WGCNA. Moreover, biological function analysis suggested that target genes were mainly involved in erythrocyte differentiation, homeostasis and development, and myeloid cell homeostasis and development. Furthermore, GYPA, TMCC2, and BPGM were identified as potential biomarkers in the peripheral serum of patients with SONFH based on machine learning algorithms and showed good diagnostic values. GSEA revealed that GYPA, TMCC2, and BPGM were mainly involved in immune-related biological processes (BPs) and signaling pathways. Finally, we found that GYPA might be regulated by hsa-miR-3137 and that BPGM might be regulated by hsa-miR-340-3p. CONCLUSION: GYPA, TMCC2, and BPGM are potential biomarkers in the peripheral serum of patients with SONFH and might affect SONFH by regulating erythrocytes and immunity.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Femur Head Necrosis/blood , Femur Head Necrosis/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Machine Learning , Biomarkers/blood , Femur Head Necrosis/chemically induced , Humans
14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325333

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE : To study the clinical characteristics of patients infected with the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) responsible for coronavirus disease (COVID-2019). METHODS : Data were collected from 20 patients admitted to the Pidu District People ’ s Hospital in Chengdu from January 26, 2020 to March 1, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection. Clinical data were collected using the World Health Organization (WHO) nCoV CASE RECORDFORM Version 1.2 28JAN2020, which includes parameters such as: temperature, epidemiological characteristics, social network, history of exposure, and incubation period. If information was unclear, the team reviewed the original data and contacted patients directly if necessary. RESULTS : The median age of the 20 COVID-19 infected patients studied was 42.5 years. In this cohort, four patients became severely ill and one deteriorated rapidly during treatment. This patient was transferred to another medical center with an intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment. This patient died after admission to the ICU. Two of the twenty patients remained positive SARS-Cov-2 more than three weeks, and they were quarantined in a medical facility without medication. According to our analysis, all of the studied cases were infected by human-to-human transmission due to the lack of protective measures;transmission through contact within families requires confirmation. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever in 13 (65%) patients, cough in 9 (45%), headache in 3 (15%), fatigue in 6 (30%), diarrhea in 3 (15%), and abdominal pain in 2 (10%). Six patients (30%) developed shortness of breath upon admission. The median time from exposure to onset of illness was 6.5 days (interquartile range 3.25–9 days), and from the onset of symptoms to first hospital admission was 3.5 (1.25–7) days. CONCLUSION : Compared with patients infected with SARS-Cov-2 in Wuhan (up to the end of February 2020), the symptoms of patients in one hospital in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, were relatively mild and patients were discharged from the hospital after only a short stay. However, the fasting blood glucose of the infected individuals was found to be slightly elevated because of the state of emergency. The dynamic changes in lymphocyte levels can predict disease status of COVID-19. They are also suggestive of changes in mean platelet volume during disease progression. This suggests that the patients had mild cases of COVID-19. However, because there is no effective drug treatment for COVID-19, it is important to detect and identify severe cases from mild cases early.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325038

ABSTRACT

In order to identify the clinical characteristics of patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and find out the characteristic effects of 2019 New Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection on changes in clinical and laboratory data, we analyzed the medical records of 80 suspected cases who admitted in the national designated hospital due to the relevant clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection from January 22 to February 13, 2020. 62 (77.5%) confirmed cases and 18 (22.5%) negative cases were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test. Epidemiological investigation and statistical analysis were carried out on the clinical and laboratory data of all suspected cases of COVID-19, the specific indicators were found, and the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 were described. Compared with the patients with negative nucleic acid test, the patients with positive nucleic acid test showed shorter time of onset of symptoms, higher plasma CO 2 level, lower eosinophil ratio, lower platelet count and hematocrit, lower serum sodium level, higher serum creatinine, higher blood urea and plasma albumin levels (all P <0.05). Our results might provide some suggestions in diagnosis, clinical treatment and prevention for COVID-19.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324789

ABSTRACT

Background: Frontline epidemic prevention workers play a pivotal role against COVID-19. Their baseline of dietary and behavior habits and willingness to change these habits after experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19 remains unclear.Methods: A self-developed online questionnaire survey was carried out via the WeChat platform, and 22,459 participated, including 9402 frontline epidemic prevention workers.Findings: Before COVID-19, 23.9% of frontline epidemic prevention workers reported a high-salt diet, 46.9% reported a high frequency of fried food intake, 21.6% reported a low frequency of fresh vegetable intake, and 50.9% smoked cigarettes. After experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19, 34.6% had the willingness to reduce salt intake, and 43.7% want to reduce the frequency of pickled vegetable intake. 37.9% had the willingness to decrease or quit smoking, and 44.5% want to increase sleep duration. Significant differences in the baseline of dietary and behavioral habits and willingness to change their habits were observed between the frontline epidemic prevention worker and others(P<0.05). However, for the frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor dietary and behavioral habits, the frontline epidemic prevention experience might be a promoting factor to adopt worse dietary and behavioral habits, including the high-salt intake subgroup (OR 2.824, 95% CI 2.341-3.405) and shortest physical exercise time subgroup (OR 1.379, 95% CI 1.041-1.828).Interpretation: The dietary and behavior habits of the frontline epidemic prevention workers were worse than others before COVID-19. They had more willingness to adopt healthy dietary and behavior habits after experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19. Because the frontline epidemic prevention workers, who had poor dietary and behavior habits before COVID-19, still choose worse habits, dietary and behavior intervention policies should be drafted to protect their health, especially for those poor habits subgroups.Funding: This work was supported by The Science and Technology Project of Bao'an (NO.2020JD101).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethics committee of Guangdong Medical University.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324438

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate clinical outcome in individual COVID-19 patient by using histogram heterogeneity analysis based on CT opacities. 57 COVID-19 cases’ medical records were retrospectively reviewed from a designated hospital in Wuhan, China. Two characteristic lung abnormity opacities, ground-glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation opacity (CLO) were drawn on CT images to identify the heterogeneity by using quantitative histogram analysis. The parameters (mean, mode, kurtosis, skewness) derived from histograms evaluate the accuracy of clinical classification and outcome prediction. Nomograms were built to predict the risk of death and median length of hospital stays (LOS), respectively. The most highly frequency of lung abnormalities was GGO mixed with CLO in both survival population (26 in 42, 61.9%) and died population (10 in 15, 66.7%). The best performance heterogeneity parameters to discriminate severe type from mild/moderate counterparts were as following: GGO_skewness: specificity=66.67%, sensitivity=78.12%, AUC=0.706;CLO_mean: specificity=70.00%, sensitivity=76.92%, AUC=0.746. Nomogram based on histogram parameters can predict the individual risk of death and the prolonged median LOS of COVID-19 patients. C-indexes were 0.763 and 0.888 for risk of death and prolonged median LOS, respectively. The histogram analysis method based on GGO and CLO has the ability for individual risk prediction in COVID-19 patients.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323771

ABSTRACT

Background: Sudden exacerbations and respiratory failure are major causes of death in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pneumonia, but indicators for the prediction and treatment of severe patients are still lacking.MethodsA retrospective analysis of 67 collected cases was conducted and included approximately 67 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to the Suzhou Fifth People’s Hospital from January 1, 2020 to February 8, 2020. The epidemiological, clinical and imaging characteristics as well as laboratory data of the 67 patients were analyzed.ResultsThe study found that fibrinogen(FIB) was increased in 45 (65.2%) patients, and when FIB reached a critical value of 4.805 g/L, the sensitivity and specificity、DA, helping to distinguish general and severe cases, were 100% and 14%、92.9%, respectively, which were significantly better than those for lymphocyte count and myoglobin. Chest CT images indicated that the cumulative number of lung lobes with lesions in severe patients was significantly higher than that in general patients (P<0.05), and the cumulative number of lung lobes with lesions was negatively correlated with lymphocyte count and positively correlated with myoglobin and FIB. Our study also found that there was no obvious effect of hormone therapy in patients with severe COVID-19.ConclusionsBased on the retrospective analysis, FIB was found to be increased in severe patients and was better than lymphocyte count and myoglobin in distinguishing general and severe patients. The study also suggested that hormone treatment has no significant effect on COVID-19.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308299

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread all over the world since it broke out massively in December 2019, which has caused a large loss to the whole world. Both the confirmed cases and death cases have reached a relatively frightening number. Syndrome coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of COVID-19, can be transmitted by small respiratory droplets. To curb its spread at the source, wearing masks is a convenient and effective measure. In most cases, people use face masks in a high-frequent but short-time way. Aimed at solving the problem that we don't know which service stage of the mask belongs to, we propose a detection system based on the mobile phone. We first extract four features from the GLCMs of the face mask's micro-photos. Next, a three-result detection system is accomplished by using KNN algorithm. The results of validation experiments show that our system can reach a precision of 82.87% (standard deviation=8.5%) on the testing dataset. In future work, we plan to expand the detection objects to more mask types. This work demonstrates that the proposed mobile microscope system can be used as an assistant for face mask being used, which may play a positive role in fighting against COVID-19.

20.
Virulence ; 13(1): 355-369, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669108

ABSTRACT

MERS-CoV infection can damage the cellular metabolic processes, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Through screening, we found non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) of MERS-CoV could inhibit cell viability, cell cycle, and cell migration through its endonuclease activity. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that MERS-CoV nsp1 specifically downregulated the mRNAs of ribosomal protein genes, oxidative phosphorylation protein genes, and antigen presentation genes, but upregulated the mRNAs of transcriptional regulatory genes. Further analysis shown nsp1 existed in a novel ribonucleosome complex formed via liquid-liquid phase separation, which did not co-localize with mitochondria, lysosomes, P-bodies, or stress granules. Interestingly, the nsp1-located granules specifically contained mRNAs of ribosomal protein genes and oxidative phosphorylation genes, which may explain why MERS-CoV nsp1 selectively degraded these mRNAs in cells. Finally, MERS-CoV nsp1 transgenic mice showed significant loss of body weight and an increased sensitivity to poly(I:C)-induced inflammatory death. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which MERS-CoV impairs cell viability, which serves as a potential novel target for preventing MERS-CoV infection-induced pathological damage.Abbreviations: (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Actinomycin D (Act D), liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), stress granules (SGs), Mass spectrometry (IP-MS), RNA Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation (RIP)).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Ribosomal Proteins , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Animals , Gene Expression Regulation , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics
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